Sensor Comprises Coating Patents (Class 73/776)
  • Patent number: 10677682
    Abstract: Systems and methods for monitoring plastic deformation of a structural material are provided. An acoustic wave actuator is configured to generate acoustic wave signals to be propagated within the structural material and is in-situ fabricated on the structural material at a first location. An alternating current (AC) electric signal source drives the acoustic wave actuator to generate the acoustic wave signals at a predetermined frequency. One or more acoustic wave sensors detect the acoustic wave signals generated by the acoustic wave actuator and propagated within the structural material. More particularly, the acoustic wave detectors are configured to detect both fundamental and second harmonic acoustic signals at the predetermined frequency. The acoustic wave sensors are in-situ fabricated on the structural material at one or more second locations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 2018
    Date of Patent: June 9, 2020
    Assignee: AGENCY FOR SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH
    Inventors: Kui Yao, Shifeng Guo, Shuting Chen, Lei Zhang
  • Patent number: 10048184
    Abstract: A crack sensor for detecting the extension of a crack comprises an insulator base material made from an insulating material, a common line formed on the insulator base material along a first direction and a plurality of gauge lead wires which is formed on the insulator base material and each of which has an end connected with the common line at an interval and another end extending in a second direction orthogonal to the first direction, wherein the extending end reaches a position to which the extending end retreats in a direction opposite to the first direction with respect to the end connected with the common line.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 7, 2016
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2018
    Assignee: TOSHIBA TEC KABUSHIKI KAISHA
    Inventors: Kenichi Komiya, Daisuke Ishikawa
  • Patent number: 9212895
    Abstract: A strain sensor includes a flexible substrate, a CNT film made of a plurality of CNT fibers aligned in an orientation direction, a pair of electrodes, and a protective coat. The electrodes are formed at the opposite ends of the CNT film in a perpendicular direction to the orientation direction of the CNT fibers. The protective coat protecting the CNT film is made of a resin, a water-based emulsion, or an oil-based emulsion. The protective coat is placed in contact with at least part of the CTN fibers on the surface of the CNT film. The strain sensor including the protective coat is able to prevent damage/breakage of the CNT film and to prevent foreign matters from entering into gaps between CNT fibers, thus improving durability in maintaining adequate sensing functionality.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 15, 2015
    Assignees: YAMAHA CORPORATION, NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CORPORATION SHIZUOKA UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Katsunori Suzuki, Shingo Sakakibara, Koji Yataka, Yasuro Okumiya, Yoshiki Terada, Yoku Inoue
  • Patent number: 9182215
    Abstract: A strain sensor includes a flexible substrate, a CNT film made of a plurality of CNT fibers aligned in an orientation direction, a pair of electrodes, and a protective coat. The electrodes are formed at the opposite ends of the CNT film in a perpendicular direction to the orientation direction of the CNT fibers. The protective coat protecting the CNT film is made of a resin, a water-based emulsion, or an oil-based emulsion. The protective coat is placed in contact with at least part of the CTN fibers on the surface of the CNT film. The strain sensor including the protective coat is able to prevent damage/breakage of the CNT film and to prevent foreign matters from entering into gaps between CNT fibers, thus improving durability in maintaining adequate sensing functionality.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 10, 2015
    Assignees: YAMAHA CORPORATION, NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CORPORATION SHIZUOKA UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Katsunori Suzuki, Shingo Sakakibara, Koji Yataka, Yasuro Okumiya, Yoshiki Terada, Yoku Inoue
  • Publication number: 20150082897
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a touch sensor module, including: a flexible cable provided with a terminal part; an adhesive layer formed to transfer an electrical signal by being contacted on one surface of the terminal part; a base substrate including an electrode pad which is formed to correspond to the terminal part and formed to be contact on the other surface of the adhesive layer; and a first passivation layer coating one end of the electrode pad.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 22, 2014
    Publication date: March 26, 2015
    Applicant: SAMSUNG ELECTRO-MECHANICS CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Seul Gi KIM, Tae Hoon Kim, Yong Ho Won, Ho Joon Park, Sung Kwon Wi
  • Patent number: 8896329
    Abstract: A device, a system and a method for detecting an irregularity in a structure of an aircraft are proposed. The device includes a resonant circuit with a resonance frequency and a probe for tuning the resonance frequency of the resonant circuit. The resonant circuit and the probe are operatively connected in such a way that the probe changes the resonance frequency of the resonant circuit if the structure changes due to a formation of an irregularity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 25, 2014
    Assignees: European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS France, EADS Deutschland GmbH
    Inventors: Werner Zimmerman, Jurgen Steinwandel, Sebastien Rolet, Didier Simonet
  • Patent number: 8833174
    Abstract: An in-situ apparatus is provided for monitoring the state of stress/strain and cracking in a die surface. The apparatus may also be used to facilitate the prudent removal of the die from the surface so that it may be repaired before catastrophic failure occurs. Accordingly, the yield of a process used to generate die cast structures may be greatly increased.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 2008
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2014
    Assignee: Colorado School of Mines
    Inventor: John Moore
  • Publication number: 20140083196
    Abstract: The present invention disclose a smart coating comprising a substrate, optionally a first insulating layer, a plurality of first sensing units, a second insulating layer, a plurality of second sensing units and optionally a wear-resistant layer, wherein the plurality of first sensing units and the plurality of second sensing units have piezoelectric effect. The smart coating can provide real-time monitoring and feedback of the worn state of the surface of a part while eliminating the need to adhere a senor. Compared with the existing sensors and substrates bound by adhesion, the smart coating provided in the present application can avoid poor adhesion between the sensor and substrate. Furthermore, damaged positions can be located precisely so as to provide more and more accurate information regarding worn state of the part surface, which is in favor of monitoring and post-stage analysis on the worn state of the surface of the part.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 25, 2013
    Publication date: March 27, 2014
    Inventors: Haidou WANG, Zhiguo XING, Binshi XU
  • Publication number: 20130312535
    Abstract: The structural health of a structure such as an aircraft is monitored by spraying a paint formulation containing a loading of carbon nanoparticles to provide a paint layer forming part of a paint system. The paint layer forms a smart skin whose electrical properties may be monitored to determine structural health.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 13, 2011
    Publication date: November 28, 2013
    Applicant: BAE SYSTEMS plc
    Inventors: Michael Dunleavy, Hazel Anne Dyke, Sajad Haq
  • Patent number: 8511175
    Abstract: A connection component is provided that includes an integrated ultrasound sensor, wherein the ultrasound sensor has a layer structure comprising at least two layers, with an electrode layer and at least one layer of a material having piezoelectric properties. The at least one electrode layer and the at least one layer of a material having piezoelectric properties are arranged on a freely accessible end of the connection component. Structures are formed in the electrode layer in order to produce electrodes by laser-ablated regions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 2010
    Date of Patent: August 20, 2013
    Assignee: AMG Intellifast GmbH
    Inventors: Gert Hoering, Jafar Zendehroud
  • Patent number: 8499628
    Abstract: A system includes a structure and a component. The component including an energy providing device and a protective cover. The structure has a structure surface. The protective cover has a protective cover attachment surface mounted on the structure surface. The energy providing device is located within the protective cover. The protective cover has a protective cover outer surface. The protective cover outer surface is oriented to face a first direction from which an impact load may strike the protective cover outer surface and shear the protective cover from the structure surface. The protective cover outer surface has an outer surface shape facing the first direction. At least a portion of an impact load striking any region of the protective cover outer surface facing the first direction is transferred by the outer surface shape into a compression load.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 2010
    Date of Patent: August 6, 2013
    Assignee: Lord Corporation
    Inventors: Steven W. Arms, Christoper P. Townsend, Steven W. Mundell, David L. Churchill
  • Patent number: 8490482
    Abstract: A device for mounting on a structure surface includes a component, a circuit, a moisture barrier, and a protective cover. The moisture barrier is within the protective cover. The component and the circuit are within the moisture barrier. The component is for bonding to the structure surface with a bond susceptible to damage from moisture. The circuit includes a radio frequency transmitter. The circuit is for providing data derived from the component to the radio frequency transmitter for external transmission.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 23, 2013
    Assignee: Lord Corporation
    Inventors: Steven W. Arms, Christoper P. Townsend, Steven W. Mundell, David L. Churchill
  • Patent number: 8490481
    Abstract: A device for mounting on a structure surface includes a component, a circuit, a moisture barrier, and a protective cover. The moisture barrier is within the protective cover. The component and the circuit are within the moisture barrier. The component is for bonding to the structure surface with a bond susceptible to damage from moisture. The circuit includes a radio frequency transmitter. The circuit is for providing data derived from the component to the radio frequency transmitter for external transmission.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 2008
    Date of Patent: July 23, 2013
    Assignee: Lord Corporation
    Inventors: Steven W. Arms, Christopher P. Townsend, Steven W. Mundell, David L. Churchill
  • Patent number: 8319499
    Abstract: The invention relates to a motor vehicle battery sensor element comprising a resistor element 2 and at least two spatially separated electric contacts 16 positioned on the resistor element 2. To increase the measuring accuracy and to reduce the temperature variance, it is proposed that the resistor element 2 along with the electric contacts 16 is coated with a metal coating 8.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 18, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2012
    Assignee: Auto Kabel Managementgesellschaft mbH
    Inventors: Frank Gronwald, Franz-Josef Lietz
  • Patent number: 8297129
    Abstract: Provided is a strain gage mount, including an instrument carrier mount configured to secure a strain gage during use, a specimen mount configured to couple to a specimen during use, and a thermal insulating layer configured to be disposed between the instrument carrier mount and the specimen mount during use.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 2010
    Date of Patent: October 30, 2012
    Inventor: Brian A. Muskopf
  • Patent number: 8234929
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to novel contact sensors. The contact sensors of the invention include a conductive composite material formed of a polymer and a conductive filler. In one particular embodiment, the composite materials can include less than about 10 wt % conductive filler. Thus, the composite material of the contact sensors can have physical characteristics essentially identical to the polymer, while being electrically conductive with the electrical resistance proportional to the load on the sensor. If desired, the sensors can be formed of the same polymeric material as the bearing that is being examined. The sensors can provide real time dynamic contact information for joint members under conditions expected during use. In one particular embodiment, the sensors can be used to examine dynamic wear characteristics of artificial joint bearings such as artificial knee, hip, or shoulder bearings.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 2010
    Date of Patent: August 7, 2012
    Inventors: Andrew C. Clark, Martine LaBerge
  • Patent number: 8136408
    Abstract: A device includes a structure, a strain sensor and a light curable adhesive. The structure has a structure surface. The light curable adhesive bonds the strain sensor to the structure surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2012
    Assignee: Microstrain, Inc.
    Inventors: Steven W. Arms, Christoper P. Townsend, Steven W. Mundell, David L. Churchill
  • Patent number: 8059008
    Abstract: A cementitious compound provides a brittle undercoat for making a surface-mounted crack sensor on a surface. A low percent elongation and low tensile strength of the cementitious compound have proven valuable in ensuring that cracks in the underlying surface are transmitted through the undercoat so that a trace of conductive ink or paint on the undercoat more reliably detects the crack.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 2006
    Date of Patent: November 15, 2011
    Assignee: National Research Council of Canada
    Inventor: Anton Marincak
  • Publication number: 20110146412
    Abstract: A connection component is provided that includes an integrated ultrasound sensor, wherein the ultrasound sensor has a layer structure comprising at least two layers, with an electrode layer and at least one layer of a material having piezoelectric properties. The at least one electrode layer and the at least one layer of a material having piezoelectric properties are arranged on a freely accessible end of the connection component. Structures are formed in the electrode layer in order to produce electrodes by laser-ablated regions.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 22, 2010
    Publication date: June 23, 2011
    Inventors: Gert Hoering, Jafar Zendehroud
  • Publication number: 20110113892
    Abstract: A device includes a structure, a strain sensor and a light curable adhesive. The structure has a structure surface. The light curable adhesive bonds the strain sensor to the structure surface.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 27, 2011
    Publication date: May 19, 2011
    Inventors: Steven W. Arms, Christoper P. Townsend, Steven W. Mundell, David L. Churchill
  • Patent number: 7938012
    Abstract: A smart coat with damage following feature for damage detection information, a detecting device and a damage detecting method using said smart coat, the smart coat could be set on a subject body and comprises a sensing layer, said sensing layer is composed of electrically-conductive material and has a thickness from 10 nanometers to 100 micrometers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2011
    Assignee: Shaoxing Jinggong Equipment Monitoring Technology Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Zhigang Lv, Mabao Liu, Yanjie Qi, Wenzhen Zhao, Youmin Xi
  • Patent number: 7827660
    Abstract: A bimorphic structure responsive to changes in an environmental condition, sensor structures incorporating one or more of such bimorphic structures, and a method of forming such bimorphic structures. The sensor structure has an electrically-conductive first contact on a substrate, and a bimorph beam anchored to the substrate so that a portion thereof is suspended above the first contact. The bimorph beam has a multilayer structure that includes first and second layers, with the second layer between the first layer and the substrate. A portion of the first layer projects through an opening in the second layer toward the first contact so as to define an electrically-conductive second contact located on the beam so as to be spaced apart and aligned with the first contact for contact with the first contact when the beam sufficiently deflects toward the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 9, 2010
    Assignee: Evigia Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Bishnu Prasanna Gogoi, Navid Yazdi
  • Publication number: 20100005895
    Abstract: A smart coat with damage following feature for damage detection information, a detecting device and a damage detecting method using said smart coat, the smart coat could be set on a subject body and comprises a sensing layer, said sensing layer is composed of electrically-conductive material and has a thickness from 10 nanometers to 100 micrometers.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 12, 2007
    Publication date: January 14, 2010
    Applicant: SHAOXING JINGGONG EQUIPMENT MONITORING TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: Zhigang Lv, Mabao Liu, Yanjie Qi, Wenzhen Zhao, Youmin Xi
  • Patent number: 7523670
    Abstract: The invention proposes sensor elements (5) for detecting a physical measurement variable such as a pressure, a temperature, a gap width, or a capacitance between two bodies (10, 20) that move in relation to each other during operation and experience high tribological stress. In certain areas between the surfaces of the bodies (10, 20) that move in relation to each other, in a surface region of at least one of the bodies (10), a sensitive layer (13, 30), in particular a sensor segment (13), is provided, which is separated from the body (10) by an insulation layer (12) and has a covering layer (14) in a first embodiment. In an alternative embodiment, a surface region of at least one of the two bodies (10) has a recess (23) in which the sensor surface (13) is disposed on the insulation layer (12). In a third embodiment, the sensor surface (13) has a length of 10 ?m to 5 mm, a width of less than 5 ?m, and a thickness of less than 200 nm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 28, 2009
    Assignee: Robert Bosch GmbH
    Inventors: Klaus Meyer, Julius Nemzov, Ulrich Mueller
  • Patent number: 7461560
    Abstract: A structure includes a structure surface and a protective cover. The protective cover includes a circuit having a component, a moisture detector, and a radio frequency transmitter. The component is adhesively connected to the structure surface with an adhesive connection. The moisture detector is positioned to provide information about moisture in the protective cover. The circuit is for providing data derived from the component and from the moisture detector to the radio frequency transmitter for external transmission. The component may be a strain sensor. The moisture detector may be a capacitor. A moisture barrier may also be provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 9, 2008
    Assignee: MicroStrain, Inc.
    Inventors: Steven W. Arms, Christopher P. Townsend, Steven W. Mundell, David L. Churchill
  • Publication number: 20080250863
    Abstract: An in-situ apparatus is provided for monitoring the state of stress/strain and cracking in a die surface. The apparatus may also be used to facilitate the prudent removal of the die from the surface so that it may be repaired before catastrophic failure occurs. Accordingly, the yield of a process used to generate die cast structures may be greatly increased.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 14, 2008
    Publication date: October 16, 2008
    Applicant: COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES
    Inventor: John Moore
  • Patent number: 7434480
    Abstract: A system for structural assessment is described that comprises a plurality of sensors and a surface covering for at least a portion of a structure. The sensors are arranged in a pattern and attached to the surface covering. The surface covering is attached to a surface of a structure, and the sensors are configured to provide signals relating to the integrity of the structure to an external device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2005
    Date of Patent: October 14, 2008
    Assignee: The Boeing Company
    Inventors: Gary E. Georgeson, Everett A. Westerman
  • Patent number: 7357036
    Abstract: A force measuring apparatus comprises has a force-transmitting component, that holds a strain measuring element with a carrier element and a displacement transducer. The carrier element has two fixing sections at a predefined distance from each other in a direction of the strain with which it is fixed to the component. Furthermore, the carrier element has a strain section, which is provided between the fixing sections and which has a shorter length in the direction of the strain than the distance between the fixing sections, and which has a smaller cross section than the remaining carrier element. The displacement transducer is connected to the strain section in order to register the strain of the strain section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2008
    Assignee: Bosch Rexroth AG
    Inventor: Werner Steprath
  • Publication number: 20080083286
    Abstract: A system that uses capsules or micro-capsules containing a dye or indicator embedded in a polymer matrix to indicate or measure the degradation of structural materials. The capsules can contain an agent that will be transparent or not detected when the capsule is intact. When the capsule is ruptured, the agent will be either visible to the human eye or measurable by other detection methods. The indicator can either activate upon release or be already activated but not readily visible or detectable in the capsule. An activator compound also can be distributed in the bulk material matrix that activates the indicator upon release. For totally opaque materials like concrete or metal, a surface coating or applied tape containing the capsules can be used.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 24, 2007
    Publication date: April 10, 2008
    Inventors: Thomas Danowski, Thomas Daly
  • Patent number: 7181831
    Abstract: A strain sensor comprising a metal substrate, a first electrode provided on the metal substrate, a glass layer formed on the first electrode, and a second electrode and a strain detecting resistor provided on the glass layer. In the strain sensor, the insulation resistance between the metal substrate and the second electrode has been raised, and the reliability is high. It can be implemented at low cost.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2004
    Date of Patent: February 27, 2007
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Keiichi Nakao, Yukio Mizukami, Hiroaki Ishida, Toshiro Otobe
  • Patent number: 7171314
    Abstract: Systems and methods for analyzing structural test data are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method includes applying a sequence of loads to a test article, receiving raw test data indicative of the applied loads from at least one sensor operatively associated with the test article, receiving predicted test data indicative of the predicted loads on the test article, filtering out invalid test data, cycle counting to pair loads in the test data, performing a first fatigue damage computation based on the raw test data, performing a second fatigue damage computation based on the predicted test data, and comparing the first and second fatigue damage computations. The filtering, cycle counting, and performing of the first and second fatigue damage computations, and the comparison of the first and second fatigue damage computations, may be performed simultaneously using a spreadsheet program.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 2004
    Date of Patent: January 30, 2007
    Assignee: The Boeing Company
    Inventors: Eric S. Meyer, Scott S. Fields, Kenneth L. Knopp, Jeffrey S. Sermersheim
  • Patent number: 7010986
    Abstract: A strain sensor comprising a metal substrate, a first electrode provided on the metal substrate, a glass layer formed on the first electrode, and a second electrode and a strain detecting resistor provided on the glass layer. In the strain sensor, the insulation resistance between the metal substrate and the second electrode has been raised, and the reliability is high. It can be implemented at low cost.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 2, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 14, 2006
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Keiichi Nakao, Yukio Mizukami, Hiroaki Ishida, Toshiro Otobe
  • Patent number: 6986287
    Abstract: A new family of multifunctional smart coatings based on of stabilized diamond-like metal-carbon atomic scale composites and diamond-like atomic-scale composite (DL ASC) materials. Based on a unique combination of the coating fine structure, properties of the coating/substrate interface, and the mechanical and electrical properties of the coating, the disclosed smart coatings would integrate various high resolution sensors and interconnections, and the sensor would diagnose dangerous stress distribution in the coated subject with no distortion in real time, while these diamond-like coatings would simultaneously provide environmental protection of the coated surface and improve its aerodynamic quality.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 17, 2006
    Assignee: NanoDynamics Inc.
    Inventor: Benjamin F. Dorfman
  • Patent number: 6679100
    Abstract: A thick film resistor strain gauge is applied to a stainless steel shell portion of a spark plug. There are two preferable ways of applying a thick film resistor to the metal shell. In a first embodiment, the thick film resistor may be directly printed on to the shell portion with special screen printing equipment. In a second embodiment, the thick film resistor is printed and applied as a decal to the shell portion. The thick film resistors may be included in a quarter, a half, or a full wheatstone bridge strain gauge circuit. One of two embodiments of an automatic drift compensating circuit is used to determine the change in resistance experienced by the thick film resistors affixed to the spark plug. Either one of the automatic drift compensation circuits output a voltage signal which is proportional to the pressure changes occurring inside the engine cylinder into which the spark plug is threaded.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 2002
    Date of Patent: January 20, 2004
    Assignee: Delphi Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Ronald J. Kiess, Lewis Henry Little, Marion E. Ellis, Raymond O. Butler, Jr.
  • Patent number: 6579612
    Abstract: A sensor for measuring magnetostriction of and/or magnetic thin film is constructed by depositing a thin film nonferromagnetic electrically insulating layer followed by a thin film layer of a sensor material which is piezoresistive and nonferromagnetic. The insulating and the piezoresistive film can be etched into an appropriate pattern and orientation to provide sensitivity to strain in the magnetic film. The magnetostrictive strain in the magnetic film is induced by a known magnetic field which produces a corresponding strain in the piezoresistive film which can be measured as a change in the electrical resistance which can be detected by external probes or other measuring means. The measurement of the magnetostriction can be performed as a part of the manufacturing process for wafers with a plurality of thin film magnetic heads thereon and does not require that the wafers be removed to a laboratory.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 17, 2003
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Jeffrey S. Lille
  • Patent number: 6336368
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for interrogating a resonator to monitor its resonance characteristics (e.g. resonant frequency) in an especially energy efficient manner, particularly changes to the characteristics over time. The resonator is pulsed and the response thereto sampled. By comparison of samples of the response to sequential pulses, sampled at the same times after pulse initiation, one can infer phase changes between the responses, and hence infer changes in resonance characteristics. Preferably, one calibrates the resonator's time response initially as a reference, which permits subsequent determination of the resonance state with only one digital sample per pulse. In one embodiment, the invention this detection scheme is used as a chemical detector. The resonator is an electo-acoustic device, having plural Bragg gratings, with a different adsorptive material atop each grating which adsorbs one selected chemical particularly well.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 8, 2002
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Russell Chung, Robert Andrew McGill
  • Patent number: 6332363
    Abstract: A sensor device (1-5) has a sensing surface on which, in use, first molecules (5) are immobilized. The first molecules (5) are capable of interaction with second molecules which may be present in a sample of fluid applied to the sensing surface, such interaction resulting in a measurable change of some physical property of the sensor device. The sensing surface is coated with a layer (4) of diamond-like carbon to protect and preserve the integrity of the sensing surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 25, 2001
    Assignee: Thermo FAST UK Limited
    Inventors: James Oscar Molloy, Colin Hugh Maule
  • Patent number: 6301775
    Abstract: A temperature compensation element for a high-temperature strain gage and the method of fabricating the same. Preferably, the element is a “dummy” strain gage not mechanically attached to the substrate. The element is encapsulated in an insulative material and used to compensate an active high-temperature strain gage and wired in a half-bridge configuration. The temperature compensation element and high-temperature strain gage are fabricated using the method of the present invention. This method includes temporarily adhering the element to a heat sink, encapsulated in an insulative material and then removed from the heat sink. Next, the element is either stacked or placed near the active gage. Ideally, the element and the active gage have substantially similar heat transfer and electrical properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2001
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventor: Anthony Piazza
  • Patent number: 6079277
    Abstract: The present invention relates to strain or stress sensors which include a first planar conductive element, a second planar conductive element, and a flexible graphite sheet sandwiched between the first and second planar conductive elements. The flexible graphite sheet includes a mass of expanded graphite particles compressed together in the absence of a binder. Prior to compression, the expanded graphite particles have a c direction dimension which is at least 80 times that of the graphite particles from which the expanded particles are formed. The sensor is configured so that compression of the sensor causes a change in resistance which can be correlated to strain or stress. The present invention also relates to a strain or stress sensor which includes a polymeric composite, a first electrically conductive lead connected to a first point on or in the polymeric composite, and a second electrically conductive lead connected to a second point on or in the polymeric composite.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 27, 2000
    Assignee: The Research Foundation of State University of New York
    Inventor: Deborah D. L. Chung
  • Patent number: 5985183
    Abstract: The present invention provides a mechanical sensor high in sensitivity (GF) and reliability. The mechanical sensor comprises an insulating substrate, a pair of electrodes formed on the insulating substrate, and a piezoresistance element formed by connecting the electrodes. The piezoresistance element is substantially made of a glass of the PbO--SiO.sub.2 --B.sub.2 --O.sub.3 --Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 system comprising 73.1 to 86.7 wt % of PbO, 9.7 to 22.2 wt % of SiO.sub.2, 2.5 to 5.0 wt % of B.sub.2 O.sub.3 and 0.9 to 3.6 wt % of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and a ruthenium oxide powder dispersed in the glass. The piezoresistance element is formed by coating and baking a paste containing the ruthenium oxide powder, a powder of the glass and an organic binder.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1999
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoshihiro Hori, Haruhiko Handa, Shinya Hasegawa, Masaki Ikeda
  • Patent number: 5952836
    Abstract: A device for detecting fractures or corrosion in a workpiece having a non-conductive outer surface. A thin film layer of metallic material comprising a plurality of separate crack detection wires is bonded to the non-conductive surface of the workpiece. A top coating of protective material is applied to the thin film layer to protect the detection wires from abrasion and corrosion. When an electrical current is transmitted through the detection wires, a predictable resistivity pattern is viewable on a monitor. As a fracture propagates through the workpiece causing the crack detection wires to break one-by-one, the change in resistivity of the wires can be monitored and the existence and extent of any fracture or corrosion to the wires determined.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 14, 1999
    Assignee: McDonnell Douglas Corporation
    Inventor: John M. Haake
  • Patent number: 5816530
    Abstract: A method for measuring growth and magnitude of structural damage in a structure such as an airframe, as reflected by growth of a crack therein, by securing to a structural portion thereof at least one ligament assembly whose properties replicate such damage. The ligament assembly has a metallic load test coupon having a loading response substantially identical to a loading response of the structural portion and an artificial flaw simulating a metallurgical crack. The crack has a growth rate magnitude substantially identical to a magnitude of structural damage of the structural portion as such damage occurs. A crack growth measurement gage is in alignment with the crack of the test coupon and in communication with a recorder unit to record crack growth, and crack growth is compared to correlated structural damage of the structural portion as associated with such growth.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 9, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 6, 1998
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventor: Kenneth Peter Grube
  • Patent number: 5747698
    Abstract: A strain gauge device for detecting force applied to a planar structure, the device including a capacitor having two spaced conductive surfaces, and a dielectric material between the conductive surfaces with a dielectric constant that varies in relation to strain force normal to the surfaces. In one embodiment, the dielectric material is realized in the form of a pair of facing linear molecule monolayers attached endwise to the respective conductive layers and oriented at an oblique angle to the layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1998
    Assignee: Simmonds Precision Products Inc.
    Inventors: William Bert Spillman, Jr., Eric M. Weissman
  • Patent number: 5589770
    Abstract: A mechanical sensor, comprising a ferromagnetic layer having magnetostriction, a ferromagnetic layer having magneto-resistance effect, a magnetic field generating means which excites these ferromagnetic layers, and a substrate which supports all these elements integrally, can be attained, which is small, thin, highly sensitive, and is capable of integration, by detecting a change of magnetic flux density passing through the ferromagnetic layers resulting from a change of magnetic properties caused by stress as a change of resistance value arising from magneto-resistance effect. As a result, a small, thin, and highly sensitive mechanical sensor can be provided using stress magnetic effect. Furthermore, based on the anisotropy of detection sensitivity, intensity of the stress along a certain direction can be detected selectively.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 31, 1996
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Shinji Saitou
  • Patent number: 5201229
    Abstract: An element (e.g., a sensor) has a fine-line thin film of a conductor formed on a non-conductive substrate, and a change of physical properties (e.g., deformation) of the substrate or the ambient environment is detected through a change in physical properties of the conductor. The element is manufactured by forming a layered film, composed of a semiconductor and a conductor, on the substrate, and forcibly diffusing part of this film, e.g., by selective irradiation with high-energy ions, to form this part into an alloy semi-conductor, thereby providing a two-dimensional pattern of the fine lines of the conductor and the semiconductor. By arranging a plurality of fine lines of a conductor transversely to a direction of growth of a crack in the substrate, crack in the substrate is detected through a change in electrical resistance of the fine lines. A dissolved oxygen sensor, a hydrogen sensor, and an electrical conductivity sensor (of an ambient medium) can also be provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 1990
    Date of Patent: April 13, 1993
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventor: Hidefumi Ibe
  • Patent number: 5192938
    Abstract: A strain gage or a measuring transducer equipped with such a strain gage has, for supporting the measuring grid structure, a backing made of a polyphenylenesulfide film. Such a backing assures a plurality of desirable characteristics simultaneously and equally well for each characteristic.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 5, 1991
    Date of Patent: March 9, 1993
    Assignee: Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik GmbH
    Inventor: Werner Ort
  • Patent number: 5028394
    Abstract: Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising (a) a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, operatively coupled to (b) a transducer capable of directly converting said expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 1990
    Date of Patent: July 2, 1991
    Assignee: Bend Research, Inc.
    Inventors: James R. Lowell, Jr., David J. Edlund, Dwayne T. Friesen, George W. Rayfield
  • Patent number: 4945770
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing state transducers for mechanical components intended to be subjected to wear, mechanical and/or thermal loads, especially state transducers for tools. The invention is characterized in that electric conductors and, where appropriate, electronic circuits (9) of microscale for measuring wear, mechanical and/or thermal loads are applied on the surface of the component (11), and a protective layer (10) is applied upon at least portions of said circuits (9) and conductors, where said conductors, circuits and said protective layer (10) are applied so as to constitute a unit atomic integrated with the mechanical component (11), which conductors and circuits are intended to be connected to a signal processing or corresponding equipment. The invention also comprises a mechanical component treated according to said method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 7, 1990
    Inventors: Birger Alvelid, Ralph Crafoord
  • Patent number: 4884453
    Abstract: A strain gauge comprised of a premagnetized ferromagnetic film wherein any change in length of the film can be measured by employing the properties of magnetostriction and magnetoresistance. The strain gauge is deposited on a substrate by thin-film techniques and has a very high sensitivity. Preferably, two electrically insulated strips parallel strips of amorphous metal film have (in the absence of strain) respective directions of magnetization aligned antiparallel to one another and are connected electrically at one end. Such an arrangement facilitates the reversion of the magnetization back to its easy direction when the stress causing the strain is removed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 1988
    Date of Patent: December 5, 1989
    Assignee: Alcatel N.V.
    Inventors: Horst Hoffmann, Peter Kersten, Hans Volz, Ulrich Seyfried
  • Patent number: 4782705
    Abstract: A strain gauge comprised of a premagnetized ferromagnetic film wherein any change in length of the film is converted into a planar Hall voltage by employing the property of magnetostriction and the planar Hall effect. Alternately, a change in the length of the film can also be measured as a change in electric conductivity by employing the properties of magnetostriction and magnetoresistance. The strain gauge is deposited on a substrate by thin-film techniques and has a very high sensitivity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 1987
    Date of Patent: November 8, 1988
    Assignee: Alcatel N.V.
    Inventors: Horst Hoffmann, Peter Kersten, Hans Volz, Ulrich Seyfried