Gas Injection Below Surface Of Melt Patents (Class 75/501)
  • Patent number: 9969936
    Abstract: The invention relates to apparatus in the form of a rotary thermolysis reactor and a method for operating the reactor for the thermal decomposition of by-products and waste. The reactor includes a tubular outer jacket with covers closing its ends, an interior chamber, a shaft mounted centrally in the covers, feed devices and discharge devices which are placed at the start and the end of the shaft, respectively, inside an interior chamber, wherein helical coil runners are fixed to the shaft and gasification agents are applied to the material being thermolyzed, via gasification shafts in the lower section of the tubular outer jacket.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 15, 2018
    Assignee: HS TechTransfer UG (haftungsbeschraenkt) & Co. KG
    Inventor: Hartwig Streitenberger
  • Publication number: 20110185856
    Abstract: A steelmaking process is disclosed. The process includes producing molten steel and molten steelmaking slag in a steelmaking process, the steelmaking slag including iron units and flux units, and thereafter producing molten iron in a molten bath based direct smelting process using a substantial portion of the steelmaking slag as part of the feed material requirements for the direct smelting process. A direct smelting process is also disclosed. The process includes pre-treating ferrous material including steelmaking slag and thereafter direct smelting molten iron using the pretreated ferrous material as part of the feed material for the process.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 7, 2011
    Publication date: August 4, 2011
    Inventors: Rodney James DRY, Robin John BATTERHAM
  • Patent number: 7481964
    Abstract: A system for producing a metal foam comprises a bath containing a molten metal, a rotating shaft or impeller extending through the base of the bath into, and submerged in the molten metal, and a gas discharge nozzle provided on the submerged end of the shaft. The opposite end of the shaft is connected to a gas supply line and the shaft is rotated with a motor. A seal is provided at the opening in the base of the bath for preventing leakage of the molten metal there-through.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 27, 2009
    Assignee: CYMAT Corp.
    Inventors: Scott Nichol, Richard G. Manley
  • Patent number: 7160353
    Abstract: A method for making molten iron includes the steps of feeding a raw material mixture containing an iron oxide material and a carbonaceous reductant into a heating reduction furnace to reduce iron oxide in the raw material mixture with the carbonaceous reductant into solid reduced iron; transporting the solid reduced iron to a melting furnace; and combustion of a carbonaceous material supplied as fuel to melt the solid reduced iron in the melting furnace for producing molten iron. After the metallization of the solid reduced iron is enhanced to at least 60%, the solid reduced iron is transported to the melting furnace. The amounts of oxygen and the carbonaceous material supplied to the melting furnace are controlled so that the secondary combustion ratio of CO gas in the melting furnace is reduced to 40% or less. The heat transfer efficiency of the secondary combustion heat to the molten iron is preferably increased to at least 60%.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 9, 2007
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Kobe Seiko Sho (Kobe Steel, Ltd.)
    Inventors: Isao Kobayashi, Itsuo Miyahara, Hidetoshi Tanaka, Koji Tokuda
  • Patent number: 6989042
    Abstract: A molten-bath based direct smelting process and apparatus for producing metals from a ferrous material is disclosed. The process includes injecting feed materials being solid material and carrier gas into a molten bath at a velocity of at least 40 m/s through at least one downwardly extending solids injection lance having a delivery tube of internal diameter of 40–200 mm that is located so that a central axis of an outlet end of the lance is at an angle of 20 to 90 degrees to a horizontal axis. The feed materials injection generates a superficial gas flow of at least 0.04 Nm3/s/m2 within the molten bath at least in part by reactions of injected material in the bath. The gas now causes molten material to be projected upwardly as splashes, droplets and streams and form an expanded molten bath zone, with the gas flow and the upwardly projected molten material causing substantial movement of material within the molten bath and strong mixing of the molten bath.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 2001
    Date of Patent: January 24, 2006
    Assignee: Technological Resources Pty Ltd
    Inventors: Rodney J. Dry, Peter D. Burke
  • Patent number: 6939391
    Abstract: A molten bath-based direct smelting process for producing ferrous metal from a ferrous feed material is disclosed. The process is characterised by injecting pro-heated air downwardly into metallurgical vessel at an angle of 20 to 90° C. relative to a horizontal axis and at a temperature of 800-1400 ° C. and at a velocity of 200-600 m/s via at least one lance (27) . This step forces molten material in the region of a lower end of the lance away from the lance and forming a “free”space around the lower end of the lance that has a concentration of molten material that is lower than the molten material concentration in the raised bath. The process is further characterised in that the lance is located so that: (i) the lance extends into the vessel a distance that is at least the outer diameter of he lover end of the lance; and (ii) the lower end of the lance is at least 3 times the outer diameter of the lower end of the lance above a quiescent surface of the molt bath.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 6, 2005
    Assignee: Technological Resources Pty Ltd
    Inventors: Rodney J. Dry, Peter Burke
  • Patent number: 6626977
    Abstract: A direct smelting process for producing iron and/or ferroalloys is provided, which involves injecting feed materials into a molten bath of molten metal in a metallurgical vessel to form an expanded molten bath zone, and injecting oxygen containing gas, wherein the selection of the number of, and position of, the solids injection and oxygen gas injection lances is such that the expanded molten bath zone includes a raised region around the oxygen gas injection region, and such that splashes, droplets and streams of molten material project upwardly from the raised region, and such that a free space forms around a lower end of the oxygen gas injection lance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2003
    Assignee: Technological Resources Pty Ltd.
    Inventor: Rod Dry
  • Patent number: 6547847
    Abstract: A continuous process and apparatus for transforming, by chemico-physical reactions inside molten slag, materials to be gasified, thermally destroyed, inertized, or from which elements of commercial value are to be recovered, yielding controlled composition products, in an apparatus made of a single reaction chamber, called reactor, having a substantially cylindrical symmetry, including two portions, a top and a bottom one, said process being characterised in that it comprises the steps of: introducing into the bottom portion of the reactor, sideways through a second injection level and/or vertically from the top thereof, the material to be transformed, the fuel, the comburent and possibly slag inoculants and additives and material-carrying gases; and tapping from the bottom portion of the reactor the transformed material, of controlled composition, and the inert slag.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2003
    Assignee: Centro Sviluppo Materiali S.p.A.
    Inventors: Paolo Granati, Angelo Colletta
  • Patent number: 6488738
    Abstract: A combustion chamber in a melter gasifier extends into a fluidized bed to isolate fine particulate ore introduced into the chamber from the remaining internal portion of the melter gasifier. The fine particulate ore is melted in the chamber and falls on the bed to be reduced as it trickles down to the molten metal in the melter gasifler bottom. Reducing gases withdrawn from the melter gasifier are filtered through the bed, thereby preventing the fine particulate ore from being withdrawn with the gases. The chamber can be liquid cooled and use a burner to provide combustion temperatures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 3, 2002
    Assignees: Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology, Inc
    Inventor: Michael Nagl
  • Patent number: 6478848
    Abstract: A direct smelting process for producing metal from a metalliferous feed material is disclosed. The direct smelting process is a molten bath-based process in which smelting occurs predominantly in the metal layer, carrier gas/metalliferous feed material/solid carbonaceous material are injected into the metal layer via lances/tuyeres, and oxygen-containing gas is injected into the top space above the molten bath and post-combusts reaction gases released from the bath. The injection of metalliferous feed material and solid carbonaceous material causes molten material to be projected from the molten bath as splashes, droplets and streams and to form a transition zone. The process is characterized by forming a pipe of a solid material on an outlet end of at least one lance/tuyere while injecting the metalliferous feed material and the carbonaceous material through the lances/tuyeres and thereby extending the effective length of the lance/tuyere or the lances/tuyeres.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2002
    Assignee: Technological Resources Pty Ltd
    Inventors: Carolyn Anne McCarthy, Rodney James Dry, Tara Ellen Goldsworthy
  • Patent number: 6440195
    Abstract: A process and an apparatus for producing metals from a metalliferous feed material are disclosed. The process includes the steps of partially reducing and at least partially melting a metalliferous feed material in a pre-reduction/melting means and completely reducing the partially reduced feed material in a reduction means. The pre-reduction/melting means is positioned directly above the reduction means and communicates with the reduction means so that at least partially molten, partially reduced feed material flows downwardly into a central region of the reduction means. The reduction means includes a vessel that contains a molten bath having a metal layer and a slag layer on the metal layer. The process includes injecting oxygen-containing gas into the reduction means and post-combusting reaction gas generated in the molten bath and injecting oxygen-containing gas into the pre-reduction/melting means and post-combusting reaction gas discharged from the reduction means.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 27, 2002
    Assignee: Technological Resources Pty. Ltd.
    Inventor: Rodney James Dry
  • Patent number: 6423115
    Abstract: A direct smelting process for producing metals from a metalliferous feed material is disclosed. The process includes forming a molten bath having a metal layer (15) and a slag layer (16) on the metal layer in a metallurgical vessel, injecting metalliferous feed material and solid carbonaceous material into the metal layer via a plurality of lances/tuyeres (11), and smelting metalliferous material to metal in the metal layer. The process also includes causing molten material to be projected as splashes, droplets, and streams into a top space above a nominal quiescent surface of the molten bath to form a transition zone (23).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 6, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 23, 2002
    Assignee: Technological Resources Pty Ltd
    Inventors: Carolyn McCarthy, Rodney James Dry, Peter Damian Burke, Robin John Batterham
  • Patent number: 6409790
    Abstract: An energy efficient, coal-based method and apparatus that are environmentally friendly which produce under pressure metallized/carbon product and molten metal directly from abundant coal or other carbonaceous material, and low cost fines (or ore concentrate) wherein the metal is devoid of gangue material and possesses the inherent advantage of retaining the heat for subsequent processing. This method and apparatus which are modular and highly integrated significantly reduce capital and operating costs; they also provide the capability selective placement of the reductant for the delivery of high levels of thermal energy input which leads to ease of desulflurization and high productivity. The technology herein disclosed is entirely closed and is applicable to various ores including ferrous and non-ferrous.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2001
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2002
    Assignee: Calderon Energy Company of Bowling Green, Inc.
    Inventors: Albert Calderon, Terry James Laubis
  • Patent number: 6402808
    Abstract: A process for direct smelting a metalliferous feed material is disclosed. Char and fuel gas are produced by pre-treating coal with an oxygen-containing gas. The fuel gas is used to heat an oxygen-containing gas and/or to produce an oxygen-containing gas in an oxygen plant. Metalliferous feed material, char, and the oxygen-containing gas are injected into a direct smelting vessel, and the metalliferous feed material is smelted to molten metal in the direct smelting vessel using the char as a source of energy and as a reductant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 2000
    Date of Patent: June 11, 2002
    Assignee: Technological Resources Pty. Ltd.
    Inventor: Rodney James Dry
  • Patent number: 6379422
    Abstract: A process for direct smelting metalliferous feed material is disclosed. Iron oxides are partially reduced in a solid state in a pre-reduction vessel. The partially reduced iron oxides are smelted to molten iron in a direct smelting vessel which contains a molten bath of iron and slag and is supplied with a solid carbonaceous material as a source of reductant and energy and with an oxygen-containing gas for post-combusting carbon monoxide and hydrogen generated in the vessel. The direct smelting step generates an off-gas that contains sulphur and the off-gas is released from the direct smelting vessel. Part only of the off-gas released from the direct smelting vessel is used in the pre-reduction step to pre-reduce iron oxides in the pre-reduction vessel. Part only of the off-gas is used in the pre-reduction step in order to control the amount of sulphur that is returned with the partially reduced iron oxides to the direct smelting vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 30, 2002
    Assignee: Technological Resources Pty. Ltd.
    Inventor: Rodney James Dry
  • Patent number: 6379424
    Abstract: A vessel which produces metal from a feed material by direct smelting is disclosed. The vessel contains a molten bath having a metal layer (15) and a slag layer (16) on the metal layer and a gas continuous space (31) above the slag layer. The vessel includes one or more lances/tuyeres (13) extending downwardly into the vessel and injecting an oxygen-containing gas into the vessel and injecting an oxygen-containing bas into the vessel above the metal and slag layer. The vessel includes a plurality of pairs of lances/tuyeres (11) extending downwardly and inwardly into the vessel and injecting feed material with a carrier gas into the molten bath so as to penetrate the metal layer and generate a bath-derived gas flow which carries molten material upwardly. The pairs of lances/tuyeres are spaced around the circumference of the vessel with one lance/tuyere of each pair injecting metalliferous feed material, at a temperature of at least 200° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 12, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 30, 2002
    Assignee: Technological Resources Pty. Ltd.
    Inventor: Rodney James Dry
  • Patent number: 6368548
    Abstract: A direct smelting process for producing metals from metalliferous feed material is disclosed. The process includes forming a molten bath having a metal layer and a slag layer on the metal layer and smelting injected metalliferous feed material in the metal layer. The process also includes generating an upward gas flow from the metal layer which entrains molten material that is in the metal layer and carries the molten material into the slay layer and forms a region of turbulence at least at the interface of the slag layer and the metal layer. The process also includes injecting a gas into the slag layer via a plurality of lances/tuyeres and generating turbulence in an upper region of the slag layer and projecting splashes, droplets and streams of molten material from the slag layer into a top space of the vessel that is above the slag layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 9, 2002
    Assignee: Technological Resources Pty. Ltd.
    Inventor: John Alexander Innes
  • Patent number: 6352574
    Abstract: A process is described for direct production of cast iron starting from iron bearing ore in an apparatus having two communicating chambers in which to carry out the process, comprising the following operations: pre-reduction and pre-heating to founding point of the iron bearing ore in a first substantially cylindrical chamber; final reduction, carburization and founding of the resulting iron in a second chamber arranged below said first chamber, in which coal and oxygen, injected into said second chamber, provide the reducing gas both in said second and in said first chamber, characterized by the fact that: said iron bearing ore and oxygen are introduced into said first chamber through the side walls thereof, simultaneously but separately, the oxygen being introduced at a speed lower or equal to the speed of introduction of said iron bearing ore; and said oxygen, coal and flux are introduced into said second chamber simultaneously but separately through the side walls thereof and in a manner inclined downward
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 1999
    Date of Patent: March 5, 2002
    Assignee: Centro Sviluppo Materiali S.p.A.
    Inventors: Paolo Granati, Antonello Di Donato, Giuseppe Federico
  • Patent number: 6328783
    Abstract: A method of producing iron from iron carbide is disclosed. Solid iron carbide is injected into a molten bath comprising molten iron and slag and dissolves in the molten bath. An oxygen-containing gas is injected into a gas space above the surface of the molten bath to cause combustion of at least a portion of combustible material in the gas space. In addition splashes and/or droplets of molten iron and/or slag are ejected upwardly from the molten bath into the gas space above the quiescent bath surface to form a transition zone. The transition zone is a region in which heat generated by combustion of combustible material is transferred to the splashes and/or droplets of molten iron and/or slag and thereafter is transferred to the molten bath when the splashes and/or droplets of molten iron and/or slag return to the molten bath.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 11, 2001
    Assignee: Technological Resources PTY LTD
    Inventor: Cecil Peter Bates
  • Patent number: 6277172
    Abstract: In a method of charging metal carriers which contain a portion of fines and are at least partially reduced and carbon carriers to a melter gasifier (10) in which a melt-down gasifying zone (11) is maintained, the metal carriers and the carbon carriers are fed into the melter gasifier (10) above the level of the melt-down gasifying zone (11) and descend to the melt-down gasifying zone (11) and travel through the same forming a metal melt and producing a reducing gas by coal gasification. In order to prevent a partial discharge of the metal carriers from the melter gasifier (10) during the charging of the same and to be able to achieve uniform distribution of the carbon carriers and the metal carriers, both the carbon carriers and the metal carriers are introduced into the melter gasifier centrally above the melt-down gasifying zone (11), preferably gravitationally, with a central strand (32) of metal carriers being formed which is peripherally surrounded by a jacket strand (37) formed by the carbon carriers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 21, 2001
    Assignees: Voest Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Pohang Iron & Steel Co. Ltd., Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology
    Inventors: Leopold Werner Kepplinger, Felix Wallner, Johannes-Leopold Schenk
  • Patent number: 6258148
    Abstract: In a method of charging metal carriers which contain a portion of fines and are at least partially reduced to a melter gasifier in which a melt-down gasifying zone formed by a bed is maintained, the metal carriers and carbon carriers are fed into the melter gasifier above the level of the melt-down gasifying zone. The metal carriers descend to the melt-down gasifying zone and travel through the same forming a metal melt and producing a reducing gas by coal gasification.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2001
    Assignees: Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Pohang Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology, Incorporated Foundation
    Inventors: Udo Gennari, Johannes-Leopold Schenk
  • Patent number: 6214085
    Abstract: This invention relates to making steel directly from ore concentrate and non-coking coal to which flux material is added. The method eliminates numerous steps by reducing the ore with the coal in a sealed chamber and under pressure termed “carbotreating” to make a fluxed iron/carbon product which after crushing, is injected while hot into a melting furnace. The hot product is melted with oxygen under reducing conditions using excess carbon from the coal to make a carburized molten iron and a slag low in FeO termed “oxymelting”. After the tapping of the slag, the carburized molten iron to which flux material is added, is blown with oxygen to make steel, CO, and a slag high in FeO termed “decarburizing”. The steel is tapped while the slag is retained in the furnace. All of the above steps are carried out in an efficient and environmentally sound manner which render the art of steelmaking significantly more economical than conventionally practiced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2001
    Assignee: Calderon Energy Company of Bowling Green, Inc.
    Inventors: Albert Calderon, Terry James Laubis
  • Patent number: 6214084
    Abstract: Iron ore is reduced to molten iron by introducing the ore into a reactor while combusting coal with pure oxygen in the reactor. The molten iron phase, which forms at the bottom of the reactor, is stirred by injecting carbon monoxide into the molten iron. In a preferred embodiment, finely pulverized iron ore is injected with pure oxygen tangentially into a cyclone section of the furnace situated on top of a converter section, thereby causing melting and preliminary reduction of the ore to take place in the cyclone section. Primary reduction of the iron oxide occurs in the converter section of the furnace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2001
    Assignee: The BOC Group, Inc.
    Inventors: Neeraj Saxena, Paul Alfred Sweeney, Akhilesh Kapoor
  • Patent number: 6197088
    Abstract: A method of liquid iron production using high sulfur fuels is provided in which the level of sulfur in the iron is maintained below 0.1%. The low sulfur content is achieved even in the presence of high sulfur concentrations in the reducing gases and without the introduction of lime or limestone. According to one aspect, liquid iron in the fusion zone of a smelting system is saturated with carbon, thereby desulfurizing the liquid iron. The carbon saturation level is at least 4.5% carbon by weight and preferably, at least 5.0% carbon by weight. According to another aspect, the desulfurization of the liquid iron is enhanced by elevating the tapping temperatures to temperatures in excess of 1465° C., and preferably of about 1490° C. According to another aspect, the desulfurization process is supplemented by the presence of significant levels of silicon and/or manganese, both of which are highly soluble in the liquid iron.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 1999
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2001
    Assignee: Bechtel Group, Inc.
    Inventor: Richard B. Greenwalt
  • Patent number: 6171364
    Abstract: A process of producing molten iron involves: a) introducing iron oxide, flux, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen to a smelter reactor; b) maintaining conditions to cause (i) the iron oxide to be reduced, (ii) molten iron to be created and stirred in the bottom of the reactor, surmounted by a layer of foaming, FeO-containing slag, and (iii) carbon monoxide gas to rise through the slag; c) causing at least some of the carbon monoxide to react with the oxygen; d) releasing an offgas containing CO, CO2, H2, and H2O; and e) removing at least some of the molten iron and slag from the reactor. Good process stability is achieved by: f) repeatedly measuring, during the process, the conditions of the slag height, the temperature of the molten iron, the levels of CO, CO2, H2, and H2O in the offgas, the carbon level in the molten iron, and the FeO level in the slag, and g) subsequently adjusting one or more process variables (e.g.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 1997
    Date of Patent: January 9, 2001
    Assignee: Steel Technology Corporation
    Inventors: Balu Sarma, Kenneth B. Downing
  • Patent number: 6143054
    Abstract: A molten bath-based direct smelting process for producing metals from metal oxides (including partially reduced metal oxides) is disclosed. The process includes causing upward movement of splashes, droplets, and streams of molten material from a metal layer (15) of the molten bath which:(i) promotes strong mixing of metal in a slag layer (16) of the molten bath so that the slag layer (16) is maintained in a strongly reducing condition leading to FeO levels below 8 wt % based on the total weight of the slag in the slag layer (16); and(ii) extends into a space above a nominal quiescent surface of the molten bath to form a transition zone (23).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 7, 2000
    Assignee: Technological Resources Pty Ltd.
    Inventor: Rodney James Dry
  • Patent number: 6039787
    Abstract: In a process for working up combustion residues and slags from waste incineration plants or steel works slags, the slag is charged at a slag layer height of above 1.2 m into a converter (1), in which the molten slag is reacted with a metal bath (4) through which oxygen is blown. The oxygen is introduced into the bath (4) for cooling the submerged tuyeres (7, 8) in the form of air or along with CO.sub.2 or water vapor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 21, 2000
    Assignee: "Holderbahk" Financiere Glarus AG
    Inventor: Alfred Edlinger
  • Patent number: 5993510
    Abstract: A process is disclosed for working up combustion residues or slags from waste incineration plants or steel works slags in a converter by reacting the molten slag with a metal bath while injecting carbon and oxygen into the metal bath. The converter is subdivided into three adjacent openly communicating zones. An afterburning zone including at least one lance for afterburning directed onto the slag bath is arranged in the vicinity of the slag feed. The lance generates a circulating flow above the slag bath. Following the afterburning zone, a metal bath sump zone is formed for reacting the metal bath with the slag bath. Next, a settling zone is formed, from which the hot combustion gases and the slag melt are drawn off.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 15, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1999
    Assignee: "Holderbank" Financiere Glarus AG
    Inventor: Alfred Edlinger
  • Patent number: 5891214
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for increasing the effectiveness of the smelting reduction of oxidic metal carriers, particularly iron ore, and improving the heat efficiency of the charged fuels in the smelting reduction process which takes place in a reaction vessel containing a molten bath with a layer of slag and wherein the reaction gases escaping from the molten bath are afterburned with oxidizing gases, the resulting heat is transferred to the molten bath and the reacting agents, ore and carbon, are fed to the smelt at least partly from the top through the gas space of the reaction vessel, wherein these reacting agents, ore and carbon, are added in a compact form to the molten bath as a composite material with or without further escort substances.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 1996
    Date of Patent: April 6, 1999
    Assignee: Technological Resources Pty. Ltd.
    Inventors: John Innes, Gregory Hardie
  • Patent number: 5885325
    Abstract: A two stage reaction for the production of steel from iron carbide is carried out in two separate but interrelated reactors. In the first reactor, iron, carbide, with slag formers, is fed into a feed end and the reaction is well-mixed by the vessel geometry, the stirring action below-surface injection of oxygen and iron carbide feed, and the evolution of gases from the liquid metal bath. The product, containing about 0.5-2% carbon, is fed into the second reactor where it is refined with subsurface-injected oxygen. The second reaction is autogenous, and the evolved carbon monoxide is fed to the first reactor where it is burned with oxygen in a foamy slag, which, with post-combustion burning in the slag of CO evolved in the first reactor, and with iron carbide preheating with the sensible heat of the off-gas from the first reaction, makes that reaction also essentially autogenous.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 23, 1999
    Assignee: USX Corporation
    Inventors: Gordon H. Geiger, Asish K. Sinha, Achilles Vassilicos, Zhiyou Du
  • Patent number: 5800592
    Abstract: A process for producing molten pig iron uses direct reduction of iron ore in a pre-reduction stage followed by a final reduction stage.In the pre-reduction stage iron ore is pre-reduced in a melting cyclone by means of a reducing process gas originating from the final reduction stage. A post-combustion occurs in the reducing process gas in the melting cyclone so that said iron ore in said melting cyclone is at least partly melted. The partly melted iron ore passes downwardly into a metallurgical vessel situated beneath the cyclone in which the final reduction takes place by supply of coal and oxygen, thereby forming a reducing process gas. A partial post-combustion occurs in the reducing process gas in the metallurgical vessel by means of said oxygen supplied thereto. The post-combustion ratio of the gas on exiting the metallurgical vessel is not more than 0.55.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 1, 1998
    Assignee: Hoogovens Staal BV
    Inventors: Huibert W. den Hartog, Hendrikus K. A. Meijer
  • Patent number: 5776226
    Abstract: A method for working up refuse or metal-oxide-containing refuse incineration residues or metallurgical residues includes an at least partial oxidation in a meltdown oxidizing reactor followed by a two-stage reduction. The first reduction stage is effected in an iron bath reactor in which iron oxides are not yet reduced. In the second reduction stage also iron oxides are reduced in an iron bath calciner, a pig iron bath being obtained. The metal bath discharged from the iron bath reactor reaches a segregation mold, from which crude bronze can be drawn off.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 5, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 7, 1998
    Assignee: "Holderbank" Financiere Glarus AG
    Inventor: Alfred Edlinger
  • Patent number: 5749939
    Abstract: A multiple stage process for obtaining Ni units from Ni laterite ores and sulfur-bearing Ni concentrates during production of nickel-alloyed iron, nickel-alloyed steel or nickel-alloyed stainless steel in a reactor equipped with top- and bottom-blowing means. Dried Ni laterite ore is charged into an iron/slag bath mixture containing dissolved carbon and a metalloid reductant such as aluminum or silicon. The laterite ore is melted while heat is generated by oxidation of the metalloid and carbon in the reactor. After the laterite ore is melted, top-blowing of pure oxygen and bottom-blowing of an oxygen-containing gas are ceased. Bottom injection of an inert stirring gas is begun. A sulfur-bearing Ni concentrate and aluminum are added to the bath.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 12, 1998
    Assignee: Armco Inc.
    Inventor: David M. Kundrat
  • Patent number: 5746805
    Abstract: Continuous steel making is carried out in an elongated approximately horizontal reactor by providing an iron-rich feed more than half of which is an iron-rich material containing a fine iron ore metallized by more than half of its weight to elemental iron by prereduction. The iron-rich feed and a carbonaceous material are smelted and the melt is covered by a slag layer. By submerged injection a carbonaceous material and a tonnage oxygen gas preferably of at least 95% by volume oxygen is introduced and a gas preferably of at least 95% by volume oxygen is introduced into the smelting zone without penetrating the slag layer. Moderate turbulence is introduced in the reactor bath and the iron layer and slag layer flow countercurrently with the iron flowing into a refining zone and the slag flowing from the refining zone into the smelting zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1998
    Assignees: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft, Paul Queneau
    Inventors: Paul E. Queneau, Martin Hirsch
  • Patent number: 5733358
    Abstract: A two stage reaction for the production of steel from iron carbide is carried out in two separate but interrelated reactors. In the first reactor, iron carbide, with slag formers, is fed into a feed end and the reaction is well-mixed by the vessel geometry, the stirring action below-surface injection of oxygen and iron carbide feed, and the evolution of gases from the liquid metal bath. The product, containing about 0.5-2% carbon, is fed into the second reactor where it is refined with subsurface-injected oxygen. The second reaction is autogenous, and the evolved carbon monoxide is fed to the first reactor where it is burned with oxygen in a foamy slag, which, with post-combustion burning in the slag of CO evolved in the first reactor, and with iron carbide preheating with the sensible heat of the off-gas from the first reaction, makes that reaction also essentially autogenous.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 31, 1998
    Assignee: USX Corporation and Praxair Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Gordon H. Geiger, Asish K. Sinha, Achilles Vassilicos, Zhiyou Du
  • Patent number: 5702502
    Abstract: A three-stage process for obtaining metallic Cr units insitu during the production of stainless steel. Raw chromite ore or a concentrate produced from chromite ore is mixed with a carbonaceous reductant and slagging agents are added to an iron bath (24) for smelting and refining in a refining reactor (10). During the first stage, partially metallized chromite is smelted by carbon in the reactor that is top-and bottom-blown with oxygen and oxygen-containing gases respectively to produce a chromium alloy bath having a carbon content well below saturation. In the second stage, the alloy bath is decarburized by being bottom stirred with the oxygen-containing gas to the final bath carbon specification. In the third stage, the alloy bath is reduced by a metalloid reductant such as silicon or aluminum and again bottom stirred but with a non-oxidizing gas to achieve a high chromium yield.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 30, 1997
    Assignee: Armco Inc.
    Inventors: David M. Kundrat, Allan M. Smillie, Richard C. Sussman
  • Patent number: 5647888
    Abstract: A process and a smelt reduction vessel (1) for producing metals and metal alloys, in particular iron and iron alloys, from metal oxides and ores in a smelt reduction vessel. The process and the vessel are characterized in that loss of liquid and solids with waste gases (11) from the vessel are minimized by causing the waste gases, oxidizing gases (5) and entrained liquid and solids in the space in the vessel that is above the molten metal to rotate about a vertical axis of the vessel thereby forcing liquid and solids outwardly toward the wall of the vessel. This rotational motion may be caused by injecting some or all the oxidizing gases through tuyeres (4) positioned above the bath surface obliquely to a vertical plane through a vertical axis of the vessel. The vessel may have a substantially rotationally symmetrical shape at least in the space above the molten metal (2A).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 15, 1997
    Assignee: CRA Services Limited
    Inventors: John Vincent Keogh, Robin John Batterham, Barry Stuart Andrews
  • Patent number: 5575829
    Abstract: A process for obtaining Ni units from sulfur-bearing nickel concentrate during refining a nickel-alloyed steel or a stainless steel. Sulfur of the concentrate is transferred to and held within the slag by controlling slag composition and temperature, degree of mixing of the slag with the bath by an inert gas and aluminum level in the bath. The extent of desulfurization by the slag, the slag weight and the steel sulfur specification determine the amount of concentrate that can be added to the bath. The ratio of the slag weight to the iron bath weight should be in the range of 0.10-0.30 and the bath temperature is maintained between 1550.degree.-1700.degree. C. The slag basicity is controlled between 1.0 and 3.5, the composition of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in the slag is maintained between 15-25 wt. % and the composition of MgO is maintained between 12-20 wt. %.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 19, 1996
    Assignee: Armco Inc.
    Inventor: David M. Kundrat
  • Patent number: 5518523
    Abstract: A process for the production of iron from ferrous raw materials, the process comprising conducting a production phase and a tapping phase, the production phase including feeding fuel to an iron bath contained in a converter, continuously feeding ferrous raw materials to the iron bath through a gas space above the iron bath, continuously blowing oxygenous gases onto the surface of the iron bath, reducing the ferrous raw materials with the fuel to produce reduced iron, afterburning reaction gases comprising CO and H.sub.2 emerging from the iron bath with oxidizing gases in the gas space to produce heat, and transferring the heat to the iron bath; and the tapping phase including removing 40% to 90% of the iron bath to produce a final bath which can then be used as an initial bath in a subsequent production phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 21, 1996
    Assignee: Technological Resources Pty, Ltd.
    Inventor: Karl Brotzmann
  • Patent number: 5498277
    Abstract: A process for smelting iron-containing source material in a reactor containing a slag bath, includes generating heating and reducing conditions in at least one reducing region of the bath by injection of fuel/reductant and oxygen-containing gas by at least one top submerged lance. The source material is fed to the reactor together with additional reductant and with flux at or adjacent the at least one reducing region so as to be subjected to smelting reduction, using coal as the additional reductant. The rates of injection of oxygen and fuel/reductant are controlled to achieve required and sufficient reducing conditions by providing the injected gas with an oxygen content from about 40% to about 100% sufficient for a degree of combustion of the fuel/reductant of from about 40% to about 50%. The CO and H.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 12, 1996
    Assignee: Ausmelt Limited
    Inventors: John M. Floyd, Ian L. Chard, Brian R. Baldock
  • Patent number: 5489325
    Abstract: A process and a smelt reduction vessel (1) for producing metals and metal alloys, in particular iron and iron alloys, from metal oxides and ores in a smelt reduction vessel. The process and the vessel are characterized in that loss of liquid and solids with waste gases (11) from the vessel are minimized by causing the waste gases, oxidizing gases (5) and entrained liquid and solids in the space in the vessel that is above the molten metal to rotate about a vertical axis of the vessel thereby forcing liquid and solids outwardly toward the wall of the vessel. This rotational motion may be caused by injecting some or all of the oxidizing gases through tuyeres (4) positioned above the bath surface obliquely to a vertical plane through a vertical axis of the vessel. The vessel may have a substantially rotationally symmetrical shape at least in the space above the molten metal (2A).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 6, 1996
    Assignee: CRA Services Ltd.
    Inventors: John V. Keogh, Robin J. Batterham, Barry S. Andrews
  • Patent number: 5480473
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for intensifying the reactions in metallurgical reaction vessels containing a molten bath to which the reacting agents are fed below and above the bath surface, the gases emerging from the metal bath being afterburned in the space above the smelt by oxidizing gases injected into said gas space and the resulting heat being transferred to the molten bath, whereby fractions of the smelt in the form of drops, splashes and large particles of the smelt move on ballistic trajectories within the gas space of said metallurgical reaction vessel, being ejected from the smelt like a fountain through the amount of gas introduced via underbath tuyeres.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 12, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 2, 1996
    Assignee: Technological Resources Pty. Limited
    Inventors: Gregory J. Hardie, Paul-Gerhard Mantey, Mark P. Schwarz
  • Patent number: 5472478
    Abstract: A method of reducing metal oxides in a vessel containing a molten bath, the bath comprising a metal layer and a slag layer, wherein metal oxides and carbonaceous material are introduced into the bath, gas is injected into the slag layer to case the eruption of molten slag parts, droplets and/or streams into the gas space above the bath and oxygen-containing gas is injected into the gas space to case post-combustion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 5, 1995
    Assignee: Technological Resources Pty. Ltd.
    Inventor: Karl Brotzmann
  • Patent number: 5466278
    Abstract: The invention describes a process for the manufacture of steel with a carbon content of <0.8 wt.-% by reducing iron ore and refining the hot metal. Iron ore and fuel are introduced into the reduction zone of a reactor that contains an iron melt in the reduction zone. This melt is covered by a liquid slag layer from which liquid slag is withdrawn. Further, oxygen-containing gas together with fuel is blown into the iron melt contained in the reduction zone. The iron melt extends into the refining zone of the reactor, the slag layer flows from the refining zone into the reduction zone and in the refining zone liquid steel is withdrawn. Oxygen-containing gas is supplied to the iron melt contained in the refining zone and liquid iron is withdrawn therefrom.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 14, 1995
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Paul E. Queneau, Martin Hirsch
  • Patent number: 5431710
    Abstract: A fine particle mixture of iron concentrate and pulverized flux is introduced into the upper portion of the vertical prereduction section of a sealed unitary vessel. Heated gas partially reduces the iron concentrate particles to form wustite which falls to the lower portion where it is melted to form fluid slag. The slag passes into the horizontal section of the vessel which is divided by a barrier into a reduction portion and an oxidation portion. In the reduction portion, pulverized coal and oxygen are introduced and iron oxide in the slag is reduced to iron. The entrained iron droplets in the slag are permitted to sediment in a quiescent zone where the slag is removed. The molten iron may be recovered or converted into steel by flowing through passages in the lower portion of the barrier into the oxidation portion where oxygen is introduced to remove C, Si, P and other impurities and to convert iron into steel or semi-steel. The final product and slag are separately removed from the oxidation portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 11, 1995
    Inventor: Li W. Ebenfelt
  • Patent number: 5407461
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for protecting the refractory lining of a metallurgical reaction vessel containing a smelt consisting of metal and slag, the reacting agents for the smelt being fed to the metal bath through introducing means disposed below and above the bath surface, and the gases escaping from the smelt being afterburned with oxidizing agents in the gas space, i.e. in the space above the still smelt, whereby gaseous reacting agents and/or gases acting inertly in the metal bath are fed to the smelt below the bath surface, and the total refractory lining surface in the gas space of the metallurgical reaction vessel is wetted by partial amounts of smelt in the form of drops, splashes, liquid portions rising or ejected eruptively and like a fountain and/or by wave or sloshing motion of the smelt.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 12, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 18, 1995
    Assignee: Technological Resources Pty. Limited
    Inventors: Gregory J. Hardie, Paul-Gerhard Mantey, Mark P. Schwarz
  • Patent number: 5350434
    Abstract: The process for making a refined molten steel includes melting preheated solid iron sources and solid carbon sources in a melting vessel with heat generated by electric arc to form a carbon-containing molten material and then melting other preheated solid iron and carbon sources in the carbon-containing molten material by heat generated by combustion reaction in the melting vessel. In the combustion reaction oxygen is fed into the molten material through nozzles located in the melting vessel below the surface of the molten bath. The exhaust gases formed in the melting vessel are used to preheat the solid iron sources and then are burned in an afterburner to reduce pollution. An apparatus for performing the process is also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 1993
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1994
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft AG
    Inventor: Bernt Rollinger
  • Patent number: 5302184
    Abstract: The specification discloses a process for producing a ferroalloy in a smelting vessel. A material containing an alloying metal is injected into a molten bath contained in the vessel. A flux, a carbonaceous material and an oxygen-containing gas are also injected into the vessel. A gas which may be the oxygen-containing gas is injected into the molten bath in order to stir it. The rates of injection of the various components are controlled to achieve control of the oxidizing and reducing environment within the vessel consistent with a rapid rate of injection. The material containing the alloying metal is either reduced and incorporated into the metal phase or oxidized and incorporated into the slag. Combustion gases above the molten bath are oxidized to provide further heat to the process. Alloyed metal or slag containing the alloying metal are recovered as product. The process is applicable to the production of ferroalloys such as ferrochromium, ferromanganese, ferronickel and ferrovanadium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 12, 1994
    Assignee: CRA Services Limited
    Inventors: Robin J. Batterham, Roderick M. Grant, James V. Happ, Glenn A. Thiele
  • Patent number: 5286273
    Abstract: This invention provides a method and apparatus whereby steel of various compositions may be produced from iron ore and coal through a series of stages without the intermediate production of liquid iron. A reforming reactor receives top gases from the steel making reactors, and converts them to high reduction potential gases which are returned to the steel making reactors. The iron ore and reductants, such as coal, are charged to a controlled atmosphere reactor which may be an inclined rotary cylindrical shaft. From the controlled atmosphere reactor the charge is moved to a potential shift reactor which is inclined or vertical and encounters increasing heat and rising gases for converting the carbonized sponge into a semi-molten state. The charge then passes to a high temperature reactor where it encounters the reducing gases from the reforming reactor and preheated oxygen to create temperature in which steel is made.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 15, 1994
    Inventor: Ghulam Nabi
  • Patent number: 5258054
    Abstract: A fine particle mixture of iron concentrate and pulverized flux is introduced into the upper portion of the vertical prereduction section of a sealed unitary vessel. Heated gas partially reduces the iron concentrate particles to form wustite which falls to the lower portion where it is melted to form fluid slag. The slag passes into the horizontal section of the vessel which is divided by a barrier into a reduction portion and an oxidation portion. In the reduction portion, pulverized coal and oxygen are introduced and the FeO in the slag is reduced to iron. The entrained iron droplets in the slag are permitted to sediment in a quiescent zone where the slag is removed. The molten iron flows through passages in the lower portion of the barrier into the oxidation portion where oxygen is introduced to remove C, Si, P and other impurities. The final product and waste are separately removed from the oxidation portion. Exhaust gases exit a vertical stack where heat is recaptured and dust particles removed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 1991
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1993
    Inventor: Li W. Ebenfelt