Passing Gases Through Nozzle Patents (Class 95/32)
  • Patent number: 9791353
    Abstract: A concentrator that is operable to concentrate particles of target material from a high flow rate sampled airflow into a low flow rate secondary airflow. The concentrator may have an array of radially arranged blades. Each blade may have a sampled airflow inlet that uses centrifugal force to concentrate the particles into a central portion of the sampled airflow passing through it. Downstream, the blade may also have primary airflow outlets and knife-edged secondary airflow inlets that divide the sampled airflow into a pair of lateral, high flow rate primary airflows from which the particles have been depleted, and a central, low flow rate secondary airflow which carries the concentrated particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 17, 2017
    Assignee: RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, INC.
    Inventors: Elric W. Saaski, Charles C. Jung
  • Patent number: 9199192
    Abstract: A duct can be configured to receive a denuding gas flow. A solid denuding surface that is connected to a drive system can be configured to move the solid denuding surface within the duct while the solid denuding surface is continuously concentrating one or more gas-phase species from the denuding gas flow on the denuding surface. Also, a denuding gas flow can be passed along a denuding surface to concentrate one or more gas phase species from the denuding gas flow onto the denuding surface with a diffusion denuding action. The denuding surface can be moved while continuing to concentrate the one or more gas phase species from the denuding gas flow onto the denuding surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 1, 2015
    Assignee: Cooper Environmental Services LLC
    Inventor: John Arthur Cooper
  • Patent number: 8696793
    Abstract: The invention relates to cryogenic engineering. The inventive device for liquefying and separating gas and for releasing one or more gases from a mixture thereof, comprises, in series axially positioned, a prechamber (1) with gas flow whirling means (2) arranged therein, a subsonic or supersonic nozzle (3) with a working segment (4), which is abutted thereto and to which liquid phase extracting means (5) is connected, and a subsonic diffuser (7) or the combination of a supersonic (6) and the subsonic diffuser (7). The length of the working segment (4) is selected according to a condition of forming condensate drops with a size greater than 0.5 mkm and of drifting them, by centrifugal forces, from the axial area of the working segment to the walls of the drop extracting means. The device is provided with an additional nozzle (8) arranged in the prechamber. The invention makes it possible to increase the separation efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2014
    Assignee: 3S Gas Technologies Limited
    Inventors: Vadim Ivanovich Alferov, Lev Arkadievich Bagirov, Leonard Makarovich Dmitriev, Salavat Zainetdinovich Imaev, Vladimir Isaakovich Feygin
  • Patent number: 8657930
    Abstract: The invention relates to a separation system comprising a flow inlet (16). The separation system comprises a swirl valve (100), arranged to receive and control the flux of a fluid flow via the flow inlet (16) and to generate a swirling flow, swirling about a central axis (11). The separation system further comprises a separation chamber (40) positioned downstream with respect of the swirl valve (100) to receive the swirling flow from the swirl valve (100), wherein the separation chamber (40) comprises a first and second flow outlet (41, 42). The first flow outlet (41) is positioned to receive an inner portion of the swirling flow and the second outlet (42) is positioned to receive an outer portion of the swirling flow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 25, 2014
    Assignee: Twister B.V.
    Inventors: Marco Betting, Cornelis Antonie Tjeenk Willink
  • Patent number: 8252088
    Abstract: Concentrating particles in a turbulent gas flow may include receiving, in a receptacle, a turbulent gas flow that includes particles. The concentration of particles in a gas flow exiting the receptacle at a first port is increased as compared with a concentration of the particles in the gas flow received by the receptacle. The increased concentration of particles is accomplished by removing a portion of the gas flow by using a second port, and fluidly communicating the gas flow through a tube in the receptacle. The tube has a smaller diameter at the end of the tube at which the gas flow exits the tube than diameter at the end of the tube at which the gas flow is received.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 28, 2012
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Security and Detection Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas D. Plamondon, Nikolay Rolshud, Peter F. Cram, Mark Fraser
  • Patent number: 8226743
    Abstract: The invention relates to fluid separator comprising:—a throat portion (4) which is arranged between a converging fluid inlet section and a diverging fluid outlet section, the diverging fluid outlet section comprising an inner primary outlet (7) for condensables depleted fluid components and an outer secondary outlet for condensables enriched fluid components (6); and—a central body (10) provided upstream of the throat portion (4) in the fluid inlet section, the central body (10) being arranged substantially coaxial to a central axis I of the fluid separator. The fluid separator is arranged to facilitate a main flow through the converging fluid inlet section, the throat portion towards the diverging fluid outlet section. The central body (10) comprises an outlet (13), directed towards the tubular throat portion (4) and is arranged to add a central flow towards the throat portion (4).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 2008
    Date of Patent: July 24, 2012
    Assignee: Twister, B.V.
    Inventors: Marco Betting, Cornelis Antonie Tjeenk Willink, Bart Prast, Zvonimir Opic
  • Patent number: 8163680
    Abstract: Provided is a method of inhibiting the formation of emulsions in a natural gas dehydrator by lubricating the upstream compressors and natural gas engines with a lubricating oil comprising an effective amount of one or more demulsifiers. Provided is also a method of lubricating the upstream compressors and natural gas engines with the same oil compositions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2012
    Assignee: Chevron Oronite Company LLC
    Inventor: John D. Palazzotto
  • Patent number: 8118170
    Abstract: Particulates called nanoparticles (principally having a diameter of 10 nm or less) are reliably and easily according to size with high throughput. An impactor includes a particulate size classifying chamber provided with an exhaust port for particulates, a nozzle ejecting to the inside of the particulate size classifying chamber a carrier gas containing particulates to be classified, and a trapping plate as particulate trapping unit provided in the particulate size classifying chamber and selectively trapping particulates ejected from the nozzle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 5, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 21, 2012
    Assignee: Fujitsu Limited
    Inventor: Shintaro Sato
  • Patent number: 8104362
    Abstract: An inline virtual impactor comprising an outer housing having a housing inlet, a housing inner surface, a major flow outlet and a minor flow outlet; a flow accelerator member disposed in the upstream portion of the outer housing; and a flow stabilizer member disposed within the outer housing downstream of the flow accelerator member, wherein the disposition of the flow accelerator creates an annular flow passage between the flow accelerator and the outer housing, and wherein a flow divider that is at least partially downstream of the flow stabilizer member effects splitting of the flow stream entering the housing into major and minor flows. The minor flow comprises primarily particles having a size greater than a cutpoint size and the major flow comprises primarily particles smaller than the cutpoint size. The inline virtual impactor may further comprise an aspiration section located upstream of the flow accelerator member.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 7, 2009
    Date of Patent: January 31, 2012
    Assignee: Texas A&M University System
    Inventors: Andrew R. McFarland, Satyanarayanan Seshadri
  • Publication number: 20110120303
    Abstract: A separation device with a gas inlet port that accepts an inlet gas. The inlet gas is composed of a mixture of at least two separable particle components with each component having a different mass. A rotating separation rotor accepts the inlet gas and uses a separator to substantially separate the gas according to mass into two fractions, a heavier and a lighter fraction. One of the fractions is passed to a second separator that further separates that fraction into another two fractions consisting of heavier and lighter fractions. The desired fractions are collected and exhausted from the separation device for use.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 19, 2007
    Publication date: May 26, 2011
    Inventor: Michael R. Bloom
  • Patent number: 7935176
    Abstract: A facility and process capable of extracting oxygen in extraterrestrial environments from materials available in extraterrestrial environments, for example, on planets, planetoids, etc. The facility extracts oxygen from a mineral-containing solid material and is configured to form a free-falling molten stream of the solid material, evaporate at least a portion of the molten stream and produce a vapor containing gaseous oxygen, create a supersonic stream of the vapor, condense constituents of the supersonic stream to form particulates within the supersonic stream, separate the gaseous oxygen from the particulates, and then collect the gaseous oxygen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 3, 2011
    Assignee: Packer Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Rodney L. Burton, Peter J. Schubert, Filip Rysanek, Paul Fenoglio, Mike Hutches
  • Patent number: 7833301
    Abstract: A diffuser for a work machine having an air breathing fuel consuming internal combustion engine with an exhaust aftertreatment device periodically elevating the exhaust temperatures to a high level. The diffuser has a venturi section and the excess contaminants from an intake air pre-cleaner are directed to the throat of the venturi to aspirate and dispose of excess contaminants while cooling the exhaust flow. Additional openings in the divergent section of the diffuser assist in providing significant reductions in exhaust temperatures within a short axial envelope.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 16, 2010
    Assignee: Deere & Company
    Inventors: Rodney A. Schindler, Alan D. Sheidler
  • Publication number: 20100126340
    Abstract: A system and method for controlling dust and/or odors comprises a blower unit and baffle member deployed downstream of the blower unit. The blower unit comprises a fan propelled mister with a discharge tube and a fan disposed in the discharge tube adapted for drawing air into the discharge tube and creating a high velocity air flow exiting therefrom. The discharge tube has a plurality of nozzles and a fluid source is placed in communication with the nozzles such that the nozzles discharge fluid particles that are entrained in a high velocity air flow exiting from the discharge tube distal end. A baffle member is deployed downstream of the blower unit at an elevation above the blower unit so as to alter a flow path of ambient air flowing through a discharge path of the blower unit.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 24, 2008
    Publication date: May 27, 2010
    Applicant: Dust Control Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Edwin Peterson
  • Patent number: 7682415
    Abstract: A device for intermediate storage of condensation water includes a swirl body which causes an inflowing air-water mixture to rotate, and a venturi tube through which the air-water mixture leaves the device. A ring groove in which water accumulates because of the swirl is arranged downstream of the swirl body, and water accumulated in the ring groove is sucked into the venturi tube via one more suction pipes. An expansion zone has an expanded cross-section and a step shaped interior for generating increased surface adhesion. Separating metal sheets in the expansion zone brake the swirl, bind the accumulated gushing water by adhesion forces, and guide it by capillary forces to the interior surface of the expansion zone. Gushing water accumulated at the ends of the separating metal sheets is drained by one or more suction pipes, into the venturi tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 23, 2010
    Assignee: EADS Space Transportation GmbH
    Inventors: Roland Mueller, Helmut Westermann, Ulf Wittkamp, Joachim Lucas, Klaus Bockstahler, Johannes Witt, Berengere Houdou
  • Patent number: 7550035
    Abstract: An electrostatic precipitator includes an inertial gas-contaminant impactor separator providing two stage separation and reducing contaminant collection load on the collector electrode at the corona discharge zone to reduce contaminant build-up thereon and extend service intervals for cleaning or replacement thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 23, 2009
    Assignee: Cummins Filtration IP, Inc.
    Inventors: Scott P. Heckel, Gregory W. Hoverson
  • Publication number: 20070256566
    Abstract: An inertial gas-liquid separator and method is provided, including variable orifice jet nozzle structure having a variable orifice area dependent upon axial movement of a plunger relative to a housing sleeve, and in another embodiment having first and second flow branches, with the first flow branch being continuously open, and the second flow branch having a variable flow controller controlling flow therethrough.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 11, 2007
    Publication date: November 8, 2007
    Inventors: Stephanie L. Faber, Bradley A. Smith, Christopher E. Holm, Brian W. Scwandt, Peter K. Herman
  • Patent number: 7261007
    Abstract: A circumferential slot virtual impactor includes a disk-shaped housing with an endless circumferential slot for receiving aerosols. The slot forms an acceleration nozzle, and a receiver nozzle spaced apart radially inwardly from the acceleration nozzle exit. In an annular gap between the two nozzles, negative pressure is selectively applied to draw a major flow of the aerosol axially away from the nozzles, while a minor flow of the aerosol is drawn radially inward and enters the receiver nozzle. A portion of the larger particles leaves the major flow and merges with the minor flow due to particle momentum, thus increasing the large-particle concentration of the minor flow. The acceleration nozzle incorporates convex curvature along its opposed interior surfaces, for a smoother aerosol flow and reduced large-particle deposition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 28, 2007
    Assignee: The Texas A&M University System
    Inventors: John S. Haglund, Andrew R. McFarland
  • Patent number: 7232477
    Abstract: An inlet for an environmental air monitor is described wherein a pre-separator interfaces with ambient environment air and removes debris and insects commonly associated with high wind outdoors and a deflector plate in communication with incoming air from the pre-separator stage, that directs the air radially and downward uniformly into a plurality of accelerator jets located in a manifold of a virtual impactor, the manifold being cylindrical and having a top, a base, and a wall, with the plurality of accelerator jets being located in the top of the manifold and receiving the directed air and accelerating directed air, thereby creating jets of air penetrating into the manifold, where a major flow is deflected to the walls of the manifold and extracted through ports in the walls.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 19, 2007
    Assignee: Los Alamos National Security, LLC
    Inventor: John C. Rodgers
  • Patent number: 6827219
    Abstract: The present invention discloses an impactor with a cooled impaction plate capable of efficiently separating aerosols by cooling the impaction plate below a temperature of fluid inflowing into the impactor and a method for classifying and collecting the aerosols using the same. The impactor with a cooled impaction plate according to the present invention comprises: an accelerating nozzle for accelerating movement of the aerosols; an impaction plate for changing the flowing direction of the aerosols by means of impacting the aerosols exhausted from the accelerating nozzle, and for collecting the aerosols which are out of the flowing path of the aerosols and have larger inertia than critical value, wherein the impaction plate is installed apart from an outlet of the accelerating nozzle; and cooling means for cooling the impaction plate below a temperature of fluid inflowing into the impactor, wherein the cooling means is fixedly installed at the impaction plate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 2002
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2004
    Assignee: Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
    Inventors: Sang Soo Kim, Byung Uk Lee
  • Patent number: 6827761
    Abstract: Particles in a fluid flow are concentrated by a combination of electrical charging and focussing and passage through a virtual impact concentrator. The fluid is passed through an electrical charging section and an electrical focussing section and then to a virtual impact concentrator. The majority of charged particles in a selected size range are collected through a minor discharge passage extending axially from the virtual impact concentrator. The invention is particularly suitable for sampling engine exhaust gases and ambient aerosols.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2003
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2004
    Assignee: Her Majesty The Queen in Right of Canada as represented by the Minister of the Environment
    Inventor: Lisa A. Graham
  • Patent number: 6776825
    Abstract: An apparatus and method of removing a selected component from a stream of fluid containing a plurality of components is provided. The stream is induced to flow at supersonic velocity through a conduit so as to decrease the temperature of the fluid to below a selected temperature at which one of condensation and solidification of the selected component occurs, thereby forming particles of the selected component. The conduit is provided with a structure for imparting a swirling motion to the stream of fluid thereby inducing the particles to flow to a radially outer section of a collecting zone in the stream. A shock wave is created in the stream so as to decrease the axial velocity of the fluid to subsonic velocity, and to increase the swirling motion of the particles which are extracted into an outlet stream from the radially outer section of the collecting zone downstream of the shock wave.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 17, 2004
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Marco M. Betting, Theodoore Van Holten, J. M. Hans M. Van Veen
  • Patent number: 6589314
    Abstract: A size preferential electrostatic agglomerator is provided for agglomerating small particles with larger “carrier” particles. The agglomerator includes an inlet for receiving a gas flow, a separator for separating the gas flow into flow streams based on the size of the particles therein, an ionization region for imparting an opposite electrical charge to each of the flow streams, an agglomeration region receiving the flow streams to facilitate the agglomeration of the oppositely charged particles, and an outlet for exhausting the gas flow containing agglomerated particles to facilitate collection, processing or other activity on the agglomerated particles. The present invention provides an efficient system for gathering large amounts of small particles in a gas flow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 2001
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2003
    Assignee: Midwest Research Institute
    Inventors: Andrew E. Page, Plamen Doynov
  • Publication number: 20020189443
    Abstract: A method is provided for separating methane from carbon dioxide contained in a high pressure gas which comprises expanding the high pressure gas through a flow channel having a convergent section followed by a divergent section with an intervening throat which functions as an aerodynamic expander to obtain a gaseous stream enriched in methane and a heavy stream comprised enriched in carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, ethane and heavier components. Generally, the flow channel is operated at temperatures low enough to result in the formation of solid carbon dioxide and solid hydrogen sulfide particles, which increases the efficiency of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide removal.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 19, 2001
    Publication date: December 19, 2002
    Inventor: Patrick L. McGuire
  • Publication number: 20020157993
    Abstract: The present invention employs a virtual impactor to separate a flow of fluid into a major flow and a minor flow, such that the minor flow contains a higher concentration of particulates of a desired size. The minor flow is directed toward an archival surface, causing the particulates to impact against and be deposited on the archival surface. Over time, the archival surface and the virtual impactor are moved relative to one another such that particulates collected at different times are deposited as spaced-apart spots on different portions of the archival surface. The particulates are stored on the archival surface until analysis of the particulates is required. The archival surface can be coated with a material that enhances the deposition and retention of the particulates and can further be coated with materials that sustain the life of biological organism particulates deposited on the archival surface.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 17, 2001
    Publication date: October 31, 2002
    Applicant: MesoSystems Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles J. Call, Patrick T. Call, Vanessa M. Kenning, Andrew Kamholz
  • Patent number: 6447574
    Abstract: Pollutant molecules and/or particles are removed from a stream of polluted gas utilizing moisture-containing sonic or supersonic shock waves passing through the stream of polluted gas stream to alter, change, modify, grow or otherwise change the molecules and/or particles to render then removable or separable from the gas stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 10, 2002
    Assignee: Global Clean Air, Inc.
    Inventors: James Leake Frier, Jr., Malley R. Bass, Thomas K. Ewan
  • Patent number: 6372019
    Abstract: An apparatus for liquefying a gas has a nozzle having a convergent nozzle portion and a nozzle throat, and a divergent nozzle portion (in the case of supersonic flow), and a working section. Vanes or another mechanism for creating a swirl velocity are connected to the nozzle, to create a strong swirl velocity in gas fed to the nozzle. In the nozzle, the gas adiabatically expands, gas velocity increases and gas temperature drops, to promote the condensation of gas with formation of droplets. The gas then passes through a working section having a wall, whereby further condensation of at least a portion of the gas flow occurs and droplets of condensed gas grow. Centrifugal effects generated by the swirl velocity drive the droplets towards the wall of the working section. Condensed liquid gas droplets are separated from remaining gas in the gaseous state at least adjacent the wall of the working section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 16, 2002
    Assignee: Translang Technologies, Ltd.
    Inventors: Vadim Ivanovich Alferov, Lev Arkad'evich Baguirov, Vladimir Isaakovich Feygin, Aleksandr Arkad'evish Arbatov, Salavat Zainetdinovich Imaev, Leonard Makarovich Dmitriev, Vladimir Ivanovich Rezunenko
  • Patent number: 6280502
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are provided for removing solid particles from a particle containing stream of fluid, the method including the steps of: inducing the stream to flow at supersonic velocity through a conduit; inducing a swirling motion to the supersonic stream of fluid thereby causing the particles to flow to a radially outer section of a collecting zone in the stream; and extracting the solid particles into an outlet stream from the radially outer section of the collecting zone. The apparatus is an apparatus effective for performance of this method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 31, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 28, 2001
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: J. W. H. M. van Veen, Marco Betting
  • Patent number: 6062392
    Abstract: A separation plate (10) includes a first surface and an opposing second surface. Plural pairs of a nozzle (14) and a virtual impactor (16) are provided on the first surface. Each nozzle tapers from an inlet end (14a) to an outlet end (14b). Each virtual impactor comprises a pair of generally fin-shaped projections (24). Each fin-shaped projection includes an inner wall (26) and a convex outer wall (28). The inner walls of the fin-shaped projections of a virtual impactor face each other to define a minor flow passage (30) therebetween. The convex outer walls of the fin-shaped projections of a virtual impactor cooperatively present a convex surface including a virtual impact void therethrough. The virtual impact void defines an inlet end of the minor flow passage. A virtual impactor body (33) is provided between adjacent virtual impactors (16).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 16, 2000
    Assignee: MesoSystems Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Joseph G. Birmingham, Patrick T. Call, Vanessa M. Kenning, Alireza Shekarriz, Charles J. Call
  • Patent number: 6010554
    Abstract: A micro-machined virtual impactor device to permit the separation, collection and concentration of a significant portion of environmental particulates having a diameter of less than ten microns and its method of operation. The device includes a plurality of projections, each having a virtual impact surface that defines an aperture in a stagnant zone of fluid flow. A major portion of the particulate material is concentrated into a minor portion of the fluid which is processed through the aperture, where it is collected for subsequent analysis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 1997
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2000
    Assignees: Battelle Memorial Institute, MesoSystems Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Joseph G. Birmingham, Patricia M. Irving, Yin-Fong Su, Charles J. Call, Bruce D. Lerner, Robert S. Wegeng
  • Patent number: 5858043
    Abstract: The invention relates to virtual impactors with slit-shaped nozzles. Virtual impactors serve to enrich aerosol particles of certain magnitudes from gases, particularly from ambient air, for the purpose of examining these particles. For very strong enrichments, reaching up to many hundreds of times the initial concentration, very effective multi-stage virtual impactors with hundreds of nozzles have been developed. However, these are difficult to manufacture and to clean. The individual nozzles can be replaced by slits which are easier to manufacture. With slit-shaped nozzles problems with instability at the ends of the slits occur. The invention describes slit-shaped nozzles, the slits of which have no ends because they are designed as curved, closed figures. By contrast with the prior art which relates to circular slits in parallel plates, here any closed figures are represented, including ones which are not in plane-parallel plates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 1997
    Date of Patent: January 12, 1999
    Assignee: Bruker-Franzen Analytik, GmbH
    Inventor: Hans-Ulrich Geise
  • Patent number: 5788741
    Abstract: A virtual impactor that can remove essentially all of the particles from an airstream is disclosed. Disclosed are a method of separating particles from the airstream using this virtual impactor, a method of concentrating the particulate matter in an airstream, and the concentrated airstream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 4, 1998
    Assignees: United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, President and Fellows of Harvard College
    Inventors: Robert M. Burton, Petros Koutrakis, Costas Sioutas
  • Patent number: 5447553
    Abstract: Close coupled momentum separator with integral removable source volume for particle beam liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry is provided. The inventive PB LC/MS system comprises a momentum separator wherein the skimmers are designed to accommodate the particle beam conical dispersion so as to minimize the number of particles lost in the separator. In addition, the exit of the momentum separator is closely coupled to the entrance of the MS source volume. The PB LC/MS system demonstrates improved linearity in signal and enhanced sensitivity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 1994
    Date of Patent: September 5, 1995
    Assignee: Hewlett-Packard Company
    Inventors: James A. Apffel, Jr., Robert G. Nordman, Mirko Martich
  • Patent number: 5425802
    Abstract: A virtual impactor that can remove essentially all of the particles from an airstream is disclosed. Also disclosed are a method of separating particles from the airstream using this virtual impactor, a method of concentrating the particulate matter in an airstream, and the concentrated airstream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1993
    Date of Patent: June 20, 1995
    Assignees: The United States of American as represented by the Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency, President and Fellows of Harvard
    Inventors: Robert M. Burton, Petros Koutrakis, Costas Sioutas