Selective Diffusion Of Gases Through Immobilized Liquid Patents (Class 95/44)
  • Patent number: 9663381
    Abstract: A method for synthesizing ammonia for agricultural fertilizers employs water (H2O) as the source of hydrogen (H2) in ammonia (NH3) synthesis, and gathers carbon monoxide (CO) as a limiting reagent for combining in a WGS (Water-Gas-Shift) reaction for producing hydrogen. The WGS reaction employs CO with the water to produce Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and H2, consuming undesirable CO from other industrial applications. A by-product of the process includes generating 1.5 mole of CO2 for each mole of ammonia synthesized. An intermediate step consumes 3 moles of hydrogen for each mole of Nitrogen (N2). The use of methane gas is avoided as the process employs CO and the WGS reaction as an exclusive source of H2 without introducing methane (CH4). A downstream synthesis of ammonia can be done through a fuel cell to produce electricity for the ammonia synthesis for further sustainability.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 2016
    Date of Patent: May 30, 2017
    Assignee: RITAJ, INV.
    Inventor: Khalid T. Alkusayer
  • Patent number: 9580824
    Abstract: An ion conducting polymeric composition mixture comprises a copolymer of styrene and vinylbenzyl-Rs. Rs is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums, pyridiniums, pyrazoliums, pyrrolidiniums, pyrroliums, pyrimidiums, piperidiniums, indoliums, and triaziniums. The composition contains 10%-90% by weight of vinylbenzyl-Rs. The composition can further comprise a polyolefin comprising substituted polyolefins, a polymer comprising cyclic amine groups, a polymer comprising at least one of a phenylene group and a phenyl group, a polyamide, and/or the reaction product of a constituent having two carbon-carbon double bonds. The composition can be in the form of a membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 2016
    Date of Patent: February 28, 2017
    Assignee: Dioxide Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard I. Masel, Qingmei Chen, Zengcai Liu, Robert Kutz
  • Patent number: 9370773
    Abstract: An ion conducting polymeric composition mixture comprises a copolymer of styrene and vinylbenzyl-Rs. Rs is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums and pyridiniums. The composition contains 10%-90% by weight of vinylbenzyl-Rs. The composition can further comprise a polyolefin comprising substituted polyolefins, a polymer comprising cyclic amine groups, a polymer comprising at least one of a phenylene group and a phenyl group, a polyamide, and/or the reaction product of a constituent having two carbon-carbon double bonds. The composition can be in the form of a membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 2015
    Date of Patent: June 21, 2016
    Assignee: Dioxide Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard L. Masel, Qingmei Chen, Zengcai Liu, Robert Kutz
  • Patent number: 9162178
    Abstract: A composition for forming a carbon dioxide separation membrane, which includes a water-absorbing polymer, a carbon dioxide carrier, and a polysaccharide, is disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 2, 2013
    Date of Patent: October 20, 2015
    Assignee: FUJIFILM Corporation
    Inventors: Daisuke Hiraki, Yusuke Mochizuki, Kazuki Yamazaki
  • Patent number: 9005338
    Abstract: Sulfur contaminants, such as elemental sulfur (S8), hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur components in fluids (e.g., air, natural gas, and other gases, as well as water and other liquids) are removed using a silicone-based chemical filter/bath. In one embodiment, a silicone-based chemical filter includes a membrane having a cross-linked silicone that is a reaction product of an olefin and a polyhydrosiloxane. For example, sulfur contaminants in air may be removed by passing the air through the membrane before the air enters a data center or other facility housing computer systems. In another embodiment, a silicone-based chemical bath includes a housing having an inlet port, an outlet port, and a chamber containing a silicone oil. For example, sulfur contaminants in air may be removed by passing the air through the silicone oil in the chamber before the air enters a data center or other facility housing computer systems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2013
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2015
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Dylan J. Boday, Joseph Kuczynski, Robert E. Meyer, III, Timothy J. Tofil
  • Publication number: 20150013537
    Abstract: A method for manufacturing an immobilized liquid membrane using a water solution and a hexane solution is provided. The method may include producing a plurality of particles having a distribution of sizes from the water solution, covering the plurality of particles in the hexane solution, creating a plurality of microcapsules each comprising a flexible wall encapsulating a respective one of the plurality of particles, and creating a gap membrane between the plurality of microcapsules, the gap membrane being formed by polymerization reaction between a second portion of the water solution and a second portion of the hexane solution. Each of the plurality of microcapsules and the gap membrane are permeable to a first gas of a mixture of gasses comprising the first gas and a second gas, each of the microcapsules and the gap membrane being substantially impermeable to the second gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 13, 2014
    Publication date: January 15, 2015
    Applicant: TRIEXT, LLC
    Inventor: Clyde F. Parrish
  • Patent number: 8926732
    Abstract: The present invention provides gels, solutions, films, membranes, compositions, and other materials containing polymerized and/or non-polymerized room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). These materials are useful in catalysis, gas separation and as antistatic agents. The RTILs are preferably imidazolium-based RTILs which are optionally substituted, such as with one or more hydroxyl groups. Optionally, the materials of the present invention are composite materials comprising both polymerized and non-polymerized RTILs. The RTIL polymer is formed from polymerized RTIL cations typically synthesized as monomers and polymerized in the presence of the non-polymerized RTIL cations to provide a solid composite material. The non-polymerized RTIL cations are not covalently bound to the cationic polymer but remain as free cations within the composite material able to associate with charged subunits of the polymer. These composite materials are useful in catalysis, gas separation, and antistatic applications.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 23, 2010
    Date of Patent: January 6, 2015
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Colorado, a Body Corporate
    Inventors: Jason E. Bara, Trevor K. Carlisle, Evan S. Hatakeyama, Douglas L. Gin, Richard D. Noble, Robert L. Kerr, Andrew L. LaFrate
  • Patent number: 8906135
    Abstract: A method for separating a target gas from a gaseous mixture using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids is presented. Industrial effluent streams may be cleaned by removing carbon dioxide from the stream by contacting the effluent stream with a 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquid compound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 9, 2014
    Assignee: U.S. Department of Energy
    Inventors: David Luebke, Hunald Nulwala, Chau Tang
  • Patent number: 8845784
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates to a system for carbon dioxide seperation and capture. The system includes a porous metal membrane comprising Ni, Ag, or combinations thereof and having molten carbonate within the pores. A CO2 containing flue gas input stream is separated from a reactant gas input stream by the membrane. The CO2 is removed from the flue gas input stream as it contacts the membrane resulting in a CO2 free flue gas output stream and a CO2 containing reactant gas output stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2014
    Assignee: University of South Carolina
    Inventor: Kevin Huang
  • Publication number: 20140245884
    Abstract: There is provided a process for effecting separation of at least a gaseous permeate-disposed operative material from a gaseous supply material that is being supplied to a gaseous supply material receiving space that is disposed in mass transfer communication with a permeate receiving space through a membrane, the gaseous supply material including an operative material that defines a gaseous supply material-disposed operative material, and the membrane including a gel. The process includes replenishing liquid material that has become depleted from the gel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 7, 2012
    Publication date: September 4, 2014
    Applicant: IMTEX MEMBRANES CORP.
    Inventors: Xianshe Feng, Ian Glenn Towe, Ali Hamza, Juan Carlos Perez
  • Patent number: 8784663
    Abstract: A trap Including: an inlet configured to receive a fluid conveying nanostructures; ionic liquid configured to trap the nanostructures; and an outlet for the fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: Nokia Corporation
    Inventors: Di Wei, Zoran Radivojevic, Markku Antti Kyosti Rouvala, Teuvo Tapani Ryhänen
  • Patent number: 8758490
    Abstract: A method of forming a fluid separation filter for use in a fluid separation device includes aligning a series of fluid separation or drying fibers (102) and fixing them together using a self-adhesive and electrically conductive tape (116) or by weaving copper threads between them. The connected fibers then form a mat and a strip of potting sealant (112) may be added, if required, along the top and bottom of the fibers. The mat may then be rolled to form a bundle of fibers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 24, 2014
    Assignee: Nano-Porous Solutions Limited
    Inventors: John Pearson, Caytlin Green
  • Patent number: 8715392
    Abstract: Disclosed are membranes and methods for making the same, which membranes provide improved permeability, stability, and cost-effective manufacturability, for separating CO2 from gas streams such as flue gas streams. High CO2 permeation flux is achieved by immobilizing an ultra-thin, optionally catalyzed fluid layer onto a meso-porous modification layer on a thin, porous inorganic substrate such as a porous metallic substrate. The CO2-selective liquid fluid blocks non-selective pores, and allows for selective absorption of CO2 from gas mixtures such as flue gas mixtures and subsequent transport to the permeation side of the membrane. Carbon dioxide permeance levels are in the order of 1.0×10?6 mol/(m2sPa) or better. Methods for making such membranes allow commercial scale membrane manufacturing at highly cost-effective rates when compared to conventional commercial-scale CO2 separation processes and equipment for the same and such membranes are operable on an industrial use scale.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: May 6, 2014
    Assignee: Battelle Memorial Institute
    Inventor: Wei Liu
  • Patent number: 8673067
    Abstract: Provided herein are immobilized liquid membranes for gas separation, methods of preparing such membranes and uses thereof. In one example, the immobilized membrane includes a porous metallic host matrix and an immobilized liquid fluid (such as a silicone oil) that is immobilized within one or more pores included within the porous metallic host matrix. The immobilized liquid membrane is capable of selective permeation of one type of molecule (such as oxygen) over another type of molecule (such as water). In some examples, the selective membrane is incorporated into a device to supply oxygen from ambient air to the device for electrochemical reactions, and at the same time, to block water penetration and electrolyte loss from the device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 18, 2014
    Assignee: Battelle Memorial Institute
    Inventors: Wei Liu, Nathan L. Canfield, Jian Zhang, Xiaohong Shari Li, Jiguang Zhang
  • Patent number: 8435327
    Abstract: A carbon dioxide permeable membrane is described. In some embodiments, the membrane includes a body having a first side and an opposite second side; a plurality of first regions formed from a molten carbonate having a temperature of about 400 degrees Celsius to about 1200 degrees Celsius, the plurality of first regions forming a portion of the body and the plurality of first regions extending from the first side of the body to the second side of the body; a plurality of second regions formed from an oxygen conductive solid oxide, the plurality of second regions combining with the plurality of first regions to form the body and the plurality of second regions extending from the first side of the body to the second side of the body; and the body is configured to allow carbon dioxide to pass from the first side to the second side.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 7, 2013
    Assignee: The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
    Inventors: Klaus S. Lackner, Alan C. West, Jennifer L. Wade
  • Patent number: 8394180
    Abstract: A method of absorbing gases into a liquid comprising providing a stream of at least one desirable gas and at least one undesirable gas, exposing the gas stream to a liquid, so that the liquid absorbs more of the desirable gas than the undesirable gas, and releasing the liquid and gas mixture into an underground formation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 12, 2013
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Zaida Diaz, Raymond Nicholas French, Dean Chien Wang, Geoffrey Matthew Warren
  • Publication number: 20120186446
    Abstract: The present invention provides gels, solutions, films, membranes, compositions, and other materials containing polymerized and/or non-polymerized room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). These materials are useful in catalysis, gas separation and as antistatic agents. The RTILs are preferably imidazolium-based RTILs which are optionally substituted, such as with one or more hydroxyl groups. Optionally, the materials of the present invention are composite materials comprising both polymerized and non-polymerized RTILs. The RTIL polymer is formed from polymerized RTIL cations typically synthesized as monomers and polymerized in the presence of the non-polymerized RTIL cations to provide a solid composite material. The non-polymerized RTIL cations are not covalently bound to the cationic polymer but remain as free cations within the composite material able to associate with charged subunits of the polymer. These composite materials are useful in catalysis, gas separation, and antistatic applications.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 23, 2010
    Publication date: July 26, 2012
    Applicant: The Regents of the University of Colorado, a body corporate
    Inventors: Jason Bara, Trevor K. Carlisle, Evan S. Hatakeyama, Douglas L. Gin, Richard D. Noble, Robert L. Kerr, Andrew L. LaFrate
  • Patent number: 8163065
    Abstract: A carbon dioxide permeable membrane is described. In some embodiments, the membrane includes a body having a first side and an opposite second side; a plurality of first regions formed from a molten carbonate having a temperature of about 400 degrees Celsius to about 1200 degrees Celsius, the plurality of first regions forming a portion of the body and the plurality of first regions extending from the first side of the body to the second side of the body; a plurality of second regions formed from an oxygen conductive solid oxide, the plurality of second regions combining with the plurality of first regions to form the body and the plurality of second regions extending from the first side of the body to the second side of the body; and the body is configured to allow carbon dioxide to pass from the first side to the second side.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2012
    Assignee: The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
    Inventors: Klaus S. Lackner, Alan C. West, Jennifer L. Wade
  • Patent number: 7909911
    Abstract: A carbon dioxide permeable membrane is described. In some embodiments, the membrane includes a body having a first side and an opposite second side; a plurality of first regions formed from a molten carbonate having a temperature of about 400 degrees Celsius to about 1200 degrees Celsius, the plurality of first regions forming a portion of the body and the plurality of first regions extending from the first side of the body to the second side of the body; a plurality of second regions formed from an oxygen conductive solid oxide, the plurality of second regions combining with the plurality of first regions to form the body and the plurality of second regions extending from the first side of the body to the second side of the body; and the body is configured to allow carbon dioxide to pass from the first side to the second side.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 22, 2011
    Assignee: The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
    Inventors: Klaus S. Lackner, Alan C. West, Jennifer L. Wade
  • Patent number: 7850764
    Abstract: Generally, the present invention provides a method and apparatus for removing a vapor phase contaminant from a gas stream, thereby reducing the concentration of the vapor phase contaminant in the gas stream. In one embodiment, the present invention provides a method for removing a vapor phase contaminant from a gas stream, comprising contacting a gas stream comprising a vapor phase contaminant with a first side of a membrane; sorbing the vapor phase contaminant using the membrane; reacting the vapor phase contaminant into an reacted form of the vapor phase contaminant; transporting the reacted form of the vapor phase contaminant through the membrane to a second side of the membrane; contacting the second side of the membrane with a liquid; and dissolving the reacted form of the vapor phase contaminant into the liquid. Methods for making a membrane comprising a metal for use in the present invention is also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 14, 2010
    Assignee: Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.
    Inventor: David W. DeBerry
  • Publication number: 20100116129
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are provided for absorbing acid gases from a synthesis gas prior to combustion. In one embodiment, a vessel is provided for receiving a synthesis gas and a physical solvent. The vessel includes one or more membrane contactors that provide an interface for physical absorption of one or more acid gases from the synthesis gas into the physical solvent.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 10, 2008
    Publication date: May 13, 2010
    Applicant: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Jennifer Lynn Molaison
  • Publication number: 20090301297
    Abstract: Ionic liquids can be immobilized in a membrane by, for example, bonding to a support such as a matrix, or by inclusion within a gel. Immobilized ionic liquids can be used in a number of applications, such as separation of carbon dioxide or other gases from gas streams. Membranes can be included in electrochemical cells. For example, a membrane can contain sufficient immobilized ionic liquid to reduce ionic current density of at least one of protons and hydroxyl ions, relative to carbon-containing ionic current density. A gas stream containing carbon dioxide can be introduced on a cathode side, while a source of hydrogen gas can be introduced on the anode side of the membrane. Operation of an electrochemical cell with such a membrane can separate the carbon dioxide from the gas stream and provide it at a separate outlet.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 10, 2008
    Publication date: December 10, 2009
    Inventor: Karl Anthony Littau
  • Patent number: 7625427
    Abstract: Carbon dioxide is separated from a gas stream using a supported carrier liquid membrane having a selected concentration of carrier species, the method being especially suitable for use in anaesthesia under conditions of periodic flow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 2003
    Date of Patent: December 1, 2009
    Assignee: Molecular Products Limited
    Inventors: Michael John Clarke, Ian Hallas
  • Publication number: 20090249949
    Abstract: The invention relates to methods, systems and devices for mitigation of bubbles in a micro-fluidic environment. For example, the invention relates to methods, systems and devices for mitigation of bubbles from reagents, solvents, formulations and for improving chemical reactions in micro-fluidic systems, such as for fluorescence detection and polynucleotide sequencing.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 4, 2009
    Publication date: October 8, 2009
    Applicant: Helicos BioSciences Corporation
    Inventors: John Kepler, Alexander Watson
  • Publication number: 20090241773
    Abstract: The invention provides a process and system for regenerating a solvent used to remove carbon dioxide from feed gases, such as natural gas and synthesis gas. The invention employs one or more hydraulic turbochargers to transfer energy from a higher energy solvent stream to a lower energy solvent stream. This provides for a significant reduction in operating expenses.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 26, 2008
    Publication date: October 1, 2009
    Inventors: William J. Lechnick, Nagaraju Palla, Paul A. Sechrist, Lamar A. Davis, Michael R. Van de Cotte
  • Publication number: 20090156875
    Abstract: A methane separation method of the present invention at least includes: mixing the biogas and an absorbing liquid that absorbs carbon dioxide in a mixer so as to form a mixed fluid of a gas-liquid mixed phase; introducing the mixed fluid into a first gas/liquid separator so as to separate the mixed fluid through gas/liquid separation into methane and a CO2-absorbed liquid formed due to an absorption of the carbon dioxide by the absorbing liquid; recovering methane separated in the first gas/liquid separator; and supplying the CO2-absorbed liquid through a supply port of a membrane module comprised of a container and a plurality of hollow fiber permeable membranes built therein to inside of the membranes so as to make the CO2-absorbed liquid permeate the permeable membranes, and lowering a pressure outside the permeable membranes to a level lower than that inside the permeable membranes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 4, 2007
    Publication date: June 18, 2009
    Inventors: Takafumi Tomioka, Toshiyuki Abe, Toru Sakai, Hiroshi Mano, Kazuhiro Okabe
  • Patent number: 7318854
    Abstract: A system and method for separation of a gas, e.g., carbon dioxide, from a gaseous mixture using a hollow fiber membrane module. The module contains an absorbent solution that is effective in absorbing the gas for an extended period, e.g., eight hours, without regeneration or replacement. The absorbent solution is then regenerated by passing a sweep gas through the hollow fibers in the module. The separation system is particularly useful for fuel cell and battery applications.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 2004
    Date of Patent: January 15, 2008
    Assignee: New Jersey Institute of Technology
    Inventor: Kamalesh K. Sirkar
  • Patent number: 6958085
    Abstract: An immobilized liquid membrane has a substrate. A plurality of capsules is disposed on the substrate. Each of the capsules is permeable to a first gas of a mixture of gasses comprising the first gas and a second gas. Each of the capsules is substantially impermeable to the second gas. A liquid is disposed in each of the capsules that is permeable to the first gas and substantially impermeable to the second gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 2003
    Date of Patent: October 25, 2005
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventor: Clyde F. Parrish
  • Patent number: 6890372
    Abstract: A denuder assembly is adapted for the collection and removal of a gaseous analyte from a sample gas. The denuder includes a housing including an internal cavity, a sample gas inlet fluidly coupled with a sample gas source, a denuder liquid inlet fluidly coupled with a denuder liquid source, a barrier sheet extending across the internal cavity and separating the internal cavity into a liquid reservoir and a gas flow-through channel fluidly coupled with and downstream of the sample gas inlet, and a denuder liquid disposed in the liquid reservoir and permeating the barrier sheet to coat the gas-channel surface of the barrier sheet thereby allowing the denuder liquid on the gas-channel surface to contact the sample gas flowing within the gas flow-through channel and allowing the analyte to diffuse through the barrier sheet into the liquid reservoir.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2005
    Assignee: Dionex Corporation
    Inventors: Purnendu K. Dasgupta, Kavin J. Morris, Jianzhong Li
  • Patent number: 6800118
    Abstract: A gas/liquid separation element is provided comprising: a frame having an opening therein; waterproof/moisture permeable sheets affixed to both sides thereof so as to cover the opening, whereby the frame and waterproof/moisture permeable sheets define a liquid flow channel; a plurality of ribs arranged over at least the front face of waterproof/moisture permeable sheets and extending between two opposite sides of the frame; and a liquid inlet/outlet portion for liquid feed or liquid outlet, provided at one or more locations in a portion of the frame. Also provided are gas/liquid separators and separation units for use in gas/liquid separation applications such as humidifiers and dehumidifiers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 5, 2004
    Assignee: Gore Enterprise Holdings, Inc.
    Inventors: Ryo Kusunose, Takushi Yokota, Kojiro Nishi
  • Patent number: 6666906
    Abstract: Potassium or other alkali metal formate solution is used to absorb moisture from gas through a membrane. The membrane may be supported on permeable tubes, and the potassium or other alkali metal formate may be regenerated for reuse, preferably by a cavitation regenerator. The potassium or other alkali metal formate should be present as a 40-80% solution, most preferably 70-76%. The process is especially useful for the dehydration of natural gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 23, 2003
    Assignee: Clearwater International, L.L.C.
    Inventor: John H. Hallman
  • Patent number: 6653012
    Abstract: A humidifier having a plurality of water-permeable hollow fiber membranes placed along the lengthwise direction of a housing accommodated within the housing in which gases each having a different moisture content flow inside and outside said hollow fiber membranes to carry out moisture exchange whereby the dry air having a low moisture content is humidified is disclosed. The said humidifier (1) comprises a gas inlet formed on an end of the lengthwise direction of the housing, (2) has a construction for generating a turbulent flow provided on the inner surface of said housing, or (3) has a construction for generating a turbulent flow provided within the hollow fiber membranes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 19, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 25, 2003
    Assignee: Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Motohiro Suzuki, Toshikatsu Katagiri, Yoshio Kusano, Hiroshi Shimanuki
  • Patent number: 6635103
    Abstract: A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from a gas mixture is described in which a dendrimer selective for carbon dioxide is present in an immobilized liquid membrane, the dendrimer being either in pure form or optionally with at least one solvent, such as but not limited to glycerol, polyethylene glycol, water, refrigerated methanol, NMP, or glycerol carbonate, the latter also having selective carbon dioxide properties as will be described below. In another embodiment, a dendrimer selective for carbon dioxide and capable of forming a film may be used in the method as the membrane itself, optionally with at least one solvent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2003
    Assignee: New Jersey Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Kamalesh K. Sirkar, A. Sarma Kovvali, Hua Chen
  • Patent number: 6485650
    Abstract: The invention is related to a method for separating enantiomers in a supported liquid membrane module by contacting the liquid membrane which may contain a carrier and a phase transfer agent with a feed fluid containing a racemic mixture whereby an enantiomer is transported into the liquid membrane and thereafter contacting the liquid membrane with a sweep fluid whereby an enantiomer is transported from the liquid membrane into the sweep fluid. The enantiomer is then recovered from the sweep fluid. The liquid membrane module is constructed in such a way that the feed fluid and the sweep fluid are adjacent to, but on opposite sides of, the liquid membrane and the feed and sweep fluids have a substantially continuous interfacial contact along the length of the liquid membrane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2002
    Assignee: Facilichem, Inc.
    Inventor: Abhoyjit Singh Bhown
  • Patent number: 6228145
    Abstract: A method for removing and preventing discharge into the atmosphere of carbon dioxide from combustion gases and natural gas from installations for production of oil and/or gas, wherein the combustion gas is passed to an absorber containing a solvent, where carbon dioxide is absorbed in the solvent, and the thereby purified combustion gas, largely free of carbon dioxide, is released into the atmosphere, where the CO2 rich solvent is passed to a desorber where CO2 is removed from the solvent, and the thereby largely CO2-free solvent is recycled to the absorber, and the separated CO2 gas is passed to a compression stage for compression and utilization and/or disposal in a suitable manner, where membrane gas/liquid contactors are employed in both the absorber and the desorber, and that an external stripping steam is supplied to the desorber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 8, 2001
    Assignee: Kvaerner ASA
    Inventors: Olav Falk-Pedersen, Henrik Dannström
  • Patent number: 6156096
    Abstract: A method of separating at least one gaseous component from a feed comprising a mixture of gases using a liquid membrane barrier and a sweep fluid is disclosed that includes selecting a sweep gas or a sweep liquid membrane and providing a treatment zone in a treatment chamber having a plurality of hydrophobic microporous hollow fibers, the treatment chamber having opposed end walls with ports including feed and membrane inlets and a sweep outlet at one end and a sweep inlet and a feed and membrane outlets at the opposed end and a plurality of hydrophobic elongated microporous hollow fibers extending between the feed and sweep inlet ports and feed and sweep outlet ports respectively and arranged for counter-current flow of feed gas and sweep fluids therethrough.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2000
    Assignee: Applied Membrane Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Kamalesh K. Sirkar
  • Patent number: 6139603
    Abstract: Method for recovering oxygen from a medium containing O.sub.2 using polynitrogenated compounds that have five coordinating functions which are capable of binding a metal atom, particularly a cobalt atom. In the recovery method, oxygen is first absorbed by the metal complex and then desorbed from the complex and recovered in an appropriate vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2000
    Assignee: L'Air Liquide, Societe Anonyme pour l'Etude et l'Exploitation des Procedes Georges Claude
    Inventors: Brigitte Boisselier-Cocolios, Roger Guilard, Christophe Jean, Laurent Taurin
  • Patent number: 6083297
    Abstract: The invention relates to a gas dehydration membrane comprising a membrane having pores communicating between a first and an opposing second surface of the membrane and further having an average pore diameter on the first surface of the membrane which is about 10 to 1000 times smaller than that on the opposing second surface of the membrane. The invention further relates to a process for dehydrating a gaseous feedstock comprising passing the gaseous feedstock over a membrane characterized by high surface porosity wherein pore openings on a first surface thereof are at least 10 to 1000 times smaller than pore openings on an opposing surface thereof and wherein from about 2% to about 30% of the pore volume is occupied by a humectant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 4, 2000
    Assignee: Whatman, Inc.
    Inventors: Ronald J. Valus, Randall W. Nichols, James C. Davis
  • Patent number: 6048383
    Abstract: A mass transfer composite membrane for use with a fuel cell power plant includes a transfer medium core between opposed, rigid, porous support sheets. An inlet surface of the composite membrane is positioned in contact with an oxidant inlet stream of a fuel cell power plant, and an opposed exhaust surface of the composite membrane is positioned in contact with an exhaust stream exiting the fuel cell power plant to recover mass such as water from the exhaust stream and transfer it into the oxidant inlet stream entering the fuel cell. The transfer medium core may comprise any of a variety of materials for sorbing a fluid substance consisting of polar molecules such as water molecules from a fluid stream consisting of polar and non-polar molecules. A preferred transfer medium core is an ionomeric membrane such as a water saturated polyfluorosulfonic acid ionomer membrane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 11, 2000
    Assignee: International Fuel Cells, L.L.C.
    Inventors: Richard D. Breault, Thomas F. Fuller, Leslie L. Van Dine
  • Patent number: 5954858
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method for treating volatile hazardous air pollutant (VHAP) and volatile organic compound (VOC) waste products from gas streams. The system disclosed herein employs microporous hydrophobic membranes to remove VHAPs/VOCs from a gas stream into an oleophilic stripping fluid. The stripping fluid is directed into a separate biomembrane reactor wherein the VHAPs/VOCs are transferred across a second microporous hydrophobic membrane into an aqueous nutrient medium, where the extracted VHAPs/VOCs are degraded by microorganisms residing on the surface of the membrane. VHAPs/VOCs are degraded to carbon dioxide, water, and cell debris. The disclosed system uncouples biotreatment from waste generation, such that operation of the biotreatment unit can be continuous and optimized independently of plant work schedules or fluctuations in pollutant concentrations entering the system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 21, 1999
    Assignee: North Carolina State University
    Inventors: Steven William Peretti, Stuart Marc Thomas, Robert Donald Shepherd, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5876486
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method and to an apparatus for continuously removing metabolically produced carbon dioxide from respired air, such as the air found in life support systems or cabin circulating systems, using two sets of hollow fibers disposed in a flowing, carbon dioxide-selective liquid membrane. The carbon dioxide-containing respired air flows through the first set of hollow fibers and the second set of hollow fibers serves to carry away the permeate stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 2, 1999
    Assignee: Dornier GmbH
    Inventors: Juergen Steinwandel, Walter Jehle, Burkhard Wagner, Theodor Staneff
  • Patent number: 5749941
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for the absorption of one or more gaseous components from a gas phase, in that the gas phase with the component(s) to be absorbed present therein is brought into contact with a liquid phase, wherein the gas phase and the liquid phase are separated by a hydrophobic membrane of a material other than polytetrafluoroethene, wherein the liquid phase comprises water and a water-miscible and/or water-soluble absorbent, and wherein the liquid phase does not give rise to any leakage from the membrane or is effective in preventing or counteracting leakage from the membrane. According to a first preferred aspect, the liquid phase comprises waterand a water-miscible and/or water-soluble organic absorbent, wherein the surface tension at 20.degree. C. has been brought to at least 60.times.10.sup.-3 N/m by adding a water-soluble salt.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 12, 1998
    Assignee: Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast-Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek TNO
    Inventors: Albert Edward Jansen, Paul Hubert Maria Feron
  • Patent number: 5445669
    Abstract: A membrane for the separation of carbon dioxide is disclosed which includes a hydrogel film of a cross-linked, vinyl alcohol/acrylic acid salt copolymer impregnated with an aqueous carrier solution containing a carbon dioxide carrier dissolved therein. A composition containing a solvent, an alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonates, and a polydentate ligand capable of forming a complex with an alkali metal ion is suitably used as the carrier solution. This composition may also be used for the preparation of a liquid film of a carbon dioxide separation membrane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 9, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 29, 1995
    Assignees: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Director-General of Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth
    Inventors: Makoto Nakabayashi, Kazuhiro Okabe, Takayuki Mishima, Hiroshi Mano, Kenji Haraya
  • Patent number: 5395426
    Abstract: A device and method for removing, concentrating and analyzing airborne organic compounds. The device includes a nonporous membrane which contains a collection media. The liquid collection media typically includes a component which has a molecular weight that is too large to pass through transport corridors in the nonporous membrane and a component which has a molecular weight which is sufficiently small enough to pass through the transport corridors in the nonporous membrane and thereby forming a thin film on the exterior surface of the device. The collection media can consist of only components too large to pass through the membrane transport corridors. Organic contaminants are trapped in the thin film on the exterior surface of the device or the membrane and transported by concentration gradient diffusion forces into the bulk of the collection media within the nonporous membrane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 1993
    Date of Patent: March 7, 1995
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Interior
    Inventors: James N. Huckins, Jimmie D. Petty, James A. Zajicek, Virginia L. Gibson
  • Patent number: 5281254
    Abstract: Carbon dioxide and water vapor are continuously removed by a venting membrane system which employs porous membranes and a liquid amine based sorbent, and which has a partial pressure gradient across the porous membranes. The partial pressure gradient induces absorption of carbon dioxide and water vapor from a gaseous stream, transport of the absorbed carbon dioxide through the pores of the membrane or to a second membrane, and desorption of the absorbed carbon dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 1992
    Date of Patent: January 25, 1994
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventors: Philip J. Birbara, Timothy A. Nalette