Abstract: Disclosed is a novel surfactant fluid and an oil recovery method using the fluid for recovering oil from subterranean formations thereof by surfactant waterflooding process. The fluid comprises an alkylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate or an alkylarylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate and a stabilizing agent comprising a synergistic mixture of an alkanol and an alkyl phenol. The presence of the mixture of alkanol and phenol improves the phase stability of the fluid, increases the viscosity of the surfactant fluid, and reduces the adsorption of surfactant by the formation.
Abstract: Disclosed is a method for treating subterranean earth formations containing appreciable amounts of water-sensitive clays, including petroleum-containing formations, in order to render the clay content of the formation less sensitive to swelling and other phenomena which cause reductions in permeability of the earth formation when the clay content is contacted with relatively fresh water. The method involves contacting the clay with an aqueous solution of a chelated polyvalent metal ion, specifically chelated transition metal ions, including magnesium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, ruthenium, rhodium, silver, cadmium, iridium, platinum, gold, mercury and lead.
Abstract: Disclosed is a petroleum recovery method useful for recovering petroleum from subterranean formations containing water having high salinity and/or divalent ion concentration, employing an aqueous surfactant-containing fluid which is designed to effect low surface tension displacement of petroleum in the formation in the presence of high salinity water. The improvement comprises injecting the total desired volume of surfactant in the form of a plurality of relatively small slugs of surfactant fluid, and alternatingly injecting similarly small pore volume slugs of fluid comprising fresh water, e.g. salinities less than 10,000 parts per million and preferably less than 1000 parts per million total dissolved solids. The surfactant fluid comprises water containing at least one surfactant and up to 5.0 volume percent hydrocarbon, said hydrocarbon optionally containing an oil soluble silicone compound dissolved therein. The total pore volume of surfactant-containing fluid injected is ordinarily from 0.01 to 1.
Abstract: A process for recovering particulate carbon from the effluent gas stream from a partial oxidation synthesis gas generator by scrubbing the effluent gas with water in a scrubbing zone to form a carbon-water dispersion, mixing said dispersion in mixing and separating zones with a light liquid hydrocarbon fuel fraction extractant to produce a clarified water layer and a carbon-liquid hydrocarbon fuel dispersion, separating and recycling said clarified water to said scrubbing zone; separating said carbon light liquid hydrocarbon fuel dispersion and introducing same into a centrifugal separation zone; separately withdrawing from said centrifugal separation zone a thick stream of carbon-liquid hydrocarbon fuel dispersion and a separate thin stream of carbon-liquid hydrocarbon fuel dispersion; degasifying said clean centrifugal stream and introducing said thin centrifugal stream into said mixing and separating zone as a portion of said light liquid hydrocarbon fuel extractant, introducing said thick stream of carbon
Abstract: A process for recovering particulate carbon from the effluent gas stream from a partial oxidation synthesis-gas generator by scrubbing the effluent gas with water in a scrubbing zone to form a carbon-water dispersion, by mixing said dispersion with a liquid organic extractant comprising a mixture of the liquid organic by-products from the oxo or oxyl process so as to produce a clarified water layer and a carbon-extractant dispersion, by separating and recycling said clarified water to said scrubbing zone, and by introducing part or all of said carbon-extractant dispersion to said gas generator as at least a portion of the generator feedstock.
Abstract: A process for recovering particulate carbon from the effluent gas stream from a partial oxidation synthesis gas generator by scrubbing the effluent gas with water in a scrubbing zone to form a carbon-water dispersion, by mixing said dispersion in a mixing zone with liquid organic extractant comprising a mixture of the liquid organic by-products from the oxo or oxyl process, optionally in admixture with a light liquid-hydrocarbon fuel fraction, to produce a clarified water layer and a carbon-extractant dispersion, by separating and recycling said clarified water to said scrubbing zone, by separating said carbon-extractant dispersion and introducing same into a fractional-distillation zone in admixture with fresh liquid-hydrocarbon fuel feedstock, by recycling a light fraction from said distillation zone to said mixing zone as said liquid organic extractant, and by introducing a pumpable bottoms carbon slurry from said distillation zone into said synthesis-gas generator as at least a portion of the fuel.
Abstract: A method for the initiation of an in-situ combustion in an underground formation by injecting into the formation an ignition mixture containing an olefinic hydrocarbon or an unsaturated fatty acid, an organic peroxide and a heavy metal salt.
Abstract: The effluent streams from utility stack gases containing nitric oxides and sulfur dioxide are sequentially oxidized, absorbed with effluent spent alkylation acid, the unabsorbed remaining gases contacted with carbon monoxide from alkylation units in refinery cracking and other industrial plants to form sulfur, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, the carbon dioxide and nitrogen being vented, the sulfur oxidized to sulfur trioxide and contacting aqueous sulfuric acid therewith to effect concentration of said acid and suitability for recycle to an alkylation unit; the absorbate containing spent alkylation acid sequentially treated with a burning, oxidation, aqueous dilution and carbon monoxide treatment steps to form sulfuric acid for recycle to an alkylation unit and venting formed carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
Abstract: This is a process and apparatus for continuously separating a liquid mixture comprising particulate carbon produced by the partial oxidation of a hydrocarbonaceous fuel, water, and liquid organic extractant into two separate immiscible streams i.e. a stream of particulate carbon-liquid organic extractant dispersion and a separate stream of clarified water. The subject apparatus may be referred to as a carbon decanter and comprises a closed pressure vessel whose horizontal cross-section is circular. Thus, the decanter may be shaped like a vertical cylinder or may be spherical shaped with discharge ports in the top and bottom.
Abstract: A process for deoiling and dewatering refinery sludges in which sludges, optionally mixed with a diluent oil such as recycle oil recovered in the process, are contacted in a heating zone with steam or superheated steam to effect separation of the sludges into dry, oil-free, free-flowing solids and an oil-water vapor phase which on condensation yields a mixture of oil and water. The oil recovered from this mixture is suitable for a variety of purposes such as for cracking stock, etc. and the water recovered exhibits a reduced Chemical Oxygen Demand. The dry, free flowing solids recovered from the heating zone are useful for a wide variety of applications, such as for land fill.
Abstract: A pivoted pointer or stylus is mounted for actuation by reciprocatory plunger action. It has a stop associated with the plunger to hold the stylus locked in a neutral position until the plunger is actuated. The stylus has a cam action surface for cooperating with another part of the stop after the stop has moved to release the stylus. The cam action causes pivotal movement of the stylus to indicate an event.
October 1, 1975
Date of Patent:
March 29, 1977
Vernon M. Barnes, Jr., Norman E. Flournoy, Eugene B. Horton, Jr.
Abstract: This invention relates to a process for catalytically cracking hydrocarbon feedstocks containing a contaminant deleterious to the process and catalyst and to a method for removing the contaminant from a crystalline aluminosilicate cracking catalyst used in the process, where the contaminant is vanadium, or vanadium and nickel, and optionally iron.
Abstract: A method of preparing carboxylic acids is provided by contacting an ammonium, Group IA or Group IIA metal salt of a nitroketone in an aqueous medium. The method is preferably undertaken in the presence of an acidic mineral acid salt.
Abstract: This invention concerns using mineral acid treatment for the regeneration of carbonylation and hydroformylation catalysts consisting of dispersions of ligand-stabilized palladium(II) and platinum(II) halide complexes in quaternary ammonium, phosphonium and arsonium salts of trihalostannate(II) and trihalogermanate(II).
Abstract: This invention concerns chlorinating processes for the regeneration of carbonylation and hydroformylation catalysts consisting of dispersions of ligand-stabilized palladium(II) and platinum(II) halide complexes in quaternary ammonium, phosphonium and arsonium salts of trihalostannate(II) and trihalogermanate(II).
Abstract: A process for producing secondary alcohols from n-paraffins wherein a portion of the n-paraffin is converted to a borate ester along with oxygenated by-products and the borate ester is separated and hydrolyzed to a secondary alcohol. The mixtures of C.sub.6 to C.sub.30 n-paraffin and n-paraffin by-products are converted to substantially pure n-paraffin by catalytically hydrogenating the mixture at a temperature of from about 600.degree. to 750.degree. F. in the presence of a Group VIII metal on alumina catalyst where the catalyst contains from about 0.05 to 2.0 weight percent of an alkali metal oxide or alkaline earth metal oxide or thallous oxide. The catalyst can additionally contain a Group VIB or VIIB metal.
January 26, 1976
Date of Patent:
March 22, 1977
Robert M. Suggitt, Walter C. Gates, Jr.
Abstract: Disclosed is a controlled two stage process for converting 1-olefins to 1,2-diacetoxyalkanes. In the first stage, the olefins are oxidized to peroxides by preaerating the olefin with oxygen until the measured peroxide value has reached its maximum, then decreasing this value by 20 to 40%. In the second stage, the peroxides are decomposed by adding acetic acid and heating to a temperature of 120.degree. C. in the absence of catalyst.
Abstract: The invention relates to a method and apparatus for reducing the amount of undesirable products of combustion which are discharged to the atmosphere from an internal combustion engine during operation of the latter. The apparatus comprises, means for segregating a portion of an exhaust gas stream from the engine's exhaust discharge manifold or valve. The hot exhaust gas segment is cooled, combined with air to form a preliminary mixture, and delivered to the engine's combustion chambers. A predetermined volume of fuel is injected into the combustion chamber whereby to intermix with a portion of the preliminary mixture in such a manner that at least a part of the latter becomes combustible.The apparatus for achieving the method comprises, means for recycling said segment of said hot exhaust gas. It further comprises means for controllably regulating the flow of the latter in response to the load variations imposed on the engine.
Abstract: The invention disclosed herein includes methods and apparatus for determining the resistivity and dielectric constant of earth materials in the vicinity of a well borehole. A radio frequency electromagnetic field in the frequency range from 20 to 40 megahertz is generated in a borehole and the total electromagnetic field at two longitudinally spaced locations is detected. Measurements of the relative phase shift in the field between the detector locations and the amplitude of the field at least at one of the detector locations may then be interpreted according to predetermined relationships in terms of the earth formation resistivity and dielectric constant.
October 24, 1974
Date of Patent:
March 15, 1977
Percy T. Cox, Richard A. Meador, Larry W. Thompson