Patents Represented by Attorney, Agent or Law Firm Daryl S. Grzybicki
  • Patent number: 6226346
    Abstract: Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 1, 2001
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: Russell M. Hudyma
  • Patent number: 6206966
    Abstract: A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 27, 2001
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Layton C. Hale, Terry N. Malsbury, Steven R. Patterson
  • Patent number: 6201980
    Abstract: An implantable chemical sensor system for medical applications is described which permits selective recognition of an analyte using an expandable biocompatible sensor, such as a polymer, that undergoes a dimensional change in the presence of the analyte. The expandable polymer is incorporated into an electronic circuit component that changes its properties (e.g., frequency) when the polymer changes dimension. As the circuit changes its characteristics, an external interrogator transmits a signal transdermally to the transducer, and the concentration of the analyte is determined from the measured changes in the circuit. This invention may be used for minimally invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 5, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 13, 2001
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Christopher B. Darrow, Joe H. Satcher, Jr., Stephen M. Lane, Abraham P. Lee, Amy W. Wang
  • Patent number: 6186632
    Abstract: A condenser for use with a ring-field deep ultraviolet or extreme ultraviolet lithography system. A condenser includes a ripple-plate mirror which is illuminated by a collimated beam at grazing incidence. The ripple plate comprises a plate mirror into which is formed a series of channels along an axis of the mirror to produce a series of concave surfaces in an undulating pattern. Light incident along the channels of the mirror is reflected onto a series of cones. The distribution of slopes on the ripple plate leads to a distribution of angles of reflection of the incident beam. This distribution has the form of an arc, with the extremes of the arc given by the greatest slope in the ripple plate. An imaging mirror focuses this distribution to a ring-field arc at the mask plane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 31, 1998
    Date of Patent: February 13, 2001
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Henry N. Chapman, Keith A. Nugent
  • Patent number: 6179611
    Abstract: A hand-held, fiber optic based dental device with optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) sensing capabilities provides a profile of optical scattering as a function of depth in the tissue at the point where the tip of the dental explorer touches the tissue. This system provides information on the internal structure of the dental tissue, which is then used to detect caries and periodontal disease. A series of profiles of optical scattering or tissue microstructure are generated by moving the explorer across the tooth or other tissue. The profiles are combined to form a cross-sectional, or optical coherence tomography (OCT), image.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 30, 2001
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Matthew J. Everett, Billy W. Colston, Jr., Ujwal S. Sathyam, Luiz B. Da Silva
  • Patent number: 6165417
    Abstract: An integrated titer plate-injector head for preparing and storing two-dimensional (2-D) arrays of microdrops and for ejecting part or all of the microdrops and inserting same precisely into 2-D arrays of deposition sites with micrometer precision. The titer plate-injector head includes integrated precision formed nozzles with appropriate hydrophobic surface features and evaporative constraints. A reusable pressure head with a pressure equalizing feature is added to the titer plate to perform simultaneous precision sample ejection. The titer plate-injector head may be utilized in various applications including capillary electrophoresis, chemical flow injection analysis, microsample array preparation, etc.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2000
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: Stefan P. Swierkowski
  • Patent number: 6158244
    Abstract: Optical quality glass having a selected refractive index is produced by a two stage drying process. A gel is produced using sol-gel chemistry techniques and first dried by controlled evaporation until the gel volume reaches a pre-selected value. This pre-selected volume determines the density and refractive index of the finally dried gel. The gel is refilled with solvent in a saturated vapor environment, and then dried again by supercritical extraction of the solvent to form a glass. The glass has a refractive index less than the full density of glass, and the range of achievable refractive indices depends on the composition of the glass. Glasses having different refractive indices chosen from an uninterrupted range of values can be produced from a single precursor solution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 12, 2000
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: John F. Poco, Lawrence W. Hrubesh
  • Patent number: 6150060
    Abstract: A transmission lithography mask that utilizes a transparent substrate or a partially transparent membrane as the active region of the mask. A reflective single layer or multilayer coating is deposited on the membrane surface facing the illumination system. The coating is selectively patterned (removed) to form transmissive (bright) regions. Structural imperfections and defects in the coating have negligible effect on the aerial image of the mask master pattern since the coating is used to reflect radiation out of the entrance pupil of the imaging system. Similarly, structural imperfections in the clear regions of the membrane have little influence on the amplitude or phase of the transmitted electromagnetic fields. Since the mask "discards," rather than absorbs, unwanted radiation, it has reduced optical absorption and reduced thermal loading as compared to conventional designs. For EUV applications, the mask circumvents the phase defect problem, and is independent of the thermal load during exposure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 11, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2000
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: Stephen P. Vernon
  • Patent number: 6142706
    Abstract: A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 7, 2000
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Roger D. Aines, Robin L. Newmark, Kevin G. Knauss
  • Patent number: 6139716
    Abstract: A wet chemical process for etching submicron patterned holes in thin metal layers using electrochemical etching with the aid of a wetting agent. In this process, the processed wafer to be etched is immersed in a wetting agent, such as methanol, for a few seconds prior to inserting the processed wafer into an electrochemical etching setup, with the wafer maintained horizontal during transfer to maintain a film of methanol covering the patterned areas. The electrochemical etching setup includes a tube which seals the edges of the wafer preventing loss of the methanol. An electrolyte composed of 4:1 water: sulfuric is poured into the tube and the electrolyte replaces the wetting agent in the patterned holes. A working electrode is attached to a metal layer of the wafer, with reference and counter electrodes inserted in the electrolyte with all electrodes connected to a potentiostat. A single pulse on the counter electrode, such as a 100 ms pulse at +10.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2000
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Anthony M. McCarthy, Robert J. Contolini, Vladimir Liberman, Jeffrey Morse
  • Patent number: 6140057
    Abstract: A method is provided for determining a clastogenic signature of a sample of chromosomes by quantifying a frequency of a first type of chromosome aberration present in the sample; quantifying a frequency of a second, different type of chromosome aberration present in the sample; and comparing the frequency of the first type of chromosome aberration to the frequency of the second type of chromosome aberration. A method is also provided for using that clastogenic signature to identify a clastogenic agent or dosage to which the cells were exposed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2000
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: Joe N. Lucas
  • Patent number: 6134300
    Abstract: A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 17, 2000
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: James E. Trebes, Perry M. Bell, Ronald B. Robinson
  • Patent number: 6115128
    Abstract: A small, non-contact optical sensor uses ranges and images to detect its relative position to an object in up to six degrees of freedom. The sensor has three light emitting range detectors which illuminate a target and can be used to determine distance and two tilt angles. A camera located between the three range detectors senses the three remaining degrees of freedom, two translations and one rotation. Various range detectors, with different light sources, e.g. lasers and LEDs, different collection options, and different detection schemes, e.g. diminishing return and time of flight can be used. This sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines, e.g. it can instruct a robot how to adjust automatically to different positions and orientations of a part.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 5, 2000
    Assignee: The Regents of the Univerity of California
    Inventor: Charles S. Vann
  • Patent number: 6096283
    Abstract: An integrated system for destruction of organic waste comprises a hydrolysis step at moderate temperature and pressure, followed by direct chemical oxidation using peroxydisulfate. This system can be used to quantitatively destroy volatile or water-insoluble halogenated organic solvents, contaminated soils and sludges, and the organic component of mixed waste. The hydrolysis step results in a substantially single phase of less volatile, more water soluble hydrolysis products, thus enabling the oxidation step to proceed rapidly and with minimal loss of organic substrate in the off-gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 1, 2000
    Assignee: Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: John F. Cooper, G. Bryan Balazs, Peter Hsu, Patricia R. Lewis, Martyn G. Adamson
  • Patent number: 6096205
    Abstract: A hand portable, field-deployable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) unit and a hand portable, battery-operated unit for development, illumination, and data acquisition of the TLC plates contain many miniaturized features that permit a large number of samples to be processed efficiently. The TLC unit includes a solvent tank, a holder for TLC plates, and a variety of tool chambers for storing TLC plates, solvent, and pipettes. After processing in the TLC unit, a TLC plate is positioned in a collapsible illumination box, where the box and a CCD camera are optically aligned for optimal pixel resolution of the CCD images of the TLC plate. The TLC system includes an improved development chamber for chemical development of TLC plates that prevents solvent overflow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 1, 2000
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Jeffrey S. Haas, Fredrick R. Kelly, John F. Bushman, Michael H. Wiefel, Wayne A. Jensen
  • Patent number: 6078425
    Abstract: A durable multilayer mirror includes reflective layers of aluminum and silver and has high reflectance over a broad spectral range from ultraviolet to visible to infrared. An adhesion layer of a nickel and/or chromium alloy or nitride is deposited on an aluminum surface, and a thin layer of silver is then deposited on the adhesion layer. The silver layer is protected by a passivation layer of a nickel and/or chromium alloy or nitride and by one or more durability layers made of metal oxides and typically a first layer of metal nitride. The durability layers may include a composite silicon aluminum nitride and an oxinitride transition layer to improve bonding between nitride and oxide layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 20, 2000
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Jesse D. Wolfe, Norman L. Thomas
  • Patent number: 6014264
    Abstract: Embedded fiducials are provided in optical surfaces and a method for embedding the fiducials. Fiducials, or marks on a surface, are important for optical fabrication and alignment, particularly when individual optical elements are aspheres. Fiducials are used during the course of the polishing process to connect interferometric data, and the equation describing the asphere, to physical points on the optic. By embedding fiducials below the surface of the optic and slightly outside the clear aperture of the optic, the fiducials are not removed by polishing, do not interfere with the polishing process, and do not affect the performance of the finished optic.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 1998
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2000
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: Gary E. Sommargren
  • Patent number: 6014252
    Abstract: An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 1998
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2000
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: David R. Shafer
  • Patent number: 6011646
    Abstract: A buffer-layer located between a substrate and a multilayer for counteracting stress in the multilayer. Depositing a buffer-layer having a stress of sufficient magnitude and opposite in sign reduces or cancels out deformation in the substrate due to the stress in the multilayer. By providing a buffer-layer between the substrate and the multilayer, a tunable, near-zero net stress results, and hence results in little or no deformation of the substrate, such as an optic for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography tool. Buffer-layers have been deposited, for example, between Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films and their associated substrate reducing significantly the stress, wherein the magnitude of the stress is less than 100 MPa and respectively near-normal incidence (5.degree.) reflectance of over 60% is obtained at 13.4 nm and 11.4 nm. The present invention is applicable to crystalline and non-crystalline materials, and can be used at ambient temperatures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 1998
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2000
    Assignee: The Regents of the Unviersity of California
    Inventors: Paul B. Mirkarimi, Claude Montcalm
  • Patent number: 6002202
    Abstract: A thin window that stands off atmospheric pressure is fabricated using photolithographic and wet chemical etching techniques and comprises at least two layers: an etch stop layer and a protective barrier layer. The window structure also comprises a series of support ribs running the width of the window. The windows are typically made of boron-doped silicon and silicon nitride and are useful in instruments such as electron beam guns and x-ray detectors. In an electron beam gun, the window does not impede the electrons and has demonstrated outstanding gun performance and survivability during the gun tube manufacturing process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 14, 1999
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Glenn Allyn Meyer, Dino R. Ciarlo, Booth Richard Myers, Hao-Lin Chen, George Wakalopulos