Patents Represented by Attorney David E. Brook
  • Patent number: 4567110
    Abstract: High-temperature joints formed from metallized ceramics are disclosed wherein the metal coatings on the ceramics are vacuum sputtered thereon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 1981
    Date of Patent: January 28, 1986
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventor: Philip O. Jarvinen
  • Patent number: 4556277
    Abstract: Transparent heat-mirrors are disclosed which are comprised of composite films. These films include a discrete and continuous layer of metallic silver sandwiched between a transparent, outer, protective, anti-reflection layer and a transparent, phase-matching layer. This combination of layers is chosen to provide high solar transmission with minimum loss of thermal radiation. Transparent heat-mirrors are useful in the collection and trapping of solar energy, and in other applications where it is desired or necessary to have high infrared reflectivity with high solar transmission.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 5, 1982
    Date of Patent: December 3, 1985
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: John C. C. Fan, Frank J. Bachner
  • Patent number: 4546500
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for producing a vessel-equivalent prosthesis is described. A contractile agent such as fibroblast cells, smooth muscle cells or platelets is incorporated into a collagen lattice and contracts the lattice axially around an inner core. After the structure has set, additional layers may be formed in an ordered manner depending on the intended function of the prosthesis. Alternatively, all the layers may be formed concurrently. A plastic mesh sleeve is sandwiched between layers or embedded within the smooth muscle cell layer to reinforce the structure and provide sufficient elasticity to withstand intravascular pressure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 1982
    Date of Patent: October 15, 1985
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventor: Eugene Bell
  • Patent number: 4535058
    Abstract: Experiments designed to define the differences between an oncogene isolated from human bladder cancer cells and its corresponding proto-oncogene are described herein. By a series of in vitro recombinations, the difference was initially isolated to a 350 kb segment of DNA; sequencing defined the difference as a change in the Gly.sup.12 codon causing the p21 protein of the oncogene to contain valine at a location where the p21 protein of the proto-oncogene contained glycine. Assays for detecting carcinogenesis based on such differences are also described. In one type of assay, a restriction enzyme specific for either the altered or non-altered DNA segment of the genes are employed to detect carcinogenesis. In another type of assay, seralogical reagents, such as antibody specific for either p21 protein expressed from the proto-oncogene or oncogene, or a common site therein, are described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 1982
    Date of Patent: August 13, 1985
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Robert A. Weinberg, Clifford J. Tabin, Scott M. Bradley
  • Patent number: 4532204
    Abstract: A line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity) is disclosed. Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. Mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics, are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 1982
    Date of Patent: July 30, 1985
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Charles L. Crespi, William G. Thilly
  • Patent number: 4522753
    Abstract: A method for preserving the porosity of porous materials is disclosed. In this method, the porous material is subjected to elevated temperature and vacuum conditions to thereby produce a dimensionally-stable, non-collapsible porous material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 1981
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1985
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Ioannis V. Yannas, John F. Burke, Peter J. Stasikelis
  • Patent number: 4518219
    Abstract: A three-dimensional optical waveguide is disclosed. This waveguide comprises a single crystal semiconductor layer grown upon an insulator which has an index of refraction lower than the semiconductor. The semiconductor layer has a thickness which provides confinement of light propagating in the semiconductor layer in the vertical direction. An effective larger index of refraction over a cross-sectional region of the semiconductor layer provides confinement of light in the lateral direction. This lateral confinement is achieved by side walls in the semiconductor layer which extend toward, but fall short of, the insulator layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 1983
    Date of Patent: May 21, 1985
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Frederick J. Leonberger, Ivars Melngailis, Carl O. Bozler, Robert W. McClelland
  • Patent number: 4514581
    Abstract: Improvements in solar cells based upon low cost semiconductors, such as amorphous silicon, are disclosed. The improved solar cells of this invention have ultrathin active semiconductor layers having a thickness between 0.1 t.sub..alpha. and L.sub.m wherein t.sub..alpha. is the solar spectrum absorption length and L.sub.m is the diffusion length for photogenerated minority charge carriers in the active layer. The back surface reflector has a solar spectrum reflectivity of 70% or greater, so that incident energy not absorbed in a direct pass through the active layer is reflected for another pass. The most preferred embodiment of the cells described herein are shaped to have a light-trapping structure so that light makes mulitple passes through the thin semiconductor layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 1982
    Date of Patent: April 30, 1985
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: John C. C. Fan, Carl O. Bozler
  • Patent number: 4505266
    Abstract: This invention relates to the introduction of viable cells into a fibrous lattice by surgical, force-utilizing, or other manipulative techniques, all of which are referred to herein as "seeding." One embodiment comprises an autografting technique which involves intact tissue. Other embodiments which involve the distribution of an aqueous suspension of cells comprise centrifugal, spraying, pipetting and syringe emplacement. Each cell that survives the seeding process may reproduce into a colony of cells which grow until they reach confluence, thereby creating a uniform layer or volume of tissue. By proper placement of cells capable of generating such colonies, the period of recovery of a wound may be drastically reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 1984
    Date of Patent: March 19, 1985
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Ioannis V. Yannas, John F. Burke
  • Patent number: 4496539
    Abstract: This invention discloses a method of using galactose-binding lectins, such as Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA.sub.I), to kill cancer cells. RCA.sub.I has been found to severely weaken certain types of cancer cells, such as bladder carcinoma. This weakening can kill substantial numbers of cancer cells. In addition, it is possible to attach RCA.sub.I to other substances which impose stress on cells, such as cytotoxic drugs or enzymes that catalyze exothermic reactions, which can kill weakened cancer cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1982
    Date of Patent: January 29, 1985
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: George M. Plotkin, Charles J. Bendrick, George Wolf
  • Patent number: 4485097
    Abstract: A bone-equivalent, useful in the fabrication of prostheses, is disclosed which is prepared from a hydrated collagen lattice contracted by fibroblast cells and containing demineralized bone powder.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 1983
    Date of Patent: November 27, 1984
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventor: Eugene Bell
  • Patent number: 4485096
    Abstract: A tissue-equivalent, useful in the treatment of burns or other skin wounds and in the fabrication of prostheses, is disclosed which is prepared from a hydrated collagen lattice contracted by a contractile agent, such as fibroblast cells or blood platelets, to form tissue-equivalent. In one embodiment, a skin-equivalent can be fabricated by growing a layer of keratinocyte cells thereon. Both the keratinocyte cells and contractile agent may be derived from the potential recipient of the skin-equivalent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 1982
    Date of Patent: November 27, 1984
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventor: Eugene Bell
  • Patent number: 4458678
    Abstract: This invention relates to the introduction of viable cells into a fibrous lattice by surgical, force-utilizing, or other manipulative techniques, all of which are referred to herein as "seeding." One embodiment comprises an autografting technique which involves intact tissue. Other embodiments which involve the distribution of an aqueous suspension of cells comprise centrifugal, spraying, pipetting and syringe emplacement. Each cell that survives the seeding process may reproduce into a colony of cells which grow until they reach confluence, thereby creating a uniform layer or volume of tissue. By proper placement of cells capable of generating such colonies, the period of recovery of a wound may be drastically reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 1981
    Date of Patent: July 10, 1984
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Ioannis V. Yannas, John F. Burke
  • Patent number: 4456687
    Abstract: Certain agents are disclosed which promote growth of epithelial cells, including human epidermal cells. These agents are known to increase the level of cellular cyclic-AMP.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 1980
    Date of Patent: June 26, 1984
    Assignee: President and Fellows of Harvard College
    Inventor: Howard Green
  • Patent number: 4442203
    Abstract: A correlation between gene amplification and tumor promotion is disclosed herein. This correlation allows for a simple cellular assay that indicates whether a substance or process is a tumor promoter. This assay does not depend upon numerous biochemical processes that introduce uncontrolled and unascertained varibles into other cellular assays. This assay can also be used to determine whether a set of cells is abnormally genetically labile and therefore susceptible to cancer or genetic disease.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1981
    Date of Patent: April 10, 1984
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventor: Alexander J. Varshavsky
  • Patent number: 4420873
    Abstract: A method for fabricating three-dimensional optical waveguides is disclosed. In this method, a single crystal semiconductor layer is grown upon an insulator which has an index of refraction lower than the semiconductor. The semiconductor layer is deposited to a thickness which provides confinement of light propagating in the semiconductor layer in the vertical direction. An effective larger index of refraction over a cross-sectional region of the semiconductor layer is then formed to provide confinement of light in the lateral direction. In the preferred method, the growth of single crystal semiconductor upon the insulator is achieved by a vapor-phase lateral epitaxial overgrowth technique.Devices fabricated according to the method are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 25, 1980
    Date of Patent: December 20, 1983
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Frederick J. Leonberger, Ivars Melngailis, Carl O. Bozler, Robert W. McClelland
  • Patent number: 4418691
    Abstract: This invention comprises the use of centrifugal force to introduce viable cells into a fibrous lattice, as well as fibrous lattices that are seeded with cells by the use of centrifugal force. A variety of fibrous lattices may be seeded by the methods of this invention, such as a highly porous lattice comprising collagen fibers crosslinked with glycosaminoglycan. Before the centrifugation, a piece of intact tissue is harvested from a donor site. It is treated with one or more substances, such as trypsin or collagenase, to dissociate cells from the tissue. The cells are then mixed with an aqueous solution to create an aqueous suspension of cells. A piece of fibrous lattice is placed within a container, referred to herein as a "bucket," that is suitable for rotation by a centrifuge. The aqueous suspension of cells is placed within the bucket, in contact with the lattice. The centrifuge is then rotated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 1981
    Date of Patent: December 6, 1983
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Ioannis V. Yannas, John F. Burke, Dennis P. Orgill, Eugene M. Skrabut
  • Patent number: 4414147
    Abstract: A method for improving the stability and usefulness of interferon, including human fibroblast interferon, is disclosed. In this method, interferon is bonded to a non-hydrophobic substance to create a molecular complex that is less hydrophobic than untreated interferon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 1981
    Date of Patent: November 8, 1983
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Alexander M. Klibanov, Robert S. Langer
  • Patent number: 4400532
    Abstract: An apparatus and process useful in direct fluorination of a variety of compositions, as well as the fluorinated compositions themselves, are disclosed.The apparatus comprises a cryogenic zone reactor, such as a packed column reactor, suitably divided into a plurality of independently controllable cryogenic temperature zones. Means are also provided to introduce a reactant to be fluorinated as well as to introduce a mixture of fluorine gas and an inert gas.New fluorinated compounds are also disclosed. These include: perfluoro-2-methoxyethyl ether; perfluoro-1,4-dioxane; perfluoro-2,5-diketohexane; perfluorohexamethylethane; and monohydropentadecafluoroadamantane.Additionally, new syntheses for trifluoroacetic acid, a commercially significant bulk chemical, are disclosed. One synthesis comprises producing perfluorooethyl acetate by direct fluorination using a cryogenic zone reactor, followed by hydrolysis of perfluoroethyl acetate. Two moles of the acid are produced for each mole of ester.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 1981
    Date of Patent: August 23, 1983
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Richard J. Lagow, James L. Adcock, Norma J. Maraschin
  • Patent number: 4376228
    Abstract: Improvements in solar cells based upon low cost semiconductors, such as amorphous silicon, are disclosed. The improved solar cells of this invention have ultrathin active semiconductor layers having a thickness between 0.1 t.sub..alpha. and L.sub.m wherein t.sub..alpha. is the solar spectrum absorption length and L.sub.m is the diffusion length for photogenerated minority charge carriers in the active layer. The back surface reflector has a solar spectrum reflectivity of 70% or greater, so that incident energy not absorbed in a direct pass through the active layer is reflected for another pass. The most preferred embodiment of the cells described herein are shaped to have a light-trapping structure so that light makes multiple passes through the thin semiconductor layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1979
    Date of Patent: March 8, 1983
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: John C. C. Fan, Carl O. Bozler