Abstract: Welding apparatus for positioning a tube with respect to a tubesheet and then tack welding the tube to the tubesheet. The welding apparatus has a pilot which can be positioned within the tube and then expanded so that when the pilot is moved the tube can be moved against a tube stop on the main body of the welding apparatus which can then be moved so that the tube is in a predetermined position with respect to the tubesheet and the welder can be energized to tack weld the tube preparatory to the final welding operation which permanently fixes it to the tubesheet.
Abstract: A reinforced pipe including a pipe made of a metal which is subject to ductile fracture propagation and a reinforcing wrapping extending around and in contact with the pipe for preventing the ductile fracture propagation. The reinforcing wrapping comprises a plurality of lightweight, continuous, unidirectional, high strength, non-corrodible, electrically nonconductive fibers extending helically around the pipe under a limited tension which is less than the tension which would cause the fibers to break during wrapping, the fibers being encapsulated in a curable viscous matrix to define a continuous composite material.
Abstract: A method of using solar energy in a chemical synthesis process comprising steam reforming hydrocarbons or gasifying carbonaceous fuel, converting the product of the steam reforming of hydrocarbons or the gasifying of carbonaceous fuels to an ammonia synthesis gas, converting the ammonia synthesis gas to ammonia, supplying the heat required for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons or the gasifying of carbonaceous fuels by a heat transfer fluid, heating the heat transfer fluid in a solar receiver when solar energy is available, heating the heat transfer fluid by combusting a portion of the ammonia when sufficient solar energy is not available to supply the necessary heat to the heat transfer fluid.
Abstract: A method for removing sulfur compounds from flue gases in which a slurry of calcium oxide and water is formed and exothermically reacted to form a hydrate containing calcium hydroxide in substantially saturated solution. The calcium hydroxide is converted to relatively fine particles as the saturated liquid is flashed to steam. The fine particles are passed in a counter-flow relationship with the flue gases so that the sulfur compounds from the flue gases react with the calcium hydroxide in the particles to form calcium sulfate.
Abstract: A steam generator and method for operating same in which a plurality of beds of combustible particulate material are established and air is introduced to each of the beds for fluidizing the beds. The flue gases and entrained fine particulate material from each bed are combined and the particulate material then separated from the flue gases externally of the beds and introduced back into one of the beds. Independent fluid circuits are established including some in heat exchange relation to the separate beds, for independently controlling the steam generation rate and the temperatures of the reheat steam, and the superheat steam.
July 14, 1986
Date of Patent:
May 19, 1987
Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation
Venkatram Seshamani, Walter R. Campbell, Paul E. Moore
Abstract: A process of preparing a donor solvent for coal liquefaction. Liquefied coal is distilled to separate the coal into a fraction having a boiling point less than about 350.degree. F. and a residue having a boiling point greater than about 350.degree. F. The residue from the distillation is deasphalted in a first solvent capable of substantially extracting from the residue a first oil comprising lower molecular weight compounds and saturated compounds. The residue from the first deasphalting step is then deasphalted in a second solvent capable of substantially extracting from the residue a second oil comprising concentrated aromatic and heterocyclic compounds and leaving in the residue asphaltenes and ash. The second oil can be used as a donor solvent. The second oil extracted in the second deasphalting step is preferably partially hydrogenated prior to use as a donor solvent for the liquefaction of coal.
Abstract: A tube positioning tool for remotely positioning a replacement tube into axial alignment and interfitting engagement with an existing tube, and method for its use. The forward end section of the elongated pressurizable tube positioning tool is first inserted through the replacement tube and into the existing tube end, after which the forward end is clamped into position therein by pressurizing the tool and expanding the tool nose end. Next, the tool body rear piston is pressurized and the replacement tube is moved forward into axial alignment and interfitting engagement with the adjacent existing tube. Then the tool body front piston is pressurized to expand a resilient mandrel and the rear portion of the replacement tube is expanded firmly into the opening in the tube sheet. Following such replacement tube installation, the tool is depressured and withdrawn from the tubes.
Abstract: A support structure for multiple adjacent parallel vertical tubes of a solar flux receiver panel, so as to provide for universal independent thermal expansion and contraction of the tubes. Each adjacent tube is attached by a lug located at an intermediate point along the tube length to a rigid horizontal steel support bar, each attachment lug being separated from the adjacent lug by a cylindrical spacer located therebetween. The support bar is attached to tie links and a truss attached to support collars located on the bar at appropriate end and central locations, the tie links and truss being pivotally attached at their other ends to a vertical support frame structure. The support structure for the vertical tubes of the solar panel provides reliable support, accommodates differences thermal expansion and contraction of the tubes, and resists transverse wind and seismic loads for the vertically-oriented solar heated panel.
Abstract: A water demineralizer system and method is provided in which at least three beds of resin particles are connected in series flow arrangement preferably within a single vessel for substantially removing metal ions such as calcium and magnesium from water feed by exchange with hydrogen ions. The raw feed water flows first through an upper cation resin bed, then through an intermediate anion resin bed, and then through a lower bed of mixed cation and anion resins, and preferably flows downwardly through the beds. After the resin beds become saturated with metal ions from the feed water, mainly by calcium and magnesium ions, the beds are regenerated by first backwashing with water, then chemically treating with acid and caustic solution, followed by bed rinsing, air mixing and backflushing with water prior to further use for demineralizing the feed water.
Abstract: A fixture for explosively welding a tube to a tubesheet in which a plug extends within a cup which in turn is inserted into a fixture tube. A first explosive extends within the chamber defined by the cup and the plug and a second explosive extends within a bore defined within the plug. The sensitivity of the second explosive is greater than that of the first explosive so that, upon detonation by an externally actuated elongated detonation member, sequential detonation of the second explosive and the first explosive occurs.
Abstract: A gas turbine heat recovery system that can be used in steam reforming plants is disclosed. The system utilizes a high pressure steam superheater and a high pressure feedwater heater to recover the heat from the exhaust gas turbine.
Abstract: An erosion resistant waterwall in which a plurality of erosion resistant stud members are attached to the exposed surface of a waterwall consisting of a plurality of spaced water tubes connected together by continuous fins. The size of the stud members relative to the tubes are such that a plurality of the stud members extend around the periphery of each exposed tubes surface in a spaced relationship in a direction perpendicular to the axis of each tube. The stud members may be in the form of steel balls or small rod members attached to the exposed surface, and a ceramic sleeve can extend around the rod members.
Abstract: A process for removal of excess nitrogen and carbon oxides from a raw synthesis gas used to make ammonia. The raw synthesis gas is divided into two portions. The first portion is methanated to remove carbon oxides and then cooled to condense part of its nitrogen content. The condensed nitrogen is fed to the top of a nitrogen wash column. The second portion of the raw synthesis gas is passed over an absorbent which removes carbon dioxide and water vapor. It is then cooled to condense excess nitrogen. The remaining gas is fed to the bottom of a nitrogen wash column where it is washed free of carbon monoxide by the nitrogen condensed from the methanated gas stream.
August 9, 1985
Date of Patent:
January 13, 1987
Foster Wheeler USA Corporation
Geoffrey F. Skinner, Wieslaw M. Kowal, Stephen D. Linton
Abstract: The present invention provides a method of quenching heated coke in a coke drum. Quench water is fed into the coke drum to cool the coke, and the stress in the coke drum wall is monitored during the quenching. The rate of feeding the quench water into the coke drum is regulated to prevent the stress in the coke drum wall from exceeding a predetermined limit. The stress is monitored by measuring either the longitudinal thermal gradient or the rates of change in the drum wall temperature over time.
Abstract: A fluid flow conduit having its interior wear surface containing multiple anti-erosion protrusions for reducing erosion caused by flow of fluids carrying abrasive particles. The anti-erosion protrusions are usually located on radial outer portion of an elbow, and are preferably pyramid-shaped and arranged in a staggered pattern relative to the fluid flow direction, but other similar shapes can be used. The protrusions can be made integral with the conduit interior wall, or attached to the wall by welding individual protrusions, or by welding to the wall curved plates each containing a row of protrusions. Such protrusions reduce erosion in conduits for particulate bearing fluid streams flowing at velocities over about 50 ft/sec, to disrupt the fluid flow pattern, reduce the velocity and change the angle of impingement of abrasive particles, in areas where high wear rates occur and substantially reduce the rate of wear on the conduit surface.
Abstract: A fractionator for yielding petroleum products in association with a delayed coking process includes a bottom having a pool of petroleum residue and recycle liquid, a flash zone above the pool, an inlet line for conveying to the flash zone product vapors which are relatively warm with respect to the pool, and a baffle positioned between the flash zone and the pool to isolate the relatively warm product vapors from the pool and, thereby, reduce condensation of the product vapors. The fractionator also includes a wash zone, above the flash zone, in which the product vapors condense, and a downwardly pointed frustoconical element, an annular trough and an arrangement of conduits for conducting the condensed recycle liquid from the wash zone to the pool, out of contact with the product vapors in the flash zone.
Abstract: A steam generator in which a plurality of vertically spaced fluidized beds are provided in a single enclosure, with one boundary wall of the enclosure having openings therein for permitting the discharge of effluent gases from the fluidized beds. A heat recovery enclosure is defined adjacent the beds for receiving their effluent gases and a fluidized bed is disposed in the heat recovery enclosure. A separator system is disposed adjacent the heat recovery enclosure and receives the effluent gases from the heat recovery enclosure and separates the entrained solid particles therefrom. The separated particles are reinjected into the fluidized bed in the heat recovery enclosure.
Abstract: A cyclone separator in which a pair of tubular members are disposed in a coaxially spaced relationship to define an annular chamber for receiving gases having solid particles entrained therein. The gases and particles swirl around in the annular chamber to separate the particles from the gases by centrifugal forces. The particles are collected in a hopper and the gases pass upwardly through the separator to external equipment. An enclosure extends around the outer tubular member and is formed by a plurality of parallel water wall tubes for circulating water around the annular chamber to reduce heat losses and minimize the requirements for internal insulation.
Abstract: A simulator can simulate a multi-stage industrial plant that is controllable by a digital control and digital programmer for affecting plant operation. The simulator has a plurality of indicators mounted on a console for producing indications in response to display signals applied to the indicators. Also, a plurality of manually operated controls are mounted on the console for allowing production of manual signals. The simulator also has a computer coupled to the indicators for providing to them their display signals. The computer is also coupled to the manually operable controls for receiving their manual signals. The computer can respond to the manual signals of predetermined ones of the manually operable controls to provide a programmed array of processed values sized to simulate parameters existing during operation of the industrial plant. Given ones of this array of values are applied to specified ones of the indicators for providing their indication.
Abstract: An apparatus and method for removing contaminants from soil in situ or at a remote location in which removal is accomplished by pumping a supply of uncontaminated water via a distribution conduit system to a series of spray nozzles. The spray nozzles are used to flood the surface of the contaminated soil with the supply water, which soaks into soil and mixes with the contaminants. The mixed water and contaminants travel through the soil to a set of vertical inlet risers positioned in the soil and located at a distance from the spray nozzles. The water-contaminant mixture is drawn through the inlet risers via a collection conduit system to a holding tank from when the water is taken for removal of the contaminants. The water is drawn through the inlet risers by producing a high velocity stream of water using a venturi device and passing the stream over the upper end of the removal conduit.