Patents Represented by Attorney, Agent or Law Firm L. E. Carnahan
  • Patent number: 6835552
    Abstract: The use of impedance measurements to detect the presence of pathogens attached to antibody-coated beads. In a fluidic device antibodies are immobilized on a surface of a patterned interdigitated electrode. Pathogens in a sample fluid streaming past the electrode attach to the immobilized antibodies, which produces a change in impedance between two adjacent electrodes, which impedance change is measured and used to detect the presence of a pathogen. To amplify the signal, beads coated with antibodies are introduced and the beads would stick to the pathogen causing a greater change in impedance between the two adjacent electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2000
    Date of Patent: December 28, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Robin R. Miles, Kodumudi S. Venkateswaran, Christopher K. Fuller
  • Patent number: 6828180
    Abstract: A process for direct integration of a thin-film silicon p-n junction diode with a magnetic tunnel junction for use in advanced magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cells for high performance, non-volatile memory arrays. The process is based on pulsed laser processing for the fabrication of vertical polycrystalline silicon electronic device structures, in particular p-n junction diodes, on films of metals deposited onto low temperature-substrates such as ceramics, dielectrics, glass, or polymers. The process preserves underlayers and structures onto which the devices are typically deposited, such as silicon integrated circuits. The process involves the low temperature deposition of at least one layer of silicon, either in an amorphous or a polycrystalline phase on a metal layer. Dopants may be introduced in the silicon film during or after deposition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 2002
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Daniel Toet, Thomas W. Sigmon
  • Patent number: 6818964
    Abstract: Nanochannel electrophoretic and electrochemical devices having selectively-etched nanolaminates located in the fluid transport channel. The normally flat surfaces of the nanolaminate having exposed conductive (metal) stripes are selectively-etched to form trenches and baffles. The modifications of the prior utilized flat exposed surfaces increase the amount of exposed metal to facilitate electrochemical redox reaction or control the exposure of the metal surfaces to analytes of large size. These etched areas variously increase the sensitivity of electrochemical detection devices to low concentrations of analyte, improve the plug flow characteristic of the channel, and allow additional discrimination of the colloidal particles during cyclic voltammetry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 16, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Michael P. Surh, William D. Wilson, Troy W. Barbee, Jr., Stephen M. Lane
  • Patent number: 6815116
    Abstract: An interconnect that facilitates electrical connection and mechanical support with minimal mechanical stress for fuel cell stacks. The interconnects are flexible and provide mechanically robust fuel cell stacks with higher stack performance at lower cost. The flexible interconnects replace the prior rigid rib interconnects with flexible “fingers” or contact pads which will accommodate the imperfect flatness of the ceramic fuel cells. Also, the mechanical stress of stacked fuel cells will be smaller due to the flexibility of the fingers. The interconnects can be one-sided or double-sided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 9, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: David J. Lenz, Brandon W. Chung, Ai Quoc Pham
  • Patent number: 6811741
    Abstract: A method to make thick or thin films a very low cost. The method is generally similar to the conventional tape casting techniques while being more flexible and versatile. The invention involves preparing a slip (solution) of desired material and including solvents such as ethanol and an appropriate dispersant to prevent agglomeration. The slip is then sprayed on a substrate to be coated using an atomizer which spreads the slip in a fine mist. Upon hitting the substrate, the solvent evaporates, leaving a green tape containing the powder and other additives, whereafter the tape may be punctured, cut, and heated for the desired application. The tape thickness can vary from about 1 &mgr;m upward.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 2, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Ai Quoc Pham, Robert S. Glass
  • Patent number: 6803141
    Abstract: A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm2 at 600° C. and 900 mW/cm2 at 700° C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 10, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 12, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Ai Quoc Pham, Robert S. Glass
  • Patent number: 6790030
    Abstract: Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and lifetime cycles of materials in contact with combustion products and to reduce pollutants while maintaining relatively high combustion and thermal cycle efficiencies. The first stage of combustion operates fuel rich where most of the heat of combustion is released by burning it with nitrogen-enriched air. Part of the energy in the combustion gases is used to perform work or to provide heat. The cooled combustion gases are reheated by additional stages of combustion until the last stage is at or near stoichiometric conditions. Additional energy is extracted from each stage to result in relatively high thermal cycle efficiency. The air is enriched with nitrogen using air separation technologies such as diffusion, permeable membrane, absorption, and cryogenics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 14, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Larry E. Fischer, Brian L. Anderson
  • Patent number: 6787018
    Abstract: The use of dielectrophoresis to collect particles under the conditions of electrokinetically-driven flow. Dielectrophortic concentration of particles under electrokinetic flow is accomplished by interdigitated electrodes patterned on an inner surface of a microfluid channel, a DC voltage is applied across the ends to the channel, and an AC voltage is applied across the electrodes, and particles swept down the channel electrokinetically are trapped within the field established by the electrodes. The particles can be released when the voltage to the electrodes is released.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 7, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Robin R. Miles, Kerry A. Bettencourt, Christopher K. Fuller
  • Patent number: 6783401
    Abstract: Removing the electrical field from the internal volume of high-voltage structures; e.g., bushings, connectors, capacitors, and cables. The electrical field is removed from inherently weak regions of the interconnect, such as between the center conductor and the solid dielectric, and places it in the primary insulation. This is accomplished by providing a conductive surface on the inside surface of the principal solid dielectric insulator surrounding the center conductor and connects the center conductor to this conductive surface. The advantage of removing the electric fields from the weaker dielectric region to a stronger area improves reliability, increases component life and operating levels, reduces noise and losses, and allows for a smaller compact design. This electric field control approach is currently possible on many existing products at a modest cost. Several techniques are available to provide the level of electric field control needed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 31, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Michael J. Wilson, David A. Goerz
  • Patent number: 6774560
    Abstract: A method of processing a composite material to tailor white light emission of the resulting composite during excitation. The composite material is irradiated with a predetermined power and for a predetermined time period to reduce the size of a plurality of nanocrystals and the number of a plurality of traps in the composite material. By this irradiation process, blue light contribution from the nanocrystals to the white light emission is intensified and red and green light contributions from the traps are decreased.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 10, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Christine A. Smith, Howard W. H. Lee
  • Patent number: 6764583
    Abstract: Impedance measurements between the electrodes in an electric field is utilized to detect the presence of pathogens trapped in the electric field. Since particles trapped in a field using the dielectiphoretic force changes the impedance between the electrodes by changing the dielectric material between the electrodes, the degree of particle trapping can be determined by measuring the impedance. This measurement is used to determine if sufficient pathogen have been collected to analyze further or potentially to identify the pathogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 20, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: Robin R. Miles
  • Patent number: 6755083
    Abstract: A method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics. Time-reversal acoustics uses an iterative process to determine the optimum signal for locating a strongly reflecting target in a cluttered environment. An acoustic array sends a signal into a medium, and then receives the returned/reflected signal. This returned/reflected signal is then time-reversed and sent back into the medium again, and again, until the signal being sent and received is no longer changing. At that point, the array has isolated the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination and has effectively determined the location of a single target in the medium (the one that is most strongly reflecting). After the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination has been determined, to determine the location of other targets, instead of sending back the same signals, the method sends back these time reversed signals, but half of them will also be reversed in sign.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 2002
    Date of Patent: June 29, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: James G. Berryman
  • Patent number: 6756091
    Abstract: A lightweight flywheel containment composed of a combination of layers of various material which absorb the energy of a flywheel structural failure. The various layers of material act as a vacuum barrier, momentum spreader, energy absorber, and reaction plate. The flywheel containment structure has been experimentally demonstrated to contain carbon fiber fragments with a velocity of 1,000 m/s and has an aerial density of less than 6.5 g/square centimeters. The flywheel containment, may for example, be composed of an inner high toughness structural layer, and energy absorbing layer, and an outer support layer. Optionally, a layer of impedance matching material may be utilized intermediate the flywheel rotor and the inner high toughness layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 2000
    Date of Patent: June 29, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: James R. Smith
  • Patent number: 6749826
    Abstract: Airborne or aqueous organic compound collection using carbon nanotubes. Exposure of carbon nanotube-coated disks to controlled atmospheres of chemical warefare (CW)-related compounds provide superior extraction and retention efficiencies compared to commercially available airborne organic compound collectors. For example, the carbon nanotube-coated collectors were four (4) times more efficient toward concentrating dimethylmethyl-phosphonate (DMMP), a CW surrogate, than Carboxen, the optimized carbonized polymer for CW-related vapor collections. In addition to DMMP, the carbon nanotube-coated material possesses high collection efficiencies for the CW-related compounds diisopropylaminoethanol (DIEA), and diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 2002
    Date of Patent: June 15, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Thomas M. Tillotson, Brian D. Andresen, Armando Alcaraz
  • Patent number: 6740194
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for modifying the surface of an object by contacting said surface with a liquid processing solution using the liquid applicator geometry and Marangoni effect (surface tension gradient-driven flow) to define and confine the dimensions of the wetted zone on said object surface. In particular, the method and apparatus involve contouring or figuring the surface of an object using an etchant solution as the wetting fluid and using real-time metrology (e.g. interferometry) to control the placement and dwell time of this wetted zone locally on the surface of said object, thereby removing material from the surface of the object in a controlled manner. One demonstrated manifestation is in the deterministic optical figuring of thin glasses by wet chemical etching using a buffered hydrofluoric acid solution and Marangoni effect.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 25, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Michael C. Rushford, Jerald A. Britten
  • Patent number: 6693277
    Abstract: Detection of submicron scale cracks and other mechanical and chemical surface anomalies using PET. This surface technique has sufficient sensitivity to detect single voids or pits of sub-millimeter size and single cracks or fissures of millimeter size; and single cracks or fissures of millimeter-scale length, micrometer-scale depth, and nanometer-scale length, micrometer-scale depth, and nanometer-scale width. This technique can also be applied to detect surface regions of differing chemical reactivity. It may be utilized in a scanning or survey mode to simultaneously detect such mechanical or chemical features over large interior or exterior surface areas of parts as large as about 50 cm in diameter. The technique involves exposing a surface to short-lived radioactive gas for a time period, removing the excess gas to leave a partial monolayer, determining the location and shape of the cracks, voids, porous regions, etc., and calculating the width, depth, and length thereof. Detection of 0.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 4, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 17, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Thomas E. Cowan, Richard H. Howell, Carlos A. Colmenares
  • Patent number: 6685812
    Abstract: Manipulation of DNA and cells/spores using dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces to perform sample preparation protocols for polymerized chain reaction (PCR) based assays for various applications. This is accomplished by movement of particles using sequentially activated dielectrophoretic particle trapping. DEP forces induce a dipole in particles, and these particles can be trapped in non-uniform fields. The particles can be trapped in the high field strength region of one set of electrodes. By switching off this field and switching on an adjacent electrodes, particles can be moved down a channel with little or no flow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 9, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 3, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: Robin R. Miles
  • Patent number: 6660493
    Abstract: Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping carried out by introducing a side stream into the main stream to squeeze the fluid containing particles close to the electrodes producing the dielelectrophoretic forces. The region of most effective or the strongest forces in the manipulating fields of the electrodes producing the dielectrophoretic forces is close to the electrodes, within 100 &mgr;m from the electrodes. The particle trapping arrangement uses a series of electrodes with an AC field placed between pairs of electrodes, which causes trapping of particles along the edges of the electrodes. By forcing an incoming flow stream containing cells and DNA, for example, close to the electrodes using another flow stream improves the efficiency of the DNA trapping.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 9, 2003
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: Robin R. Miles
  • Patent number: 6649977
    Abstract: A method for fabricating thin-film single-crystal silicon-on-insulator (SOI) self-aligned transistors. Standard processing of silicon substrates is used to fabricate the transistors. Physical spaces, between the source and gate, and the drain and gate, introduced by etching the polysilicon gate material, are used to provide connecting implants (bridges) which allow the transistor to perform normally. After completion of the silicon substrate processing, the silicon wafer is bonded to an insulator (glass) substrate, and the silicon substrate is removed leaving the transistors on the insulator (glass) substrate. Transistors fabricated by this method may be utilized, for example, in flat panel displays, etc.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2003
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: Anthony M. McCarthy
  • Patent number: 6627522
    Abstract: A method for enhancing the equilibrium solid solubility of dopants in silicon, germanium and silicon-germanium alloys. The method involves subjecting silicon-based substrate to biaxial or compression strain. It has been determined that boron solubility was largely enhanced (more than 100%) by a compressive bi-axial strain, based on a size-mismatch theory since the boron atoms are smaller than the silicon atoms. It has been found that the large enhancement or mixing properties of dopants in silicon and germanium substrates is primarily governed by their, and to second order by their size-mismatch with the substrate. Further, it has been determined that the dopant solubility enhancement with strain is most effective when the charge and the size-mismatch of the impurity favor the same type of strain. Thus, the solid solubility of small p-type (e.g., boron) as well as large n-type (e.g.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2003
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Babak Sadigh, Thomas J. Lenosky, Tomas Diaz De La Rubia