Patents Represented by Attorney Leonard Cooper
  • Patent number: 7816814
    Abstract: A bi-directional power converter for cryogenic operation based on a bi-directional cryo-MOSFET switch. Cryogenic power electronics lends itself easily to bi-directional topologies, and brings higher efficiencies, further reductions in switching speed, higher-frequency operation, reduction in size and weight of associated transformers and inductors, and reductions in overall size and weight. In addition, cryogenic power electronics operating around liquid nitrogen temperatures is easily integrated with superconducting motors, motor drives, and transformers, all of which can reduce size and weight of shipboard power systems, allowing for greater payload.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 19, 2010
    Inventors: Michael J. Hennessy, Eduard K. Mueller, Richard Ross Neal
  • Patent number: 7619325
    Abstract: An ultra compact ring topology puts the output terminals of solid state switches physically at the center of a circuit with the switches surrounded by voltage busses. The switches are symmetrically arranged around the output bus, the voltage busses are filtered (decoupled) to ground using symmetrically positioned filter components, and lead lengths to and from the switches are minimized. Switch driver circuits are closely integrated with each switch and positioned as close as possible, each to its associated switch, and arranged symmetrically. Switches may be at cryogenic temperatures and busses and lead connectors may be superconductive.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2005
    Date of Patent: November 17, 2009
    Inventors: Michael J. Hennessy, Otward M. Mueller, Eduard K. Mueller, John N. Park
  • Patent number: 7453342
    Abstract: This invention describes a means by which lasers and laser beam controllers mounted on moving vehicles or other unstable platforms can be isolated from vibrations. By magnetically levitating the entire laser or just the beam controller hardware, targeting efficiency can be vastly improved. Superconducting levitation and control coils can be used to reduce added power losses. Cryogenic power conversion systems can be employed to drive the levitation system. The laser could also be cryogenically cooled, depending on the type of laser employed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 2004
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2008
    Inventor: Michael J. Hennessy
  • Patent number: 7408764
    Abstract: This invention describes a means by which performance characteristics of capacitors can be improved. This is achieved by reducing the temperature, preferably but not exclusively to cryogenic temperatures below 100 K. The dielectric strength, dielectric losses, equivalent series resistance, and plate losses in many capacitors, such as film capacitors, improve as the temperature is decreased. Current carrying capacity is improved. A capacitor bank exhibits energy densities up to four times those of conventional, room-temperature capacitor banks. Cryogenic capacitors can be combined with cryogenically operated semiconductors or with superconductors to reduce the size, weight, and losses of a complete system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 5, 2008
    Inventors: Otward M. Mueller, Eduard K. Mueller, Michael J. Hennessy
  • Patent number: 7391133
    Abstract: An electrical switching topology for a hybrid switch provides extremely low losses in both cryogenic and non-cryogenic electronic systems. In this switch having switch modules connected in parallel, switching losses in a first module are separated from conduction losses in the parallel-connected second module. The conduction losses are then further reduced by cryogenically cooling the second module. Since the switching losses of the first module can be absorbed outside a cryogenic container, the switching losses do not add to the cryogenic heat load. In other applications, the switching module operates at lower temperatures to provide higher switching speeds and reduces switching heat generation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 24, 2008
    Inventors: Michael J. Hennessy, Eduard K. Mueller
  • Patent number: 7374536
    Abstract: A method uses body images and computer hardware and software to collect and analyze clinical data in patients experiencing pain. Pain location information is obtained by the drawing of an outline of the pain on a paper copy or electronic display of the body image. Composite images are generated representing aggregate data for specified patient groups. The coordinates of common anatomic landmarks on differently designed body images are mapped to each other, permitting integrated analysis of pain data, e.g., pain shape, centroid, meta centroid, from multiple body image designs and display of all pain data on a single body image design. Differences and similarities between groups of patients are displayed visually and numerically, and are used to assign the probability of a given patient belonging to a particular diagnostic group or category of disease severity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 20, 2008
    Inventor: Colin R. Taylor
  • Patent number: 7371968
    Abstract: A detachable superconducting lead includes a vacuum-sealed thermal transition through which a stabilized conductor passes. Two identical leads are attached and surrounded by a sealed Dewar and allowed to cool either naturally or by way of a cooling element. Detaching the leads requires the joint to be heated up by a heat transfer unit or by a heat gun after the Dewar is removed. Once warmed, the lead can be disassembled with tooling appropriate to the joint. In many instances, regular fasteners can be used. Removable Dewars may be constructed with insulation (including vacuum) using O-rings and flanges.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 13, 2008
    Inventor: Michael J. Hennessy
  • Patent number: 7369377
    Abstract: Switching losses and conduction losses are isolated by networks which are partially cryogenic and partially at room temperature. Switching losses are independent of temperature. Advantageously the switching losses are taken in a snubber network at room temperature and conduction losses are incurred at cryogenic temperatures, where majority carrier devices like MOSFETs operate with ultra low on-state resistance and corresponding low conduction losses. Low loss leads carry current efficiently from the cryogenic environment to room temperature without adversely affecting refrigeration. Switch and snubber network may both operate cryogenically.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 6, 2008
    Inventors: Michael J. Hennessy, John N. Park, Otward M. Mueller, Eduard K. Mueller
  • Patent number: 7352233
    Abstract: The highest-power switches now available are based on thyristor-type devices: GTOs (Gate turn-off thyristors), MTOs (MOS controlled turn-off thyristors), IGCTs (Integrated gate commutated thyristors), and the new ETOs (Emitter turn-off thyristors). These devices handle kilovolts and kiloamperes for megawatt inverters/converters. Measurements by the inventors show that conduction losses of MOSFETs and switching losses of IGCTs are drastically decreased by cryo-cooling. IGCTs, ETOs, and MTOs, together with many small, low voltage MOSFETs for gate and emitter turn-off circuitry, are cryo-cooled to attain much higher switching speeds and a reduction in size, weight and cost of high-power (megawatt range) equipment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 1, 2008
    Inventors: Otward Mueller, Eduard K. Mueller, Michael J. Hennessy
  • Patent number: 7193336
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for reducing conductive thermal losses in high-current cryogenic power electronics systems needing large cables to interface between warm and cold environments. Thermal losses increase with increasing cross-sectional area. The total current at the warm/cold interface is split into many smaller currents by splitting the power buss into a plurality of parallel leads. Respective physical switches in each smaller lead at the interface interrupt current flow, and at the same time open the path for thermal conduction along the lead. When little or no current is flowing through the system, selected smaller leads of the power buss are physically opened by the associated switches to stop the thermal and electrical flow along these leads. Current diverts to another parallel lead in the buss but the cross section for heat flow is reduced at the interface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2003
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2007
    Inventors: Otward M. Mueller, Michael J. Hennessy
  • Patent number: 7126810
    Abstract: This invention describes a means by which performance characteristics of capacitors can be improved. This is achieved by reducing the temperature, preferably but not exclusively to cryogenic temperatures below 100 K. This is based on the observation that the dielectric strength, dielectric losses and plate losses in many capacitors, such as film capacitors, improve as the temperature is decreased. A cryogenic capacitor bank is also described, which exhibits energy densities up to four times those of conventional, room-temperature capacitor banks. Cryogenic capacitors can be combined with cryogenically operated semiconductors or with superconductors in such a way as to reduce the size, weight, and losses of a complete system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 24, 2006
    Inventors: Otward M. Mueller, Eduard K. Mueller, Michael J. Hennessy
  • Patent number: 7091799
    Abstract: Losses are reduced in electrical conductors and filters, especially those made with superconducting cables or inductors, which carry currents having both direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) portions as in rectifier busses and power distribution systems. Superconducting cables and chokes are capable of passing direct current with practically zero losses, but they exhibit considerable AC losses. A low impedance AC bypass of the superconducting cables and chokes minimizes these losses.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 15, 2006
    Inventors: Michael J. Hennessy, Eduard K. Mueller
  • Patent number: 6879852
    Abstract: Sub-systems and components of a MRI system have enhanced electrical efficiency, faster operation, reduced physical metrics, by operating at cryogenic temperatures and/or incorporating superconducting elements. A plurality of sub-systems and a super-conducting magnet are enclosed in a common Temperature-controlled chamber. Resistive or permanent magnets may be used in place of the superconductive magnet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2005
    Inventor: Otward M. Mueller
  • Patent number: 6836112
    Abstract: Magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) is a technology capable of detecting the magnetic resonance of a small number of spins and, potentially, a single spin of an electron or nucleus. Most methods use soft cantilevers with microscopic dimensions (microns) which have been developed for atomic force microscopy. Cantilevers have been both a solution and problem of high sensitivity force detection. They are difficult to fabricate and it is difficult to achieve the right sensitivity and stiffness with them. The proposed invention eliminates the cantilever and replaces it with small, magnetically sensitive objects called birdies, which are manipulated above a sample using electromagnetic field control. The basic principles of the cantilever-free MRFM are the same as those of traditional, cantilever-based systems. Motion of the birdie induced by magnetic resonance is monitored using optical interferometry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 2003
    Date of Patent: December 28, 2004
    Inventor: Michael J. Hennessy
  • Patent number: 6827370
    Abstract: The ski pole has normal strength when the pole is normally gripped at its handle and reduced strength when not gripped. The poles permanently deform when a predetermined level of excessive bending force is applied. The pole shaft is hollow with a short circumferential segment having reduced cross-section. When the handle is gripped, a plug slideable within the shaft spans the reduced cross-section and reinforces the pole at that region. When the handle is not gripped, the plug slides away from the reduced wall segment and reduces pole strength. A button on the handle connects to the plug by a rod, cable, hydraulics, pneumatics, etc. Alternatively, button actuation electrically drives a magnetic solenoid to move the plug. The weakened portion is replaceable so the pole is reusable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 3, 2002
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2004
    Inventors: Nogah Haramati, Joseph Margulies
  • Patent number: 6798083
    Abstract: A cryogenic power conditioning system for fuel cells is proposed which is cooled by liquid hydrogen or liquid natural gas (methane) used to power these fuel cells, or by liquid nitrogen supplied by high-temperature superconducting cables. The main applications are in large vehicles such as transit buses. The result is a combined motor and motor-drive system exhibiting higher efficiency, lower weight, smaller size and lower cost.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2004
    Inventor: Otward M. Mueller
  • Patent number: 6691461
    Abstract: A plurality of strips are releasably interconnected to a support bar as an assembly for mounting a shutter within a window frame. Male and female connectors such as tongue and groove or pin and socket connectors interconnect the strips to one another and to the support bar. The strips, located between the bar and the window frame, may be manually added or removed from the support bar by transverse motion individually with a low force to adjust the width of the shutter mounting assembly to fit the shutter to window frames of various widths without need for tools.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 13, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 17, 2004
    Inventor: Alan J. Gitkin
  • Patent number: 6690572
    Abstract: A SLC has a thin brittle ceramic dielectric layer less than 0.0035 inches thick and as low as 0.0005 inches or less. Electrodes are thick and strong enough either singly or together to give the structure required physical strength for manufacture, handling, and usage. Electrodes are (1) a ceramic metal composite, (2) a porous ceramic infiltrated with metal or other conductive material, (3) a resin filled with metal or other conductive material, or (4) combinations of the above. The very thin and, in itself, fragile dielectric layer provides exceedingly high capacity per unit area with temperature stability and low losses. A 0.00001-inch thick dielectric of titanium dioxide is also used.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 10, 2004
    Inventor: Larry A. Liebowitz
  • Patent number: 6684454
    Abstract: A cord tensioned by a spring supports the sash of a hung window in a stationary position while the sash is tilted for cleaning. The cord pulls a pulley attached to the spring which extends as the sash is further tilted. A tubing houses the spring and pulley and provides a stop that limits the maximum tilt of the sash.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 3, 2004
    Inventor: Matthew Ehrenreich
  • Patent number: 6679890
    Abstract: Combining an implant and cement for prophylactic and/or preventative use for femoral neck augmention. A hole is drilled into the femoral neck. The hole is filled with an uncured filler cement after loose materials have been removed from the hole. Then, an open-ended tube, an implant, having openings through its walls is inserted into the hole and attached to the bone. Finally, additional filler cement is provided under pressure to the inside of the tubular implant. The filler cement flows into spaces in the bone structure via the tube wall openings. A sliding leak-tight fit between the implant and a cement injection tube permits delivery of cement at preselected locations along the implant length. Pressure is maintained until the filler cement has hardened. A strengthening factor up to 3 was measured when osteoporotic bone was strengthened.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 2002
    Date of Patent: January 20, 2004
    Inventors: Joseph Y. Margulies, Gamal Baroud, Thomas Steffen, Max Aebi