Patents Represented by Attorney Noel F. Heal
  • Patent number: 8081383
    Abstract: A generator of duality modulated radiation, of which the irradiance, the wave intensity, or both, are varied from ordinarily equivalent levels, either for purposes of providing energy depleted or energy enriched radiation or for purpose of encoding an information signal. Various techniques are disclosed for restoring irradiance levels to “ordinary” levels, or for amplifying irradiance without affecting wave intensity. A communication system also employs duality modulated radiation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 20, 2011
    Inventors: Stuart G. Mirell, Daniel J. Mirell
  • Patent number: 7880964
    Abstract: A space telescope having a primary mirror for focusing and reflecting electromagnetic radiation, multiple secondary mirrors and, optionally, multiple tertiary mirrors, for receiving the focused and reflected electromagnetic radiation from the primary mirror and reflecting the electromagnetic radiation, and multiple focal plane arrays for receiving the focused and reflected electromagnetic radiation from the secondary mirrors or tertiary mirrors. The use of a multiple secondary mirrors and multiple focal plane arrays allows the telescope to observe multiple fields of regard simultaneously in selected celestial regions or on an orbited celestial body, such as the Earth.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 1, 2011
    Assignee: Microcosm, Inc.
    Inventors: James R. Wertz, Richard E. Van Allen, Paul H. Graven
  • Patent number: 7803241
    Abstract: A pressure vessel and method for producing a pressure vessel is disclosed. The pressure vessel comprises a liner shell fabricated from composite material applied to a soluble mandrel having a body shaped to pattern an interior of the pressure vessel, the liner shell having an opening, a boss having an aperture therethrough, the boss sealingly bonded to the liner shell with the aperture adjacent the opening, and an outer shell fabricated from plies of composite material filament impregnated with matrix material wound over the liner shell and the boss, but not over the aperture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2010
    Assignee: Microcosm, Inc.
    Inventors: Roy S. Cundiff, Aaron S. Leichner
  • Patent number: 7528380
    Abstract: An energy-depleted optical or particle beam is generated, transformed into a beam of converging annular cross section, and directed along the same axis as a primary beam. The energy-depleted beam intersects with the primary beam in a tapered annular region in which the two beams destructively interfere, because their wave intensities are adjusted to be equal and their phases are adjusted to be opposite (180 degrees apart). The region of destructive interference effectively compresses and focuses the primary beam to produce a spot size substantially smaller than any spot size attainable using conventional, diffractively limited, optics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2009
    Inventors: Stuart G. Mirell, Daniel J. Mirell
  • Patent number: 7428098
    Abstract: A structureless space telescope is disclosed. The structureless primary mirror includes a plurality of mirror elements for focusing and reflecting electromagnetic radiation, and the telescope further includes at least one secondary mirror and possibly a tertiary mirror for receiving the focused and reflected electromagnetic radiation from the structureless primary mirror and reflecting the electromagnetic radiation, and at least one focal plane array for receiving the focused and reflected electromagnetic radiation from the secondary mirror or tertiary mirror, wherein the plurality of mirror elements, the secondary mirror and the focal plane array are coordinated and controlled without a physical structure connecting the plurality of mirror elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 2005
    Date of Patent: September 23, 2008
    Assignee: Microcosm, Inc.
    Inventors: James R. Wertz, Richard E. Van Allen, Paul H. Graven
  • Patent number: 7262914
    Abstract: A generator of duality modulated radiation, of which the irradiance, the wave intensity, or both, are varied from ordinarily equivalent levels, either for purposes of providing energy depleted or energy enriched radiation or for purpose of encoding an information signal. Various techniques are disclosed for restoring irradiance levels to “ordinary” levels, or for amplifying irradiance without affecting wave intensity. A communication system employing duality modulated radiation is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 28, 2007
    Inventors: Stuart Gary Mirell, Daniel Joseph Mirell
  • Patent number: 7031395
    Abstract: An apparatus for converting a digital input signal to an analog signal for transmission. The input signal can include more than one carrier signal. A plurality of delta-sigma modulation loop circuits are connected in an increasing order of operating frequency so as to reduce a word length of the input signal. A tuning circuit adjusts the signal frequency to a transmitting frequency for conversion to analog by a digital-to-analog converter. A first loop circuit is implemented using CMOS gates, and a second loop circuit and the tuning circuit are implemented using indium phosphide gates. The apparatus allows a high-resolution, wide-band RF multiple-carrier signal to be re-quantized to a lower-resolution signal while an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio is maintained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2006
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventors: Jeffrey M. Hinrichs, Brian J. Rosenkoetter, Robert R. Harnden, Kenneth B. Weber, Mark Kintis, Donald R. Martin, William M. Skones, Kai E. Johnson
  • Patent number: 6985725
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are provided for supporting the transmission of communications data in a satellite communications network 10 between user terminals 15–18 and a ground station 14 via a satellite 12. At least one carrier signal is generated in a beam spot and conveys communications data over at least one downlink 22–25 to the user terminals 15–18. The carrier signal is modulated simultaneously with independent communications data streams EDP15 and EDP 18 over modulation channels 802 and 804, respectively, of a multi-dimensional modulator 400. By passing independent data streams over each dimension of an n-dimension modulation technique, different encoding schemes may be assigned to user terminals 15–18 based upon the strength of the signal received by the user terminal 15–18.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 2001
    Date of Patent: January 10, 2006
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventor: Harvey L. Berger
  • Patent number: 6972887
    Abstract: A high-energy optical beam generator providing a desired output waveform. The generator includes a master oscillator, such as a mode-locked laser, to generate an input beam, a first dispersive element to decompose the input beam into frequency components, a set of phase and amplitude modulators to modulate the frequency components individually, a set of power amplifiers to amplify the frequency components individually, and a second dispersive element to recombine the amplified and modulated frequency components into a single output beam. Phase control electronics control the modulators to provide the desired waveform for the output beam, based on its intended application and on sensed characteristics of the input beam and the output beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2003
    Date of Patent: December 6, 2005
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventors: Michael G. Wickham, Hiroshi Komine, Eric Cheung
  • Patent number: 6957020
    Abstract: An optical inter-satellite link (OISL) gimbal 10 that is particularly suited for directing an optical beam in an optical inter-satellite communications system is disclosed. The OISL gimbal 10 includes an azimuth drive housing 20, a generally cylindrical azimuth shaft 22 rotatably connected to the azimuth drive housing 20 and an optical payload 210 or beam-steering mirror 70 rotatably connected to the azimuth shaft 22. The azimuth shaft 22 has a clear aperture through which one or more optical beams may be directed to and from a stationary optical payload 30. A capacitive azimuth position sensor 40 detects the rotational position of the azimuth shaft 22 and a direct drive azimuth motor 50 drives rotation of the azimuth shaft 22. The OISL gimbal 10 preferably provides two-axis rotation of the optical payload 210 or beam-steering mirror 70 through approximately +/?180 degrees of inboard (azimuth) travel and +/?30 degrees of line-of-sight outboard (elevation) travel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 2003
    Date of Patent: October 18, 2005
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventors: Dan R. Johnson, Mark A. Carroll, Daniel R. Sherman, Timothy R. Stone
  • Patent number: 6945447
    Abstract: A chip or die attachment process and related apparatus, in which a desired quantity of solder (7 or 17) is dispensed onto each, in turn, of a number of desired locations on a substrate (4 or 18), and then an integrated-circuit chip (10) is precisely positioned at each location immediately after the solder is dispensed at that location. Hot gas heaters are used both to heat the solder (7 or 17) as it is dispensed onto the substrate (4 or 18), and to heat the integrated-circuit chip (10) and to reflow the solder beneath the chip. In one form of the invention, the solder is dispensed from a wire spool (1) and melted in position on the substrate (4). Alternatively, the solder is dispensed as a drop (16) from a liquid solder reservoir (13).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2005
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventors: Dean Tran, Salim Akbany, Maurice Lowery, Leon M. Singleton, Jr., Ronald A. DePace
  • Patent number: 6944475
    Abstract: A transceiver-processor building block (700) for implementation of radio systems, an example being used in an electronic radio system multifunction slice, includes several transceivers (704-710), a processor connected to the transceivers (702), and a local RF control bus (726) coupled between the processor (702) and the transceivers (704-710). A radio network bus (716) is also provided and connected to the processor (702). The local RF control bus (726) is inaccessible directly from outside the multifunction slice. In contrast, the radio network bus (716) is accessible directly from outside the multifunction slice to allow “stacking” of multiple slices. The building block (700) may also include an external control bus (728) connected to the processor (702). An external control bus connector (730) then provides direct accessibility to the external control bus (728) from outside the multifunction slice.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 13, 2005
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventor: Michael E. Campbell
  • Patent number: 6944140
    Abstract: A data routing subsystem (200) for a communication satellite includes an inbound module (602) that accepts demodulated uplink data. The inbound module (602) includes a routing table (702) that stores queue tags (714) specifying downlink beam hop locations (302, 304) for the uplink data. The subsystem (200) also includes a self addressed packet switch (608) having an input port coupled to the inbound module (602), and an outbound module (610) coupled to an output port of the switch (608). A memory (804) in the outbound module (610) stores the uplink data in accordance with the downlink beam hop locations (302, 304). A multiple beam array antenna (116–122) is coupled to the outbound module (610). The multiple beam array antenna (116-122) includes a first feed element (116) assigned to a first downlink beam hop location (302) and a second feed element (118) assigned to a second downlink beam hop location (304).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 13, 2005
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventors: Stuart T. Linsky, Harvey L. Berger, Dennis A. Nivens, Garrick J. Harmon, Fred C. Tramm, Robert W. White
  • Patent number: 6936913
    Abstract: A semiconductor device, a microelectromechanical system package and a method of making the same utilize high performance vias for vertical IC packaging. A semiconductor die of the device/package has a substrate with integrated circuitry formed on a front side of the substrate. A metal bonding pad overlies the substrate on the front side of the substrate and is electrically connected to the integrated circuitry. A solder bump is located on the metal bonding pad. An electrically conductive via extends through the substrate from the metal bonding pad to a back side of the substrate where the via forms a side wall of a via hole. A plurality of the substrates are stacked on one another with the outer end of the solder bump of one substrate fitting within the via hole of an adjacent substrate. During reflow soldering, surface tension forces of the molten solder bump self-align the substrates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 30, 2005
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventors: Gershon Akerling, James M. Anderson, Eric L. Upton
  • Patent number: 6928916
    Abstract: The present invention resides in an infrared identification system for identifying military vehicles as friendly or hostile. The infrared identification system includes a seed introduction system, in each friendly vehicle, that introduces trace quantities of a particular seed formulation into the vehicle's exhaust. An infrared detection system, also in each friendly vehicle, detects the spectrally-discrete thermal emissions of the seed formulation to identify those vehicles having the thermal emissions as friendly. The infrared identification system provides rapid and positive friend or foe identification of land, sea and air vehicles at long ranges without being jammed, intercepted or mimicked.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 20, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 16, 2005
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventors: Arvel Benjamin Witte, Arthur Karl Williams, Richard David Fleeter
  • Patent number: 6897799
    Abstract: A digital-to-analog converter having a differential signal path, and a current parking circuit that is independent of the signal path, thereby avoiding a source of imbalance that caused output anomalies in conventional digital-to-analog circuitry. In one embodiment of the invention, a pair of diodes in the current parking circuit are connected through their own independent load resistors to a voltage source. In another embodiment, a single diode is used instead of the pair of diodes, and in a third embodiment the current parking circuit comprises a single load resistor connected to the voltage source, and no diodes at all.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 24, 2005
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventors: Harry S. Harberts, Jeffrey M. Hinrichs
  • Patent number: 6882221
    Abstract: Apparatus and a corresponding method for predistorting an input signal applied to a radio frequency (RF) power amplifier, to compensate for amplifier distortion at high powers. The RF amplifier input and output signals are continuously monitored and difference signals are generated in an RF phase discriminator. The difference signals are converted to digital form and stored in a lookup table in the form of running averages of an RF amplifier gain compression value and an RF amplifier output phase value for each observed RF input power value. A predistorter module retrieves these values and predistorts the RF amplifier input by way of compensation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 2003
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2005
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventors: George W. Schreyer, James C. Becker
  • Patent number: 6865166
    Abstract: A satellite based cellular communications system (10) for servicing multiple user terminals (14) is provided. The satellite based cellular communications system (10) includes at least one processing communications satellite (12) which supports communications uplinks (16) and communications downlinks (18) between multiple user terminals (14). A network operations center (24) having a central control processor (26) communicates with the processing communication satellite (12) on the communications uplinks (16) and the communications downlinks (18). The central control processor (26) minimizes intra-system interference between the multiple user terminals (14) by allocating a connection parameter to each user terminal (14) based upon accessing a plurality of communication system parameters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 8, 2005
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventors: Donald C. Wilcoxson, Eldad Perahia, Gregory S. Caso, David G. Klemes
  • Patent number: 6865639
    Abstract: A crossbar switch includes a cross-point matrix with n input rows of cross-points and m output columns of cross-points. The crossbar switch further includes n decoders connected to the n input rows. Each of the n rows includes a single serial address input, a shift input and a data input. A serial address and data enter the address input and the data input in parallel. A shift sequence is transmitted on the single shift input. The data flows before the shift sequence on the shift input is complete. The data is shifted through the crossbar switch using a clock that is generated on-chip using a clock recovery circuit. The decoder converts a binary address input into a serial address and includes an N-bit counter with a plurality of toggle flip-flops. The crossbar switch is implemented using superconductor digital electronics such as rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) logic.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 8, 2005
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventor: Quentin P. Herr
  • Patent number: 6838933
    Abstract: A low noise amplifier (LNA) has a selectable bypass signal path integrated into the same integrated circuit (IC) as the amplifier components. In a normal mode of operation, an integrated mode switch allows an appropriate biasing signal to be applied LNA transistors, which function to amplify an input signal and produce an amplified output signal. In an attenuation mode, which is activated to handle large input signals, the LNA transistors are switched off and the input signal is attenuated by a voltage divider, which provides an attenuated output on a signal path that bypasses the LNA amplifier. An attenuation switching signal not only operates the mode switch in the LNA, but also selects between the normal and bypass outputs of the LNA, for further amplification downstream of the LNA.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2005
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventors: William R. Goyette, Harry S. Harberts, Trung H. Lam