Abstract: A semiconductor integrated circuit including a first power supply region supplied with a first power supply voltage, and having a first clock distribution network, a second power supply region supplied with a second power supply voltage, and having a second clock distribution network, a first phase synchronizer which provides a first output signal obtained by making a phase of a reference clock signal for controlling a data input/output coincident with a phase of a clock signal at a first point of the first clock distribution network, to a second point of the first clock distribution network, and a second phase synchronizer which provides a second output signal obtained by making the phase of the reference clock signal coincident with a phase of a clock signal at a first point of the second clock distribution network, to a second point of the second clock distribution network.
Abstract: A non-volatile semiconductor memory device includes a memory cell array having a plurality of multi-level memory cells connected in series. The plurality of multi-level memory cells forms a plurality of threshold distributions each of which corresponds to a status of a lower bit and a status of an upper bit, wherein a lower bit and an upper bit constitute a lower page and an upper page respectively. The status of the lower bit dichotomizes the threshold distributions into two groups and the status of the upper bit further dichotomizes each of two groups. When programming a memory cell of the upper page, higher potentials are applied to a non-selected word line adjacent to the selected word line than those applied to the non-selected word line when programming the memory cell of the lower page.
Abstract: An image forming apparatus includes a reference-pattern detecting transfer-body, a reference-pattern detecting unit, and a condition changing unit. The reference-pattern detecting transfer-body directly transfers a reference pattern image formed on an intermediate transfer body without a recording material. The reference-pattern detecting unit detects an optical reference pattern with respect to the image transferred onto the reference-pattern detecting transfer-body. The condition changing unit changes the image forming conditions based on a result of detection.
Abstract: A rewritable optical recording medium includes a substrate and a phase-change type recording layer. A portion in a crystalline state corresponds to an unrecorded or erased state, and a portion in an amorphous state correspond to a recorded state, to record EFM modulated information by forming amorphous marks by irradiating the recording layer with a recording laser beam, and the recording is carried out by irradiating a recording laser beam having a wavelength of about 780 nm through an optical system having a numerical aperture NA of 0.5 or 0.55, at 24-times velocity or 32-times velocity of the reference velocity.
Abstract: A packet communication method of the present invention includes establishing a radio layer 2 connection based on a radio layer 2 protocol between a mobile station and a controller device, determining a transmission timing of a received data packet based on a quality of service set in the data packet, and multiplexing, at the determined transmission timing, the data packet into a radio layer 2 protocol data unit of a fixed length which is transmitted and received on the radio layer 2 connection.
Abstract: A nonaqueous electrolyte battery includes a positive electrode, a negative electrode and a nonaqueous electrolyte. The negative electrode contains an intermetallic compound having an La3Co2Sn7 type crystal structure of which alkaline-earth metal atoms occupy La sites. The nonaqueous electrolyte contains at least one of methyl ethyl carbonate and dimethyl carbonate.
Abstract: A semiconductor device according to the invention is a semiconductor device which includes a low dielectric constant film of which the relative dielectric constant is less than 3.5, is provided with one or more seal rings that are moisture blocking walls in closed loop form in a plan view, and where at least one of the seal rings includes a seal ring protrusion portion in inward protruding form in the vicinity of a chip corner.
Abstract: An image forming apparatus includes an image bearing member, a charging roller and a pair of gap forming members. The image bearing member has a photoconductive surface including an image forming area for bearing an electrostatic latent image. The charging roller has a circular cross section with a first radius and a metallic core having a rotational axis of the charging roller, in parallel with and close to the image bearing member, and a charging surface for charging the photoconductive surface. The pair of gap forming members form a gap at least between the image forming area and the charging surface. Each of the pair of gap forming members have a circular cross section with a second radius such that a ratio of the second radius to the first radius is substantially constant through a whole rotational phase of the charging roller.
Abstract: An image forming apparatus includes an image bearer that carries a toner image and a lubricant supplying device that supplies lubricant to the surface of the image bearer. The lubricant supplying device is provided in the image forming apparatus and includes a lubricant block and a brush roller. The brush roller shaves and supplies the lubricant from the lubricant block to the image bearer via the brush roller. The lubricant only includes a mixture of boron nitride and fatty acid metallic salt. The lubricant includes from 10 to 80 percent volume of the boron nitride.
Abstract: A microprocessor includes a first information holding unit, a second information holding unit, and a switching authorization unit. The first information holding unit holds process identification information and authentication information which are associated with each other. The second information holding unit denies access from outside, and holds entry information of a process and the authentication information which are associated with each other. The switching authorization unit allows switching process when the authentication information held in the first information holding unit with the authentication information held in the second information holding unit match.
Abstract: A spin MOSFET includes: a semiconductor substrate; a first magnetic film formed on the semiconductor substrate and including a first ferromagnetic layer, a magnetization direction of the first ferromagnetic layer being pinned; a second magnetic film formed on the semiconductor substrate to separate from the first magnetic film and including a magnetization free layer, a first nonmagnetic layer being a tunnel insulator and provided on the magnetization free layer, and a magnetization pinned layer provided on the first nonmagnetic layer, a magnetization direction of the magnetization free layer being changeable and a magnetization direction of the magnetization pinned layer being fixed; a gate insulating film provided at least on the semiconductor substrate between the first magnetic film and the second magnetic film; and a gate electrode formed on the gate insulating film.
Abstract: A conveyor apparatus is provided that is free of a pulsing motion in the circulating chains so as to provide a comfortable ride quality on its steps. The conveyor apparatus includes a step guide rail, a plurality of steps, a step chain, and a chain driving mechanism for driving the step chain. The chain driving mechanism includes a rotating and driving unit, a driving sprocket which is rotated by a driving force given by the rotating and driving unit, and a circulating chain for giving a thrust to the step chain. The circulating chain has chain links and hinges that are to be connected to the adjacent chain links. The chain link includes a placing surface on which the step roller is placed, and pressing surfaces that are in contact with step rollers.
Abstract: A fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell having an anode, a cathode and an electrolyte film put therebetween, a fuel supply unit supplying fuel to the anode and a gas supply unit having a pump, the pump giving negative pressure to the cathode so as to introduce gas containing oxidant to the cathode.
Abstract: A wireless communication apparatus includes a mounting substrate having a duplexer, receiving and transmitting amplifiers individually connected to the duplexer, a processor unit having receiving and transmitting processors connected to the respective amplifiers, and a baseband processor connected to the processor unit. A shield case covers the amplifiers and the processor unit, and has a first partition provided from a top panel to a mounting substrate surface for separating the receiving and transmitting amplifiers, extending from an end and a second partition extends to another end from a cut extending from the first partition being laid across the processor unit.
Abstract: A development device configured to develop an electrostatic latent image on an image carrying member with a two-component developer having a toner and a carrier, the development device including: a developer carrying member to carry the two-component developer to a development region in which the developer carrying member faces the image carrying member; a developer control member to control a volume of the two-component developer; a plurality of electrodes to be separately disposed in a direction parallel to a rotation axis of the developer carrying member while separated from a surface of the developer carrying member and located between the developer control member and the development region in a rotation direction of the developer carrying member; and a power source to apply a power to the plurality of electrodes to form a periodically changing electric field generating an external force to convey the two-component developer in the rotation axis direction.
Abstract: A drive circuit has a level shift circuit which outputs level-shifted on and off signals each for controlling a power semiconductor element in an on or off state, a first RS flip flop which is supplied with the on signal through a setting input terminal and supplied with the off signal through a resetting input terminal, and which outputs a drive signal to the power semiconductor element, and a logic filter circuit which is provided between the level shift circuit and the first RS flip flop, and which blocks transmission of the on and off signals during the time period from a time at which both the on and off signals become a first logic to a time at which both the on and off signal become a second logic.
Abstract: A solder resist comprising a thermosetting resin is printed on a surface of an insulating board (7) having a conductor circuit (6). The solder resist is then heat-cured to form an insulating film (1) having a low thermal expansion coefficient. A laser beam (2) is then applied to the portion of the insulating film in which an opening is to be formed, to burn off the same portion for forming an opening (10), whereby the conductor circuit (6) is exposed. This opening may be formed as a hole for conduction by forming a metal plating film on an inner surface thereof. It is preferable that an external connecting pad be formed so as to cover the opening. The film of coating of a metal is formed by using an electric plating lead, which is preferably cut off by a laser beam after the electric plating has finished.
Abstract: Second digital information serving as copyright protection information can be stably and reliably read without any effect of a defect or pit missing on a disk-shaped recording medium. Second digital information is recorded onto a disk-shaped recording medium by wobbling a pit sequence recorded as a first signal. The second digital information is recorded so that a plurality of bits constituting the second digital information are allocated in a unit period of an identical sync signal contained in the first signal. During playback, the plurality of bits constituting the recorded second digital information are read a plurality of times every unit period of the sync signal, and information of the read bits is then integrated. Thus, information from a large number of wobbled pits across unit periods of a plurality of sync signals can be integrated to determine the bit values.
Abstract: A multilayer printed wiring board is composed of a substrate provided with through-holes, and a wiring board formed on the substrate through the interposition of an interlaminar insulating resin layer, the through-holes having a roughened internal surface and being filled with a filler, an exposed part of the filler in the through-holes being covered with a through-hole-covering conductor layer, and a viahole formed just thereabove being connected to the through-hole-covering conductor layer. Without peeling between the through-holes and the filler, this wiring board has a satisfactory connection reliability between the through-holes and the internal layer circuit and provides a high density wiring.