Abstract: A space-oriented apparatus for converting solar energy to microwave energy. The microwave energy is used to generate an RF beam for propagation to the earth. The apparatus is formed into an extended planar sandwich-like structure carrying solar cells on one surface facing the sun and microwave devices on the other face for generating the RF beam. The microwave devices are energized by the solar cells, and function to generate the RF energy. The apparatus is useful for converting solar energy to microwave power, and to operate communication satellites and satellites having radar functions.
Abstract: A system for digitally detecting the energy content of a received analog signal of frequency f.sub.c. The system comprises signal means for generating sampling pulses of repetition rate 4 f.sub.c, a first two level signal of frequency 2 f.sub.c, whose successive level transitions occur near successive sampling pulses, a second two level signal whose successive level transitions occur near successive level transition of a first polarity of said first two level signal, and first and second interleaved trains of clock pulses each having a repetition rate 2 f.sub.c, and with each clock pulse occurring between the level transitions of successive half cycles of said first two level signal. Also provided are signal means responsive to said sampling pulses to obtain alternate I and Q samplings of said analog signal with each sampling comprising a magnitude component and a sign component.
Abstract: An interrupt signal generating means comprising a digital-to-analog (D/A) converter and means for supplying to said D/A converter a series of binary numbers at least some of which point to service subroutines in a data processor, and when converted to dc voltages by the D/A converter have values which are equal to dc voltages originating in various peripheral devices which indicate a need for servicing by certain ones of the processor subroutines. A plurality of voltage comparators compare the dc output of the D/A converter with the condition indicating voltages generated by the peripheral devices and when equality of dc voltages occurs on the inputs of a given voltage comparator, an interrupt signal is generated and supplied to the processor which then accesses the subroutine pointed to by the corresponding binary number.
Abstract: When operating a system embodying the invention, the operator sits in a convenient position with his knees beneath the conveyor carrying the printed circuit boards. The tools for bending, cutting and otherwise operating on the components leads are located above the operator's lap, secured to the conveyor support structure. When a circuit board reaches a position in front of the operator, the board stops, the various bending, cutting or other special tools move into position, and the operator inserts the components the leads of which will extend beneath the circuit board in alignment with the tools. The leads of some components are bent by being forced against the sloped surface of a tool while the components are being inserted by the operator. The leads of others are bent and, if needed, cut by machine operated tools, actuated by the operator, after the components are inserted.
Abstract: A FIFO system comprising an expandable number of identical FIFO chips identically interconnected to form a ring with each FIFO chip comprising a RAM memory with inboard and outboard pointing logic which, when activated, direct the writing or readout of words into or out of successive memory locations of each RAM. Each FIFO chip further comprises border transfer logic which connects each FIFO chip with the immediately preceding FIFO chip in the ring and is responsive to the writing or reading of a word into or out of the last memory location of the preceding FIFO chip memory to activate the inboard or outboard pointing logic, respectively, of each FIFO chip, and further is responsive to the writing or reading of a word into or out of the last memory location of each FIFO chip to deactivate the inboard or outboard pointer logic, respectively, of said FIFO chip.
Abstract: A solar energy reflector useful in space-oriented apparatus for reflecting the rays of the sun to a panel carrying solar cells. The solar cells generate direct current power for conversion into microwave energy for transmission to the earth or other spacecraft. The reflector comprises a rotating mirror and a fixed mirror arranged to reflect the solar energy rays to the solar cell panel continuously.
Abstract: A length of photographic film being developed by heat is supported on a fluid bearing by heated air which passes through two porous elements which serve as the walls of the film path. The air is preheated and the porous elements themselves are separately heated within and beyond the film passageway in order further to raise the temperature of the air bearing. The edges of the path are heated to a higher temperature than the center of the path to thereby compensate for edge effects at the film. The added heat at the edges of the path provide more uniform heating of the film across the width dimension of the film.
Abstract: An improved interrogation means in a range finding system having signal generating means for generating interrogation signals having a first encoded portion and a first basic tone portion. A transponder means responds to said interrogation signal to generate and transmit a responsive signal having a second encoded portion and a second basic tone portion phase synchronous with said first encoded and basic tone portions as received at the transponder. The interrogator means has further means for storing the phases of the first encoded and basic tone portions after transmission thereof and other means for determining the difference between the stored phase of the first encoded portion and the phase of the received second encoded portion.
Abstract: A system for correlating a sampled received analog signal against a sampled reference waveform which is approximated by three quantized levels. The three levels are organized to minimize undesirable odd harmonics with the reference and to maximize the correlator output signal-to-noise ratio. The invention comprises first and second signal summers and first, second and third registers each having M corresponding stages and logic for generating and entering into the first, second and third registers, respectively, a quantized form of the received signal, at least one two-level reference signal, and at least one two-level enable signal corresponding to the at least one two-level reference signal.
Abstract: A vehicle multiplex system includes a power conductor for conveying electrical power to power-operated units on the vehicle, and a single signal conductor for controlling the connections of power to power-operated units. A multiplex timing unit applys a tri-state timing waveform to the signal conductor. Each of a plurality of control signal transmitters is operative in response to a physical command to apply a corresponding control signal to the signal conductor during a control time period in a channel interval assigned to the particular transmitter. And, each of a plurality of control signal receivers is operative to control the connection of electrical power from the power conductor to a power-operated unit in response to a control signal received from the signal conductor during a control time period in a channel interval assigned to the particulate receiver.
Abstract: A signal to be quantized is translated to a charge Q and the latter is multiplied by a fraction f to produce a fractional charge packet fQ. Then, another fractional charge packet is produced by multiplying the remainder Q(1-f) of the charge packet by f. This last step is repeated for succeeding remainder charge packets a sufficient number of times until a total of n-1 fractional charge packets have been produced, where n is the number of quantization levels desired. The successive fractional charge packets are compared with threshold levels of different amplitudes to determine the number of incremental charge packets, each of the same size, to be added to one another to form a quantized charge packet.
Abstract: A coaxial transmission line power divider structure includes an inner conductor split to form branch legs. The split portions of the inner conductor are arranged to define a hollow interior. An odd mode power dissipation element is disposed within the hollow. A thermally conducting element carries heat from the power dissipation element to the outer conductor.
Abstract: A solar array positioning system includes first light sensor means facing the same direction as the solar array and second light sensor means facing the opposite direction. A third sensor, this one responsive to gravity, is employed to indicate the direction about a diurnal slew axis that the array is tilted. These sensors are employed to determine the initial array slewing direction to insure that during slewing and subsequent tracking, the array never is rotated through more than a given angle, less than 360.degree., between two fixed limits. This permits connection to the array by hard wiring rather than slip rings. The system includes also fourth sensor means for providing fine tracking signals which assume control of the array position during tracking. A vane structure reduces the sensitivity of various of the sensors to obscuration by foreign particles. A low cost uncorrected lens may be used with the fourth.
Abstract: A resistor inserted between the collector of a common emitter transistor in a cascode amplifier and the emitter of the ensuing common base-amplifier transistor in conjunction with an operational amplifier responds to the collector current of the common emitter transistor to develop a degenerative-feedback-voltage signal for application to its emitter-base circuit.
Abstract: A relatively brittle sheet material, for example, a printed circuit board substrate, is subdivided into sections the boundaries of which are defined by apertures which permit the substrate to be fractured at the boundaries. Each aperture has side walls which intersect at points aligned along a separation line. Bending stresses are concentrated at the intersecting side walls to provide a clean straight fracture along the boundary.
Abstract: The power handling capacity of a matched coaxial transmission line power divider is increased with a minimum increase in losses by mounting the isolation resistor(s) within the dielectric volume of the coaxial transmission line and on an electrically-insulating resistor contact portion of a thermally-conducting heat sink. A low dielectric constant region is located between the resistor contact portion of the heat sink and the directly adjacent portion of the outer conductor of the coaxial transmission line.
Abstract: A digitized duty cycle pulse generator capable of resolution finer than the period of the available source clock signal. The invention comprises a means for generating a clock pulse signal having a repetition of f.sub.c, counter means responsive to said clock pulse signal to cycle iteratively through a count of n, and storage means for storing a variable binary value m, where m<n and m is the length of the desired duty cycle pulse, and where m/n is the duty cycle. Also provided are logic means comprising comparator means responsive to the instantaneous count l in said counter means and the value m in said storage means when m is not an integer to produce a first logic level signal when l<m and a second logic level signal when l>m during first selected cycles of said counter means through said count of n, and to produce said first logic level signal when l<(m+1) and said second logic level signal when l>(m+1) and during second selected cycles of said counter means through said count of n.
Abstract: Miniaturized optics comprising transverse and lateral cylindrical lenses composed of millimeter-sized rods with diameters, indices-of-refraction and spacing such that substantially all the light emitted as an asymmetrical beam from the emitting junction of the laser is collected and translated to a symmetrical beam.
July 11, 1980
Date of Patent:
December 7, 1982
Jacob M. Hammer, Charlie J. Kaiser, Clyde C. Neil
Abstract: A system for digitally processing an analog signal, such as an audio signal, for recording and playback. The system comprises means responsive to the analog signal to produce sequences of binary 1's for those portions thereof whose amplitude exceeds a given signal level and to produce sequences of binary 0's for those portions thereof whose amplitude is less than said given signal level, and encoding means responsive to each sequence in the order of their occurrence to form a digital word representing the number of bits in each sequence. Also provided are memory means for storing said digital words in said order of occurrence, and means responsive to the stored digital words, in said order of occurrence, to produce a two level signal whose first level represents said sequences of binary 1's and whose second level represents said sequences of binary 0's. Filtering means can be provided to filter the two level signal to produce an apporoximate reproduction of the original analog signal.