Abstract: A processing apparatus having a laser light source for oscillating a pulse in response to a predetermined trigger signal and irradiating the beam emitted from the laser light source to an object to process the object comprises a position detection unit for detecting a position of a dimmer removably mounted in a light path of the emitted beam, and trigger control means for generating a trigger pulse train for causing the pulse oscillation type laser light source to emit light and sending out the light emission trigger pulse train to the laser light source when the position of the dimmer is within a predetermined allowable range around a predetermined target set position.
Abstract: A hand tool comprises a body (2), a handle member (3) pivotally mounted thereon and an operating member (4) which is displaceable relative to the body between a starting position and a turning position against the action of a force. The handle member (3) comprises an elbow lever element (10) which has a pivot pin (14) resting against a support (15) arranged in the body (2) and which is displaceable along the support perpendicular to the pivot pin (14). The elbow lever element (10) has a first arm (10') which is pivotable about the pivot pin (14) towards and away from the body (2), and a second arm (10") which is adapted to engage the operating member (4) when the first arm (10') pivots in the direction of the body (2) and to move the operating member from the starting position to the turning position against the action of said force.
Abstract: A camera capable of operating in a red-eye prevention mode. The camera has an electronic flash device which is activated by a drive circuit in synchronization with the exposure. The electronic flash device also serve as a pre-light-emission device capable of performing pre-light-emission for the purpose of preventing red-eye effect. When it is judged from the photographing condition that red-eye effect may occur, a controller activates the electronic flash device to effect a pre-light-emission for reducing the size of pupils of eyes of a person to be photographed, before the main flashing which is executed in synchronization with the exposure.
Abstract: A control apparatus and method for a coating device utilize a measurement system to determine whether a body supplied to the coating device is acceptable for coating and/or to establish template data in preparation for a coating operation. The measurement system also obtains measurements of a body while the body is being coated, and these measurements are used to control the coating operation.
Abstract: A zoom lens comprises, in order from an object side, a first lens group G1 having a negative refracting power, a second lens group G2 having a positive refracting power, a third lens group G3 having a negative refracting power, and a fourth lens group G4 having a positive refracting power. A focal length of the zoom lens is changed from a wide angle end to a telephoto end by changing an air gap between the first lens group G1 and the second lens group G2, increasing an air gap between the second lens group G2 and the third lens group G3, and reducing an air gap between the third lens group G3 and the fourth lens group G4. When a focal length of the first lens group G1 is f1, a focal length of the total lens system at the wide angle end is fw, and an axial air gap between the first lens group G1 and the second lens group G2 in an infinity in-focus state at the wide angle end is D12W, the zoom lens satisfies following conditions: 0.8<.vertline.f1.vertline./fw<1.6, and D12W/fw<0.1.
Abstract: An electronic camera having an image sensor to receive the light rays of an object and convert them into the electrical image signals comprises an optical finder capable of varying its enlarging magnification or photographing area; a reading device to read the signals of a part of the area of the image the rays of which are received by the image sensor; a reading area modifying device to modify the size of the area read from the image sensor in accordance with the enlarging magnification of the finder or the displayed photographing area. Further, such an electronic camera comprises a metering device to measure the distance between an object and the taking lens, and the reading area modifying device modifies the size and position of the area read from the image sensor in accordance with the finder magnification or the displayed photographing area and the measured value by the metering device.
Abstract: A vibration driven motor constituted by an elastic member and an electro-mechanical converting element connected to the elastic member is characterized in that the driving direction is changed by changing the frequency of a vibration produced by the electro-mechanical converting element. In this case, the driving direction preferably includes two orthogonal directions.
Abstract: An elastic universal joint is constructed to prevent an interference between a front end surface of a shaft and a front edge of a second arm of a second yoke irrespective of an intersecting angle between two first and second yokes without increasing a size of the first yoke. For this purpose, a concave portion is formed in the front end surface of the shaft, and, in a state where the intersecting angle between the first and second yokes increases and a front edge of the second arm approaches closest to the front end surface thereof, this front edge enters the concave portion. A distance between a cross shaft and the front end surface is reduced corresponding to a depth of the concave portion, and the first yoke is downsized with a smaller weight, correspondingly.
Abstract: An exposure method of illuminating a pattern on a mask by a light beam from an illuminating optical system and exposing the image of the pattern onto a photosensitive substrate through a projection optical system comprises the steps of discriminating the kind of the mask, setting the state of at least one of the field stop of the illuminating optical system, the aperture stop of the illuminating system and the aperture stop of the projection optical system in conformity with the discriminated kind of the mask, and projecting the image of the pattern on the mask onto a predetermined area of the photosensitive substrate.
Abstract: An image processing apparatus comprises a number of times of integration determiner for determining a number of times of integration based on stop information representing a stop value of an image pickup unit for picking up a still object, and an integrator for integrating the still image data produced by the image pickup unit by the number of times determined by the determiner. The apparatus modifies the still image data integrated by the integrator for each integration in accordance with the current number of times of integration and the stop information. In another aspect of the invention, the apparatus comprises a calculator for sequentially and circulatively adding K times (0<K<1) of an input video signal and (1-K) times of a past image signal correlated to the input video signal to reduce a noise component of a still image or a still image area in a motion picture.
Abstract: An exposure method wherein a mask on which a pattern is formed is illuminated with a slit-like illumination light beam, and the mask and a substrate are caused to scan the slit-like illumination light beam in a scanning direction in order to form an image of the pattern on the substrate, and wherein photo-electric signals obtained by a sensor which moves in the scanning direction, relative to the slit-like illumination light beam, and photo-electric signals obtained from the sensor which moves in a direction orthogonal to the scanning direction are integrated so as to obtain integrated values thereof, and an unevenness among the integrated values relating to a direction orthogonal to the scanning direction is calculated
Abstract: A projection exposure apparatus has an exposure processing section for projecting and exposing an image of a pattern of a reticle on a photosensitive substrate, an environmental chamber for covering the exposure processing section and a fan unit for supplying a temperature-controlled gas to the environmental chamber. Exposure to the photosensitive substrate is carried out in a temperature-controlled atmosphere. The pressure of the gas in the environmental chamber is monitored by a pressure sensor. When the pressure is changed, the mixture ratio of the gas supplied to the environmental chamber is changed to keep the refractive index of the gas in the chamber constant thereby to prevent imaging characteristics of the projected image from deteriorating.
Abstract: The invention relates to a method and a device for determining and monitoring the degree of narcosis in a subject. The determination proceeds as follows. Auditory stimuli are generated by means of a stimulus generator (1). Response signals which signalize the response of the auditory chain to said stimuli are picked up by means of electrodes (4) on the patient's head (3). The response signals are converted by a digitizer into digital response signals. For each digital response signal, an implementation is generated by selecting a portion of the digital response signal. A signal processing means (7) is arranged, by means of which a first and a second mean signal of implementations is formed and by means of which the second mean signal is adapted to the first mean signal for forming an adapted mean signal. Finally, a waveform estimate of the adapted mean signal is formed with the aid of the signal processing means.
Abstract: A load applied to the constituent member of a toroidal type continuously variable transmission is mitigated to thereby improve the durability thereof. During low speed running, a clutch for low speed is connected and a clutch for high speed and a clutch for backward movement are disconnected. During high speed running, the clutch for high speed is connected and the clutch for low speed and the clutch for backward movement are disconnected. During the high speed running, a torque is applied to the output side disc of the toroidal type continuously variable transmission. This torque becomes smaller as the transmission ratio as a whole is displaced to the high speed side. Correspondingly thereto, the load applied to the constituent member of the toroidal type continuously variable transmission can be mitigated.
Abstract: A camera shake amplitude detecting device comprises a mechanical detector for detecting a shake acceleration when a camera body is shaken, and a mechanical shake calculation device for calculating a shake amplitude of the camera body based on the detection output of the mechanical detector. The mechanical shake calculation device discriminates a time point of change between a positive acceleration and a negative acceleration based on the detection output of the mechanical detector, calculates and integration constant, and calculates a velocity by integrating by time the acceleration detected by the mechanical detector.
Abstract: An electrically alterable, non-volatile memory cell has more than 2 memory states that can be programmed selectively. Programming of the cell is conducted by applying a plurality of programming signals having different characteristics to the cell. The programming signals include at least a first programming signal which programs the cell by a first increment and a subsequent programming signal which programs the cell by a second increment smaller than the first increment. As the cell is being programmed to a selected state, its programming status is verified independently of reference values bounding the memory states. For this purpose, a signal indicative of the programming status (e.g., the cell's bit line signal) is compared with a reference signal corresponding to the selected state but having a value different from the reference value or values bounding the selected state. The programming operation can thus be controlled without actually reading the memory state of the cell.
Abstract: A is a projection exposure apparatus has a light sending optical system exhibiting a high degree of freedom of light sending. The light sending optical system comprises a light introducing system for introducing light beams from a predetermined light source into a substrate stage, and a light irradiating system for irradiating a predetermined area with the light beams introduced into the substrate stage by the light introducing system. The light introducing system and the light irradiating system are mechanically separated but optically connectable only when the substrate stage is in a specified positional relationship with respect to the projection optical system.
Abstract: A change in the optical characteristics which is caused by an unevenness of the intensity of illumination, following a change of the form or the size of a multiple light source, is corrected by an adjustment mechanism with a simple structure. This mechanism further comprises a first correction device (21, 14B) which corrects unevenness of the intensity of illumination generated on a plane to be irradiated due to a change of the form and the size of the multiple light source made by a change device(13), and a second correction device (22, 14A1) which corrects at least one of a change of the back focus of a condenser optical system and a change in the telecentricity of the illumination light on the irradiated plane caused due to a correcting operation of the first correction device.
Abstract: A film rewinder for a camera comprising a motor and rewinding means driven by the motor and adapted to rewind a used film into a film cartridge, comprises first sensing means disposed at a specific position in the path of the film moved to the film cartridge when the film is being rewound and effective to generate an output signal when the leader portion of the film has passed the specific position; second sensing means effective to generate an output signal when the leader portion of the film is further rewound to the film cartridge beyond the specific position; means for selecting one of first and second conditions; and control means. The control means is used for de-energizing the motor when the first condition is selected by the selecting means and if the control means receives the output signal from the first sensing means and for de-energizing the motor when the second condition is selected by the selecting means and if the control means receives the output signal from the second sensing means.