Abstract: Motor control system for reversible series DC electric motor having improved dynamic braking performance for smoothly, rapidly, and consistently stopping the motor armature rotation so that any operated devices are similarly stopped at a predetermined location. The control system uses a bridge conformed like a full-wave rectifier together with a series of switches having open and closed positions to control the direction of current through the armature. The current through the motor field winding is always in the same direction. Provision is made to insure operation of a complete cycle once the system is initially energized and the switches which control the direction of current through the armature are protected from arcing upon opening.
Abstract: Motor control system for unidirectional series DC electric motor having improved dynamic braking performance for smoothly, rapidly and predictably stopping the motor armature so that any operated devices are similarly stopped at a predetermined location. The control system uses a bridge conformed like a full-wave rectifier together with a pair of switches having open and closed positions to control the direction of current through the armature. The current through the motor field winding is always in the same direction. The control switches are protected against arcing when breaking an inductive load.
Abstract: Golf-club holder which supplements a normal golf bag and is particularly adapted for use with golf carts. The holder comprises an elongated rigid body which terminates as a spike at one end which is driven into the ground when using the holder. Golf-club retaining means are affixed to the body and spaced from the spike so that the clubs can be retained proximate the upper ends thereof. The retaining means each have a short flexible member affixed at one end to the body and a ring-like retaining member is affixed to the other end. The ring-like member fits over the top of the club to retain same. When the holder is not in use it can readily be stored in the golf bag since it occupies only a small lateral space. In use, the golfer carries the holder and several clubs from the cart to a location remote from the cart where the clubs not used for the shot are retained by the holder. This keeps the clubs clean and dry and prevents clubs from being inadvertently left on the course.
Abstract: A high voltage ground blade assembly which has a folding member to aid in breaking ice and lowering the force to operate the blade assembly in combination with an electric coil which creates an electromagnetic force to prevent the folding member from moving when the blade assembly is in closed position and the blade assembly is conducting very high short-circuit current.
Abstract: Compact electrical power disconnect switch modularized to provide very broad current rating and comprising reverse-loop fingers which cooperate in pairs and form flexible spring-loaded contact members. An enlongated rotatable contact member is positioned between the reverse-loop fingers and makes and breaks electrical contact with same upon being rotated. Operation is fast and positive and three-phase power can readily be accommodated. A viewing window can be provided for a rapid check of the position of the switch.
Abstract: Flexible elongated light conductor comprises elongated transparent plastic member which carries a protective overcoat of shrink-fitted light-transmitting material. The light conductor can be conformed into letters or indicia and when end lighted, generally resembles a neon sign. The snugly fitting overcoat improves the light-emitting performance of the light conductor and enables the conductor to be bent through relatively small radii turns to form letters, etc. without distorting the overcoat, which distortions if present, would introduce objectionable variations in appearance.
Abstract: A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements having differing neutron absorbing capabilities for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The displacer elements may comprise substantially hollow cylindrical low neutron absorbing rods and substantially hollow cylindrical thick walled stainless rods. Since the stainless steel displacer rod have greater neutron absorbing capability, they can effect greater reactivity change per rod. However, by arranging fewer stainless steel displacer rods in a cluster, the reactivity worth of the stainless steel displacer rod cluster can be less than a low neutron absorbing displacer rod cluster.
Abstract: An entirely passive auxiliary core cooling system for a liquid-metal reactor wherein a path for natural circulation through a radial plenum and radially outermost core assemblies to the heat generating inner core assemblies is provided, the flow being cooled by a totally passive heat exchanger.
Abstract: A method of operating a pressurized water nuclear reactor comprising determining the present core power and reactivity levels and predicting the change in such levels due to displacer rod movements. Groups or single clusters of displacer rods can be inserted or withdrawn based on the predicted core power and reactivity levels to change the core power level and power distribution thereby providing load follow capability, without changing control rod positions or coolant boron concentrations.
Abstract: A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements having differing neutron absorbing capabilities for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The displacer elements may comprise substantially hollow cylindrical low neutron absorbing rods and substantially hollow cylindrical thick walled stainless rods. Since the stainless steel displacer rods have greater neutron absorbing capability, they can effect greater reactivity change per rod. However, by arranging fewer stainless steel displacer rods in a cluster, the reactivity worth of the stainless steel displacer rod cluster can be less than a low neutron absorbing displacer rod cluster.
Abstract: The mechanical spectral shift reactor provides a method and apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor comprising inserting a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members into the reactor at the beginning of the core life. The displacer members reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at the start-up. As the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, a selected number of displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals. The withdrawal of the displacer member allows reactor coolant water to enter the core which increases core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. Thus for a given amount of nuclear fuel the life of the core can be extended or for a given life of a core the uranium fuel requirements can be reduced.
September 24, 1986
Date of Patent:
December 1, 1987
Westinghouse Electric Corp.
Walter J. Dollard, Pratap K. Doshi, Raymond A. George
Abstract: The mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus may include drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. An array of tubes may be disposed between the guide mechanisms and the fuel assemblies for guidance and minimization of flow induced vibrations of the displacer elements.
December 24, 1986
Date of Patent:
September 8, 1987
Westinghouse Electric Corp.
Donald G. Sherwood, John F. Wilson, Robert B. Salton, Howard F. Fensterer
Abstract: A plenum separator system for separating the hot plenum from the cold plenum and from the reactor vessel wall in a pool-type nuclear reactor. One or more intermediate plena containing substantially stagnant and thermally stratified coolant provide axial separation of the hot and cold plena. A dual pass forced bypass flow through annuli at the upper portion of the reactor vessel wall, in conjunction with the intermediate plenum and an annular gas space adjacent the reactor vessel wall, provide radial separation of the hot plenum and the vessel wall.
Abstract: A method for reducing thermal striping in liquid metal fast breeder reactors by reducing temperature gradients between adjacent fuel and blanket assemblies by shuffling blanket assemblies at each refueling outage so as to progressively shuffle the blanket assemblies to the core periphery through multiple moves and to generally locate fresh blanket assemblies adjacent to exposed fuel assemblies and exposed blanket assemblies adjacent to fresh fuel. Additionally, assembly orificing is altered to provide less flow to blanket assemblies needing less flow due to an otherwise decreased temperature gradient and providing additional flow to fuel assemblies which need more flow to sufficiently reduce temperature gradients to prevent thermal striping.
Abstract: Antireflective silica coating for vitreous material is substantially non-reflecting over a wide band of radiations. This is achieved by providing the coating with a graded degree of porosity which grades the index of refraction between that of air and the vitreous material of the substrate. To prepare the coating, there is first prepared a silicon-alkoxide-based coating solution of particular polymer structure produced by a controlled proportion of water to alkoxide and a controlled concentration of alkoxide to solution, along with a small amount of catalyst. The primary solvent is alcohol and the solution is polymerized and hydrolized under controlled conditions prior to use. The prepared solution is applied as a film to the vitreous substrate and rapidly dried. It is thereafter heated under controlled conditions to volatilize the hydroxyl radicals and organics therefrom and then to produce a suitable pore morphology in the residual porous silica layer.
June 29, 1983
Date of Patent:
August 13, 1985
The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
Abstract: An integral heat pipe-electrode for molten metal baths having a vapor deposition coating on an inner surface of a hole forming the heat pipe to protect the copper of the electrode from the heat pipe fluid.
Abstract: A procedure is given for recovering yttrium and europium from phosphors or solutions which have become contaminated. An acid solution containing the yttrium, europium and impurities is passed through a cation resin exchange column, the resin holding the yttrium, europium and certain impurities. The impurities are then eluted from the resin with a relatively weak hydrochloric acid solution. Yttrium and europium are subsequently stripped from the resin exchange column using a more concentrated hydrochloric acid solution. The hydrochloric acid solution containing the yttrium and europium is heated with oxalic acid to produce yttrium and europium oxalate and the oxalate is fired to produce yttrium and europium oxide.
Abstract: Rapid recovery of molybdenum from an acid solution containing dissolved molybdenum is accomplished by using a multiple batch method. A first batch of ammonium molybdate precipitate is formed by diluting a first portion of acid with 1.5 times that volume of water, adding anhydrous ammonia, and seeding with ammonium molybdate particles while maintaining a temperature between 90.degree. C. and boiling. Subsequent batches of precipitate are formed by dissolving the previous precipitate in additional acid, similarly diluting as above, and adding anhydrous ammonia while maintaining temperature as above. All precipitates are coarse and fast settling.
Abstract: A luminescent discharge lamp to efficiently stimulate balanced undistorted plant growth, the lamp emitting radiation having a spectral energy distribution such that the energy in the 400-500 nanometer (nm), 590-640 nm, 640-690 nm, and 690-800 nm bands are approximately in proportions of 1:2.6:1.3:1.2. The enumerated spectral energy distribution provides for a very high plant growth rate with balanced plant growth. Preferably, the lamp comprises a band-emitting phosphor blend consisting essentially of about 95% by weight stannous tin activated strontium calcium magnesium orthophosphate and about 5% by weight of divalent europium activated strontium chloroapatite and phosphor having a line emission concentrated at 610 nanometer consisting essentially of trivalent europium activated yttrium oxide.