Abstract: An aqueous solution of an alkaline earth salt of a low molecular weight carboxylic acid, such as calcium formate, is sprayed into a sulfur dioxide containing flue gas upstream of a solids particulate separator in amount sufficient to produce a flue gas temperature at least about 10.degree. C. above its dew point at the separator.
Abstract: Finely divided coal is reacted in a combination of processes comprising flash pyrolysis and fluidized bed gasification of char from the pyrolysis. A portion of the char which is heated by the steam-oxygen gasification provides the heat for the pyrolysis step, which can be controlled to emphasize production of such materials as light olefins and BTX pyrolyzing at lower pressure and more severe temperature, or to emphasize production of a tar, suitable for processing as a synthetic crude oil, by pyrolyzing at higher pressure and less severe temperature. In either instance the fluidized bed gasification produces a useful synthesis gas.
Abstract: Flue gas is treated by a regenerable wet scrubbing process to reduce sulfur- and nitrogen oxides by reacting with a solution containing ammonium thiosulfate and hydroxide, and a ferrous chelating agent. A portion of the spent scrubber solution is regenerated by reaction with hydrogen sulfide, flashed to hydrolyze the polysulfide content, and then returned as regenerated solution to the principal scrubbing circuit.
Abstract: In a froth flotation beneficiation, the rate of addition of collector reagent is varied in response to the change in particle size effected by the beneficiation, as determined by comparing a size analysis of solid particles in one of the separated streams with a size analysis of solid particles in the feed stream.
Abstract: A method of controlling the separation of coal from a mixture of coal and refuse in a froth flotation device by measuring the differential back pressure between two gas bubbler tubes immersed to different depths into the body of pulp in the device to produce a first control signal representative of the pulp density, and adjusting the rate of addition of a froth enhancement additive to the froth flotation device responsive to changes in said first signal; a second signal, produced by measuring back pressure of a single bubbler tube and representative of the pulp level in said device, can be corrected for changes in density by combining it with said first signal and then utilized to control liquid level in the cell by adjusting the rate of withdrawal of refuse therefrom.
Abstract: A circuit for the arcless de-energization of a direct current load receiving direct current from a rectified alternating current source. The circuit includes a means for rectifying alternating current from an alternating current source to provide direct current to the direct current load. The means for rectifying has a current flow controller, such as a silicon controlled rectifier, connected with each phase of the alternating current source. The circuit also has means for de-energizing the then conducting current flow controller in said means for rectifying, the means for de-energizing having a current flow controller, such as a silicon controlled rectifier. The circuit further includes a voltage detection device for detecting a predetermined voltage drop in the circuit; and a time delay device for regulating the activation of the means for de-energizing.
Abstract: A coal seam is degasified in advance of its being mined by drilling one or more generally horizontal holes from a working face into the seam, and placing a particulate propping agent into the borehole to maintain its integrity.
Abstract: A method for producing fuel comprised of gasoline rich in methanol and methyl ethers derived from coal, which process comprises gasifying the coal to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen, steam shifting the gasification product to produce additional hydrogen, cleaning up the shifted product, catalytically converting the cleaned shifted gas to a mixture of alcohols, separating a methanol fraction from the mixture of alcohols, dehydrating the remaining alcohols to olefins, etherifying the olefin mixture with a portion of the removed methanol fraction, and blending into gasoline the resulting ether mixture and a second portion of the removed methanol fraction.
Abstract: A reactor apparatus comprisinga reaction chamber having a wall, inlet means operatively connected to a methanol source, and outlet means connected to an internal combustion engine,inner fins along the chamber wall,dissociation catalyst material within the chamber,an outer housing surrounding the reaction chamber and having an inlet connected to the exhaust of the engine and an outlet, andcombustion catalyst within the space between the chamber wall and the outer housing.
Abstract: A hollow trolley pole associated with an electrically propelled vehicle has an upper end portion and a lower end portion. A passageway extends downwardly through the trolley pole from the upper end portion to the lower end portion. A trolley wire contact shoe is mounted on the pole upper end portion and slides along an electric power line or trolley wire that is suspended, for example, from a mine roof in an underground mine. An electrical conductor extends from the contact show through the passageway to the lower end portion of the pole which is received within a socket-like connector which is spring mounted in a base member connected to the vehicle frame. The conductor is enclosed within an impact resistant flexible conduit that extends from the passageway in the lower end portion of the pole through the connector and the base member and into a contactor box for connection to a propulsion motor.
Abstract: In a method of producing fuel for start-up to an automobile internal combustion engine which is continuously operated after start-up on alcohol and/or dissociated alcohol and/or liquid hydrocarbonthe improvement comprising the steps of:(a) providing a readily replaceable first container having an initial amount of hydride therein in fluid flow communication with said internal combustion engine,(b) heating said hydride whereby hydrogen is produced leaving a hydride product and a remainder of hydridesaid remainder of hydride being lesser in amount than said initial amount of hydride,(c) initially starting said engine,whereby hydrogen is produced from the hydride for initially starting said engine and said remainder of hydride without regeneration of hydride product is available for the next starting of said engine.
Abstract: A method of cold starting an internal combustion engine operated on atomized liquid fuel after start up comprising the steps of:heating a vaporization means with an electrical resistance heating element,heating a catalytic dissociation reactor with an electrical resistance element,pumping liquid alcohol to said heated vaporization means to form a vaporized alcohol,conveying air and vaporized alcohol to said catalytic dissociation reactor wherein partial combustion of said vaporized alcohol occurs as well as dissociation of said vaporized alcohol to form a partial start up fuel mixture comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide,pumping liquid alcohol to an atomization means to form atomized liquid alcohol,adding said partial start up fuel mixture and said atomized liquid alcohol to form a complete start up fuel mixture,conveying said complete start up fuel mixture to said internal combustion engine,starting said internal combustion engine by igniting a mixture of air and complete start up fuel mixture therewithin
Abstract: A method of fuel treatment and distribution for an internal combustion engine including the sequence of steps as follows:(a) heating a catalyst bed reactor to a start-up temperature using exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine being operated on atomized alcohol; the catalyst bed reactor including a partial combustion catalyst and an alcohol dissociation catalyst;(b) vaporizing liquid alcohol to form alcohol vapor;(c) mixing the alcohol vapor with a fixed flow rate of air to form a partial combustion mixture, the flow rate being substantially fixed at about the flow rate required for adiabatic dissociation of the alcohol vapor at the flow rate of the alcohol vapor during idling of the internal combustion engine;(d) contacting the partial combustion mixture and the partial combustion catalyst and the dissociation catalyst to form a hydrogen-rich fuel;(e) mixing air and the hydrogen rich fuel to form a total combustion mixture;(f) burning the total combustion mixture in an internal combustion engine.
Abstract: A drill rod assembly for use in rotary drilling in a mine roof includes a plurality of releasably engageable drill rod members connected in end to end relation. One end of the assembly receives a cutting bit and the opposite end is drivingly connected to a drill chuck of a drill head. Each drill rod member includes a shank end portion, a socket end portion and a body portion extending between the shank end portion and the socket end portion. The shank end portion of each drill rod member is releasably engageable in the socket end portion of an adjacent drill rod member. The length of the drill rod assembly is progressively expanded to the length required for drilling a bore hole of a preselected depth into a mine roof. The shank end portion of each drill rod member is twisted in a helical pattern forming a plurality of helical faces around the axis of the shank end portion. The socket end portion of each drill rod member has an internal bore formed by a plurality of helical faces.
Abstract: A method of methyl alcohol treatment and distribution for an automobile internal combustion engine including the sequence of steps as follows:(a) heating a catalyst bed reactor to a start-up temperature using exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine being operated on atomized methyl alcohol; the catalyst bed reactor including a partial combustion catalyst and a methanol dissociation catalyst;(b) isolating the catalyst bed reactor from the exhaust;(c) vaporizing liquid methyl alcohol to form alcohol vapor;(d) mixing the alcohol vapor with air in a constant ratio of oxygen to alcohol at variable alcohol flow rates, to form a partial combustion mixture;(e) contacting the partial combustion mixture and the partial combustion catalyst to exothermically form dissociation mixtures the dissociation mixture including methanol vapor, water vapor, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen each in substantial proportion;(f) contacting the dissociation mixture and the dissociation catalyst to endothermically form hydrogen-rich
Abstract: A method of fuel treatment and distribution for an automobile internal combustion engine comprising the steps as follows:(a) vaporizing liquid alcohol to form alcohol vapor;(b) providing a substantial amount of engine exhaust heat to an endothermic reactor having an endothermic dissociation catalyst therein,(c) contacting said vapor and said endothermic dissociation catalyst for form a hydrogen-rich gaseous-vapor mixture,(d) mixing said hydrogen-rich gaseous-vapor mixture with air to form a partial combustion mixture,(e) operating an adiabatic reactor without a substantial amount of exhaust heat within an operational temperature range, said adiabatic reactor having a catalyst bed comprising a partial combustion catalyst and a dissociation catalyst,(f) contacting said partial combustion mixture and said partial combustion catalyst and said dissociation catalyst whereby a fuel mixture is formed.
Abstract: A process of tar destruction in gasification of carbonaceous material comprising providing a mixture of finely divided calcium compound of a particle size smaller than 65 mesh and finely divided carbonaceous material of a particle size smaller than 65 mesh, the calcium compound to carbonaceous material ratio being from about 0.5 to 1.0 and contacting the mixture with CO.sub.2 and tar exothermally whereby the tar is destroyed.
Abstract: A method for stabilizing a slurry of finely divided particulate solids in a liquid, the method consisting essentially of dispersing from about 1 to about 10 weight percent, based on the particulate solids, finely divided wood particles in the slurry, thereby improving the stability of the slurry.
Abstract: A method of forming a liquefied coal product having a lower sulfur percent by weight than the solid coal from which it is derived comprising the steps as follows:(a) providing solid coal having a sulfur percent by weight of a particle size less than about 14 Tyler mesh,(b) providing calcium oxide of a particle size less than about 40 Tyler mesh,(c) mixing said solid coal and said calcium oxide with liquefaction solvent to form a liquefaction mixture,(d) hydrogenating and heating said liquefaction mixture to at least about 750.degree. F. forming a liquefied coal product having residual coal solids and calcium sulfide solids,said liquefied coal product having a liquefied coal product sulfur percent by weight, which is less than said solid coal sulfur percent by weight.
Abstract: A high ash fusion catalyzed gasification process comprising providing a mixture of 50 to 90 weight percent finely divided carbonaceous material particles of a size smaller than 65 mesh and 10 to 50 weight percent finely divided calcium compound particles of a size smaller than 65 mesh,gasifying the carbonaceous material,the gasifying comprising heating the mixture of finely divided carbonaceous material and finely divided calcium compound to a temperature above the ash fusion temperature of the carbonaceous material and below the ash fusion temperature of the mixture to form a carbonaceous suspension of calcium compound whereby the calcium compound catalyzes the gasification.