Abstract: A process is disclosed for the fluid catalytic cracking of a hydrocarbon oil which comprises contacting said oil at fluid catalytic cracking conditions with a catalyst consisting of silica, a rare earth metal component and a dealuminated zeolitic aluminosilicate having a SiO.sub.2 /Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 molar ratio of from 4.5 to 35, the essential X-ray powder diffraction pattern of zeolite Y, an ion exchange capacity of not greater than 0.070, a unit cell dimension a.sub.o of from 24.20 to 24.45 A, a surface area of at least 350 m.sup.2 /g (B-E-T), a sorptive capacity for water vapor at 25.degree. C. and a p/p.sub.o value of 0.10 of less than 4.00 weight percent and a Residual Butanol Test value of not more than 0.40 weight percent.
Abstract: Plural vertical tube reactor provides downward flow only, in a serial manner, through a plurality of sets of tubes containing a particulate contact material such as a catalyst which are located in adjacent sectors or reigons of a shell and tube reactor. An empty tube(s) is provided to carry the reactant fluid upwardly from the bottom of one sector of tubes to the top of another. In a two sector configuration, the upper and lower end chambers are each partitioned in half, but the lower partition has a screened port to allow reacted fluid from the first sector to reach, and move upwardly through, an empty tube(s) in the second sector which is isolated from the other tubes in the second sector at its bottom end but not at its top end.
Abstract: Microorganisms of the species Talaromyces thermophilus elaborate an amyloglucosidase which shows remarkable thermostability. The enzyme shows biphasic decay, where an initial decay, corresponding to loss of 25-40% activity, is followed by essentially no further loss in activity at 70.degree. C. under conditions where a prior art thermostable amyloglucosidase showed a half-life of 53 minutes.
Abstract: A fractionation method is disclosed for the recovery of product alkylaromatic hydrocarbons produced by the alkylation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Three fractionation columns are employed in series. Aromatic feed hydrocarbons are recycled from the overhead of the first column, which is reboiled by the overhead vapor of the second column. The product alkylaromatic is recovered from the condensate produced in using the second column overhead as a heat source. The product alkylaromatic is also present in the bottoms of the second column which flows into a low pressure stripping column. The entire overhead vapor of the stripping column is compressed and passed into the lower portion of the second column.
Abstract: The limitation of an immobilized amyloglucosidase in hydrolyzing thinned starch to afford not more than about 93% glucose with isomaltose levels above about 1.5% can be overcome in a process for converting thinned starch to fructose using four closely coupled reactor stages. The first stage is a saccharification reactor using amyloglucosidase which converts thinned starch to a product containing from 50% to 85% glucose. This product is used in a first stage isomerization reactor, the effluent from which is sent to another saccharification reactor using immobilized amyloglucosidase where hydrolysis is continued until no more than about 6% disaccharides and higher oligosaccharides are present. Where this effluent is used as a feedstock for further conversion of glucose to fructose, it is operationally equivalent to a feedstock containing at least 94% glucose but with isomaltose levels under about 1.5%.
Abstract: Surface-modified electrodes which may be used in electrochemical cells for production of electrical energy comprise an enzyme immobilized on a support. The support consists of at least a monolayer coating of a carbonaceous pyropolymer possessing recurring units containing at least carbon and hydrogen atoms composited on a high surface area refractory inorganic oxide such that the carbonaceous pyropolymer monolayer coating replicates the surface area and macropore volume of the inorganic oxide. The coated support is then treated by impregnation with a water-soluble polyamine followed by contact with a solution of a molar excess of a bifunctional monomeric material to form a copolymer which provides pendant bonding sites. The copolymer is entrapped and adsorbed in the pores of the support material to provide a permanent attachment thereto. The treated support is then contacted with an excess of an enzyme to effect the conjugate attachment of the enzyme to the treated support.
Abstract: A process converting L-arabinose to L-fructose in high yield and selectivity is described. The success of the process depends upon careful pH control during cyanohydrin formation from L-arabinose and its subsequent selective hydrogenation, the choice of hydrogenation conditions, including catalyst, temperature, and pressure, to selectively convert the cyano group to the imine group with subsequent hydrolysis to the aldehyde group without any significant hydrogenation of the latter, and upon the use of performing reactions, including base catalyzed isomerization, in an atmosphere of an inert gas.
Abstract: A method is disclosed for regenerating particulate catalyst used in a hydrocarbon conversion process such as catalytic reforming. The method is especially applicable to moving bed reactor systems. The catalyst being regenerated slowly moves downward as a dense bed which is contacted with different gas streams at different elevations within the regeneration zone. The invention involves employing a portion of relatively hot combustion gas as a heating gas stream, with the remainder of the combustion gas being cooled and recycled to the combustion zone. This eliminates the need to employ a heater to provide a suitable heating gas stream.
Abstract: A process and apparatus for the cooling of hot fluidized solid particles such as catalyst of an FCC petroleum refining process. The particles flow downward from a first dense phase fluidized bed into a cooling chamber and contact the shell side of a vertically oriented shell and tube heat exchanger where cooling occurs via indirect heat exchange with a cooling medium circulating in the tubes. The extent of cooling is controlled by the varying of the heat transfer coefficient between the tubes and particles in the heat exchanger. The coefficient is varied by changing the quantity of fluidizing gas fed to the fluidized bed in the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is located within a lower portion of the cooling chamber totally below the particle inlet and outlet conduits. The heat exchanger can therefore be removed from service and protected by being buried under unfluidized relatively cool catalyst. The fluidizing gas supports combustion within a lower combustion zone.
Abstract: A process for separating a first saturated fatty acid from a second saturated fatty acid contained in a feed mixture comprising the acids, the chain length of the first being at least two carbon atoms greater than that of the second. The process comprises contacting the feed mixture at adsorption conditions comprising a crystalline silica having a silica to alumina mole ratio of at least 12, thereby selectively adsorbing the first saturated fatty acid. The remainder of the feed mixture is then removed from the adsorbent, and the first acid recovered from the adsorbent by desorption at desorption conditions with a desorbent liquid soluble in the feed mixture and having a polarity index of at least 3.5.
Abstract: Polyurethanes may be conveniently made by curing isocyanate-terminated urethane prepolymers with a N,N'-dialkylmethylenedianiline. The diamine N,N'-di(2-butyl)-4,4'-methylenedianiline is a particularly useful diamine. The resulting polyurethanes often are thermoplastic rather than thermosetting, making them especially useful as coatings, adhesives, and sealants. Such secondary aromatic diamines have acceptable pot lives and afford products with a variety of properties.
Abstract: Method and apparatus are provided for maintaining a substantially continuous gas flow through particulate solids in two zones. The solids are moved from a low pressure zone to a high pressure zone by means of a valveless lock hopper system. Maintenance of gas flow while simultaneously transferring particles between zones is accomplished without the use of moving equipment such as valves. The invention is particularly applicable in the regeneration of catalyst used in hydrocarbon conversion processes such as catalytic reforming.
Abstract: An improved method is disclosed for regenerating adsorbents used in an integrated process for the production of ethers such as methyl tertiary butyl ether by the reaction of an alcohol with an isoolefin. The sorbents are used to remove oxygenated compounds such as the product ether and the feed alcohol from a hydrocarbon-rich stream withdrawn from the etherification zone. The regeneration procedure includes contacting the sorbent with a heated hydrocarbon stream. The resultant contaminated hydrocarbon stream is passed into a stripping column used to remove light ends from the effluent of a dehydrogenation zone in which the isoolefin fed to the etherification zone is produced. The oxygenated compounds collected on the sorbent are thus selectively recycled or rejected rather than being destroyed or lost in low purity effluent streams.
Abstract: An improved method is disclosed for regenerating adsorbents used in an integrated process for the production of ethers such as methyl tertiary butyl ether by the reaction of an alcohol with an isoolefin. The sorbents are used to remove such compounds as the product ether and the feed alcohol from a hydrocarbon-rich stream withdrawn from the etherification zone. The regeneration procedure includes contacting the sorbent with a heated portion of the treated hydrocarbon stream. The resultant contaminated hydrocarbon stream is passed into a stripping column used to remove light ends from the effluent of a dehydrogenation zone in which the isoolefin fed to the etherification zone is produced. The hydrocarbonaceous compounds collected on the sorbent are thus recycled rather than being destroyed or lost in low purity effluent streams.
Abstract: A unitary axial multiport rotary valve capable of accomplishing the simultaneous interconnection of a plurality of conduits in accordance with a previously determined cycle, where any conduit communicates with no more than one other conduit at any one cycle step, or valve index position. The conduits to be interconnected are attached to a hollow stationary body, or stator assembly, which is comprised of three sections, or elements, each of which is cylindrical in exterior form. There are fluid flow paths in a rotating body, or rotor assembly, which is located inside the stator assembly. The rotor assembly assumes various positions according to the cycle steps and distributes fluid flowing into and out of the valve in a different manner in each cycle step. There are spaces between the rotor and stator assemblies which contain sealing means for prevention of leakage and definition of flow passages.
December 28, 1984
Date of Patent:
March 11, 1986
Gary M. Schumann, Charles A. Dolejs, David L. Schick
Abstract: Apparatus for converting weak light, or light of low intensity, to electrical signals descriptive of such light. The apparatus is capable of sensing differences in photon flux over an area of detection, that is, sensing a pattern of lighter and darker areas. An important application of the apparatus is in spectroscopy and spectroscopic anaylsis, where it is desired to record a spectrum in other than visual form.
December 29, 1983
Date of Patent:
March 11, 1986
Robert P. Schnell, Robert W. Sampson, Ronald F. Pancanowski, Donald J. Bruggema
Abstract: Electrochromic display devices which will maintain coloration after the electric current has been removed will comprise an electronic conductor consisting of a support which may be electrically conductive per se or contain an electronic conductor thereon, an electrochromic material in contact with said conductor, a solid electrolyte comprising a blend of an organic polymer and a heteropoly acid or salt thereof disposed on said electrochromic material and a counter-electrode in contact with the solid electrolyte. By utilizing this type of solid electrolyte, it is possible to obtain a display device which may range from about 5 to about 100 microns in thickness.
December 5, 1983
Date of Patent:
March 4, 1986
The Signal Companies, Inc.
Anthony J. Polak, James A. Wrezel, Allyson J. Beuhler
Abstract: A lead-resistant exhaust gas oxidation catalytic composite is disclosed. The composite comprises a support material comprising a refractory inorganic oxide having deposited thereon a catalytic component selected from the Group consisting of platinum, palladium, iridium, rhodium and mixtures thereof and having dispersed thereover a protective coating of zirconia. Also disclosed is a method for effecting oxidation of noxious exhaust gases comprising hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and lead compounds. Additionally, a method for oxidizing an exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine operating upon leaded fuel is also disclosed.