Abstract: A waterflood process wherein a slug of biopolymer is injected into a formation, followed by a slug of synthetic polymer. The biopolymer slug protects the synthetic polymer from degradation due to presence of salts or surfactants in the formation.
Abstract: A fungicidal composition comprising from 19 wt % to about 50 wt % of a halogenated aromatic dinitrile, from 19 wt % to about 50 wt % of copper salts of fatty and rosin acids, from about 0.05 wt % to about 15 wt % surfactant, and from about 2 wt % to about 60 wt % carrier. The copper salts comprise from about 20 wt % to about 30 wt % copper oleate, from about 15 wt % to about 25 wt % copper linoleate, from about 45 wt % to about 55 wt % copper abietate, and from about 1 wt % to about 2 wt % copper palmitate and copper stearate.
Abstract: Filled thermoplastic compositions have a lower melt index than do the virgin resins, leading to problems in molding. The melt index of the filled resin can be raised by the addition of 3-12 wt.% atactic polypropylene.
Abstract: Tertiary butyl alcohol, containing some water, is dehydrated to isobutylene in the presence of a catalyst and a hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water. Isobutylene, water, and the hydrocarbon are passed through a condenser to a phase separator from which isobutylene is recovered, preferably as a vapor phase, hydrocarbon is recycled to the dehydration zone, and a water phase removed from the process. The alcohol feed point location is the phase separator. A significant fraction of water contained in the tertiary butyl alcohol feed can be removed inexpensively, by phase separation, in the separator, to minimize the amount of water entering the dehydration zone.
Abstract: A receptacle device useful for receiving material, comprising a container having an open end, a closure or lid detachably and pivotally mounted on the open end of the container and an operating member connected to the closure so that the closure can be raised to and from a closed position in response to operation of the operating member.
Abstract: A defoamer for controlling the foam in high strength acid media and process for preparing same having a majority of a sulfonated oil and a minority of a long chain alcohol and a nonionic additive.
August 29, 1977
Date of Patent:
March 20, 1979
Cities Service Company
William A. Satterwhite, Robert M. Leach, Harold A. Stuhler
Abstract: (Cyclo)alkylenediammonium compounds corresponding to the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is halogen, R is an alkylene or cycloalkylene group containing 2-15 carbon atoms, each R' alone is an alkyl, cycloalkyl, or aralkyl group, and R'---R' together represent an alkylene, cycloalkylene, or aralkylene group are prepared by esterifying a tetrahalophthalic anhydride with a mono- or dihydroxyalkane, -cycloalkane, or -aralkane having a boiling point below 250.degree. C. to form a half-ester and then reacting the half-ester with a stoichiometric amount of a diaminoalkane or diaminocycloalkane containing 2-15 carbon atoms.The (cyclo)alkylenediammonium compounds of the invention are useful as flame retardants for normally flammable organic polymers and also have utility as intermediates for the preparation of N,N'-(cyclo)alkylene-bis-tetrahalophthalimides, which are also useful as flame retardants. The imides are prepared simply by heating the diammonium compounds.
January 17, 1977
Date of Patent:
February 20, 1979
Cities Service Company
Anderson O. Dotson, Jr., Francis T. Wadsworth, Lionel T. Wolford
Abstract: A normally flammable organic polymer is rendered flame retardant by the incorporation of a compound corresponding to the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is chloro or bromo, Q is halo, hydrogen, or a hydrocarbyl or hydrocarbyloxy group, and Z is a divalent saturated polybromocycloalkylene group containing 5-16 carbon atoms and 2-6 bromine atoms. Such flame retardants include, e.g., 5,6-dibromo-1,10,11,12,13,13-hexachlorotricyclo[126.96.36.199.sup.2,9 ]tridecene-11, i.e., the dibrominated 1:1 Diels-Alder adduct of hexachlorocyclopentadiene and cyclooctadiene-1,5. If desired, the flame retardant may be employed in conjunction with a synergist, such as antimony trioxide.
Abstract: Hot melt sealant compositions having improved adhesive bonding properties comprise a slightly crosslinked butyl rubber and critically-controlled amounts of a crystalline polymeric resin and a tackifying resin.
Abstract: White N,N'-alkylene-bis-tetrabromophthalimides are prepared by reacting about two molar proportions of tetrabromophthalic anhydride with about one molar proportion of a diaminoalkane containing 2-6 carbon atoms in a solvent mixture having a boiling point of at least about 125.degree. C. and comprising about 50-97.5% by weight of a liquid aromatic hydrocarbon or halohydrocarbon having a boiling point of at least about 80.degree. C. and about 50-2.5% by weight of an alkanoic or aralkanoic acid having a dissociation constant not higher than about 6 .times. 10.sup.-5 at 25.degree. C. A preferred solvent is a mixture of about 70% by weight of xylenes and about 30% by weight of propionic acid having a boiling point of about 130.degree. C. The products are particularly useful as flame retardants.
Abstract: Intermediate compositions useful for the preparation of improved hot melt butyl sealants are obtained by partially grafting a mixture of a butyl rubber, a different elastomer and/or a crystalline polymeric resin, and an elastomeric resin. Preferred compositions are (1) partially grafted mixtures of butyl rubber, epichlorohydrin rubber, and a block copolyester elastomeric resin, (2) partially grafted mixtures of butyl rubber, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, and a block copolyester elastomeric resin, and (3) partially grafted mixtures of butyl rubber, styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene block copolymer rubber, and a block copolyester elastomeric resin.
Abstract: An improved process for hydrating with liquid water over a solid catalyst and with a liquid solvent a liquid iso-olefin selected from the group consisting of C.sub.4 iso-olefins and C.sub.5 iso-olefins to form a corresponding product alcohol in the liquid state. The improvement comprises maintaining the liquid iso-olefins, the solvent, and the water in a single liquid phase in order to increase the conversion percentage of the iso-olefin to the corresponding alcohol.
Abstract: (Cyclo)alkylenediammonium-bis-tetrahalophthalates corresponding to the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is halogen and R is an alkylene or cycloalkylene group containing 2-15 carbon atoms are prepared by hydrolyzing a tetrahalophthalic anhydride to the corresponding tetrahalophthalic acid and then reacting the tetrahalophthalic acid in the resultant reaction mixture with a diaminoalkane or diaminocycloalkane containing 2-15 carbon atoms in a molar ratio of about two molar proportions of the acid per molar proportion of the diamine.The (cyclo)alkylenediammonium-bis-tetrahalophthalates of the invention are useful as flame retardants for normally flammable organic polymers and also have utility as intermediates for the preparation of N,N'-(cyclo)alkylene-bis-tetrahalophthalimides, which are also useful as flame retardants. The imides are prepared simply by heating the salts until an acid number of substantially 0 is obtained.
July 30, 1976
Date of Patent:
May 30, 1978
Cities Service Company
Lionel T. Wolford, Chien Yung Lee, Anderson O. Dotson, Jr.
Abstract: Hot melt sealant compositions having superior adhesive bonding properties comprise butyl rubber, plasticizing or tackifying resins, and a reacted mixture of an alkaline earth metal hydroxide and a solid polyamide resin having a high amine value.
Abstract: N,N'-alkylene-bis-tetrahalophthalimides, such as N,N'-ethylene-bis-tetrabromophthalimide, are prepared by reacting about two molar proportions of a tetrahalophthalic anhydride, such as tetrabromophthalic anhydride, with one molar proportion of a diaminoalkane containing 2-6 carbon atoms, such as 1,2-diaminoethane, in an aqueous medium.
Abstract: Oil shale, crushed to about 70 mesh size (300 microns or less), is slurried with a recycle stream from the processing of the reactor effluent. The slurry is then heated and charged, along with hydrogen, to an upflow, fluidized bed reactor. The kerogen in the shale undergoes hydroretorting, giving a C.sub.1 -650.degree. F. range of products. The spent shale is removed with and separated from the reactor overhead effluent.
Abstract: Flame-retardant compositions having an excellent balance of properties are obtained by flame-retarding rubber-modified polystyrenes with a mixture of about 55-95% by weight of a first flame retardant corresponding to the formula: ##STR1## AND ABOUT 45-5% BY WEIGHT OF A SECOND FLAME RETARDANT CORRESPONDING TO THE FORMULA: ##STR2## wherein X is bromo or chloro, Y is halo, hydrogen, or an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, or haloalkoxy group, and Z is a tetravalent hydrocarbon group containing 4-20 carbon atoms.