Abstract: The spark plug includes an insulator made from an alumina-based sintered body, and the insulator contains 90 to 98 wt % of an Al component in oxide equivalent. The insulator contains 1 to 5 wt % of an Si component, 0.1 to 1 wt % of an Mg component, 2 wt % or less of a Ca component, 0.3 to 6 wt % of a Ba component, and 0.11 to 5 wt % of a rare earth component, in oxide equivalent. In analysis using a scanning transmission electron microscope with a probe diameter of an electron beam set at 1 nm, Si and a rare earth element are detected at a crystal grain boundary having a thickness of 15 nm or less, and an alkaline earth metal at the crystal grain boundary is less than a detection limit.
Abstract: Disclosed is a wiring board on which an optical element is mounted in a state of being sealed by a transparent plate, lens or the like while preventing or reducing the occurrence of condensation or freezing on a surface of the transparent plate, lens or the like. In one embodiment, the wiring board includes: a board body formed with opposed front and back surfaces by stacking of a plurality of ceramic layers (insulating layers); and a plurality of optical element-mounting pads disposed on a bottom surface of a cavity open to the front surface of the board body. The wiring board further includes a heater circuit arranged at the front surface of the board body or an interface of the ceramic layers of the board body along a peripheral side in plan view.
Abstract: A spark plug includes: a center electrode; an insulator having a through hole around a part of the center electrode; and a metal shell holding the insulator from an outer peripheral side thereof. The metal shell includes a shelf portion that projects radially inward. The insulator includes an engagement portion engaged with the shelf portion from the front side, and a front end portion at the front side with respect to a front end of the metal shell. The front end portion has an outer diameter larger than an inner diameter of the metal shell at the front side with respect to the shelf portion. The front end portion of the insulator has a diameter-enlarged portion at which a diameter of the through hole increases and which is spaced apart from an outer peripheral surface of the center electrode.
Abstract: A pressure sensor includes: a diaphragm joined to a front side of a housing via a joint portion; a sensor portion; a connection portion connecting the diaphragm to the sensor portion; and a heat receiving portion disposed at the front side of the diaphragm. When: a minimum value of an area of a minimum inclusion region which is a virtual region, which include a cross-section of a portion from the heat receiving portion to the diaphragm and of which an overall length of a contour become minimum on a cross-section perpendicular to the axial line, is defined as a connection area Sn; and an area of a region surrounded by the joint portion on a projection plane perpendicular to the axial line when the diaphragm and the heat receiving portion are projected onto the projection plane is defined as a diaphragm effective area Sd, (Sn/Sd)?0.25 is satisfied.
Abstract: A purification control device (12) controls a urea water injector (5) for supplying urea as a reducing agent to an SCR catalyst (4). The purification control device (12) sets a pre-deterioration maximum occlusion amount based on the SCR catalyst temperature, and estimates the concentration of ammonia discharged from the SCR catalyst (4), as an estimated ammonia concentration, based on upstream NOx concentration information, downstream NOx concentration information, urea injection amount information, the pre-deterioration maximum occlusion amount, and ammonia occlusion amount information. The purification control device (12) acquires downstream ammonia concentration information. When the downstream ammonia concentration is greater than the estimated ammonia concentration, the purification control device (12) decreases the supply amount of urea from the urea water injector (5).
Abstract: A temperature sensor (1) includes: a temperature sensitive element (90); a sheath member (20) provided on a rear end side of the temperature sensitive element, and including a pair of sheath core wires (21) connected to the temperature sensitive element, and a sheath outer tube (22) accommodating the sheath core wires inside an insulation material; a pair of lead wires (80) disposed on a rear end side of the sheath member, and directly or indirectly connected to the respective sheath core wires exposed more on a rear end side than the sheath outer tube; and glass-braided insulation covering portions (25) individually covering a pair of respective connection portions (23) of the sheath core wires and the lead wires, so as to insulate between the pair of the connection potions, in a rear end from the sheath outer tube.
Abstract: A ceramic heater includes a substrate containing a ceramic, and a resistor containing another ceramic and embedded in the substrate. The resistor includes two lead portions, a joint portion that connects the two lead portions, an electrode portion formed integrally with at least one lead portion, having one end portion connected to the one lead portion, extending in a direction crossing an axis of the one lead portion, and having the other end portion exposed at the surface of the substrate. In a cross section of the electrode portion taken along an imaginary plane passing through the axis of the one lead portion and parallel to an extending direction of the electrode portion, 0.1?A/B?0.8 is satisfied, where A is the length of the other end portion parallel to the axis, and B is the length of the one end portion parallel to the axis.
Abstract: A sensor control apparatus controls a gas sensor which measures the concentration of oxygen contained in exhaust gas. A current DA converter of the sensor control apparatus supplies a current having a current value designated by a control section (hereinafter referred to as the designated current value) to a label resistor having a resistance previously set so as to represent the characteristic of the gas sensor (hereinafter referred to as the characteristic resistance). Further, the control section of the sensor control apparatus sets the designated current value to a plurality of values in accordance with the characteristic resistance of the label resistor.
Abstract: A plurality of assemblies are prepared, and a predetermined voltage is applied to a center electrode of each of the plurality of assemblies. The voltage applied to each of the plurality of center electrodes is detected by respective voltage sensors, and a differentiated value is calculated by differentiating the applied voltage, detected by each voltage sensor, with respect to time. A judgment is made as to whether or not a differentiated value change state in which an absolute value of the differentiated value becomes equal to or greater than a predetermined threshold value occurs. A judgment is made as to whether or not the occurrence of the differentiated value change state is caused by the noise, according to the voltage applied, for a specific time from the occurrence of the differentiated value change state, to the center electrode where the differentiated value change state has occurred.
Abstract: An yttrium oxyfluoride sprayed coating contains Y5O4F7 as a main component. In the yttrium oxyfluoride sprayed coating, when the total intensity of all peaks attributable to yttrium oxyfluoride in a diffraction spectrum obtained by X-ray diffractometry is assumed to be 100, the total intensity of all peaks attributable to yttrium fluoride and yttrium oxide is less than 10. Furthermore, in an yttrium oxyfluoride-containing sprayed coating, when the total intensity of all peaks attributable to yttrium oxyfluoride and yttrium fluoride in a diffraction spectrum obtained by X-ray diffractometry is assumed to be 100, the total intensity of all peaks attributable to yttrium oxide is less than 1.
Abstract: A spark plug includes a ground electrode and a center electrode, at least one of which includes an electrode body, an electrode tip, and a weld part formed therebetween. The weld part has an orthogonal projection on a virtual plane perpendicular to a layering direction of the electrode body and the electrode tip. The orthogonal projection includes projecting portions extending in a specific direction. The weld part satisfies a condition that a first line segment is shorter than a second line segment, wherein: the first line segment is a virtual line segment connecting peaks of adjacent two projecting portions; and the second line segment is a virtual line segment that is perpendicular to the first line segment and connects the first line segment to an outer periphery of the weld part at a point farthest from the first line segment.
Abstract: A method for manufacturing a spark plug including a reference standard imaging step of imaging a plurality of reference standards to obtain a plurality of reference images, each reference standard having a reference part with a predetermined known dimension; a reference standard measuring step of measuring a measured dimension or a measured number of pixels of the reference part in the plurality of reference images; a regression line deriving step of obtaining a regression line by the least squares method from: the measured dimension or the measured number of pixels of the plurality of reference standards; and the known dimensions; and a determining step of determining whether a target part in a target image is within a predetermined range based on a correction value obtained by correcting a measured dimension of a target part by using a relational expression describing the regression line.
Abstract: A spark plug includes a tip extending in a first direction and an electrode base metal having an extending portion extending in the first direction and connected to the tip through a fusion zone. In a section taken along the first direction and containing a center axis of the tip, in a case where two ends of the interface between the extending portion and the fusion zone are located at the same position with respect to the first direction, the linear distance between the ends is denoted by A, or, in a case where one end is located forward of the other end, the distance from the one end to an intersection between a straight line passing the one end and extending perpendicularly to the center axis and the outline of the fusion zone is denoted by A. The interface length B satisfies a relational expression B/A?1.2.
Abstract: A microcomputer acquires first and second NH3 electromotive forces from a first NH3 detection section and a second NH3 detection section, and computes a NH3 concentration, which is the concentration of NH3 contained in exhaust gas. The first and second NH3 detection sections output the first and second NH3 electromotive forces which vary with both the concentrations of NH3 and a flammable gas contained in the exhaust gas. The microcomputer acquires a second pumping current from an NOx detection section and computes an NOx concentration, which is the concentration of NOx contained in the exhaust gas. The NOx detection section outputs the second pumping current which varies with the concentration of NOx and the concentration of NH3. The microcomputer determines whether or not the exhaust gas contains the flammable gas based on at least the first and second NH3 electromotive forces and the second pumping current.
Abstract: The spark plug includes: an insulator having an axial hole formed along an axial line; and a metal terminal provided on a rear side of the axial hole of the insulator. The metal terminal has, at a rear end portion thereof, a bottom surface facing rearward and a projection projecting rearward from an outer edge of the bottom surface, and a mark is provided to at least a part of the bottom surface. The Vickers hardness of the projection is 100 HV or higher. A rear end surface of the projection is positioned on a rear side with respect to a rear end of the mark. An area of the rear end surface is 3 mm2 or greater.
Abstract: A spark plug includes: a center electrode; an insulating member; a metal shell; a ground electrode; and a cap covers an opening of the metal shell on the front end side to define an auxiliary combustion space in which the gap is disposed, a first angle being formed by a second line and a first tangent line, a second angle being formed by the second line and a second tangent line, the second angle being greater than the first angle, and at least a portion of the opening of the specific through hole on the auxiliary combustion space side being positioned on a range of the second angle.
Abstract: A particulate detection apparatus for controlling a particulate sensor which detects the amount of particulates discharged from a filter for collecting particulates contained in exhaust gas. The particulate sensor includes a detection section configured to electrify particulates contained in exhaust gas so as to produce electrified particulates. The particulate detection apparatus includes a period judgment section, an output obtainment section and an anomaly judgment section. The period judgment section judges whether or not the present point in time is within a previously set anomaly determination period just after completing a filter regeneration process. The output obtainment section obtains a sensor output representing the result of detection by the particulate sensor in the case where the present point in time is judged to be within the anomaly determination period.
Abstract: A holding apparatus including a holding substrate having a first main face on one side in a thickness direction thereof, and a heat generation section which is disposed in the holding substrate and generates heat when energized. The heat generation section includes a plurality of first heating elements arrayed in a planar direction orthogonal to the thickness direction of the holding substrate, and a second heating element disposed on a side toward the first main face in the thickness direction with respect to the plurality of first heating elements. Any one of the plurality of first heating elements is electrically connected to the second heating element in series through a first via extending in the thickness direction within the holding substrate.
Abstract: An electrochemical reaction unit including a unit cell, a cathode-side member, and an anode-side member. The sum La of the distance Lai between a virtual straight line representing a center position of the unit cell and the midpoint between opposite end points of a cathode-side supply opening group and the distance Lao between the virtual straight line and the midpoint between opposite end points of a cathode-side discharge opening group is smaller than the sum Lf of the distance Lfi between the virtual straight line and the midpoint between opposite end points of an anode-side supply opening group including an opening of an anode-side supply communication channel and the distance Lfo between the virtual straight line and the midpoint between opposite end points of an anode-side discharge opening group including an opening of an anode-side discharge communication channel.
Abstract: A gas sensor including a detection element section (71) including a solid electrolyte body and a pair of electrodes disposed on the solid electrolyte body, and a heater (73) for heating the detection element section (71). Inherent characteristic information is recorded in a record section (170) provided on the gas sensor or a record section provided separately from the gas sensor. The inherent characteristic information is information specific to the detection element section (71) and which allows setting of a relation between a change in the temperature of the detection element section (71) and a change in the internal resistance between the pair of electrodes.