Patents Assigned to The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Commerce
  • Patent number: 9970859
    Abstract: A detector mask transmits selectively a plurality of probe particles to a particle detector, the detector mask includes: a plate including a plate wall disposed in the plate and enclosing a transmission orifice arranged in a transmission profile to: transmit probe particles having a trajectory coincident with the transmission orifice, block probe particles having a trajectory external to the transmission orifice, and form a probe particle beam comprising the probe particles transmitted by the transmission orifice to the particle detector, wherein the transmission profile includes a sector, a semi-circle, an annular sector, or a combination including at least one of the foregoing first transmission profiles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 11, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 15, 2018
    Assignee: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
    Inventors: Jason D. Holm, Robert R. Keller, Katherine P. Rice
  • Patent number: 9958317
    Abstract: A differential goniophotometer includes: an integrating sphere including an interior bounded by an interior wall and that receives, in the interior, a primary light source that provides primary light; and a fisheye lens disposed in the interior of the integrating sphere in optical communication with the primary light source such that the fisheye lens: receives the primary light from the primary light source, and provides a curvilinear image of the interior of the integrating sphere and the primary light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 1, 2018
    Assignee: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
    Inventor: Yuqin Zong
  • Patent number: 9952293
    Abstract: A magnetic piezoelectric composite adjusts magnetic anisotropy strength in a bimetallic member and includes: a piezoelectric layer to produce a strain in response to receipt of a strain voltage; and the bimetallic member disposed on the piezoelectric layer, the bimetallic member including: a plurality of metal layers, such that a second metal layer is interposed between a pair of first metal layers, the bimetallic member being ferromagnetic; and a magnetic anisotropy strength that changes in response to receipt of the strain from the piezoelectric layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 2016
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2018
    Assignee: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
    Inventors: Daniel B. Gopman, Robert D. Shull
  • Patent number: 9951406
    Abstract: A primary alloy includes: nickel; copper; zinc; an electrical conductivity from 5.2% International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) to 5.6% IACS measured in accordance with ASTM E1004-09 (2009); and a disordered crystalline phase wherein atoms of the nickel, cooper, and zinc are randomly arranged in the disordered crystalline phase at room temperature in a post-annealed state. A process for making the primary alloy includes heating a secondary alloy to a first temperature that is greater than or equal to an annealing temperature to form an annealing alloy, the secondary alloy including a secondary phase; and quenching, by cooling the annealing alloy from the first temperature to a second temperature that is less than the annealing temperature, under a condition effective to form the primary alloy including the disordered crystalline phase, wherein the disordered crystalline phase is different than the secondary phase of the secondary alloy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 2015
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2018
    Assignees: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE, THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE DEPARMENT OF THE TREASURY
    Inventors: Eric A. Lass, Mark R. Stoudt, Carelyn Campbell, Tsineng Tony Ying
  • Patent number: 9951271
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for making an asymmetric fluorophore. The asymmetric fluorophore is useful as a stain for staining live cells or fixed cell and provides whole-cell staining of such cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 2016
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2018
    Assignee: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
    Inventors: Christopher Arnatt, John Elliott
  • Patent number: 9941837
    Abstract: A process for determining a nonlinear response of a photovoltaic cell that includes: producing a first set of first light pulses including a first light that includes a first photon flux; and different first magnitudes of first photon flux; producing a second set of second light pulses that include: a second light including a second photon flux; and different second magnitudes of second photon flux; repeating the first light pulses in a selected combination with the second light pulses to produce a combinatorial set of combinatorial light pulses including: a combinatorial light comprising a combinatorial photon flux and different combinatorial magnitudes; irradiating a photovoltaic cell separately with the first set, second set, and the combinatorial set; separately producing, a first, second, and combinatorial photovoltaic output; and solving a system of linear equations to determine the nonlinear relationship between the photovoltaic output and the magnitude of flux.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 2016
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2018
    Assignee: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
    Inventors: Behrang H. Hamadani, Andrew M. Shore, Howard W. Yoon
  • Patent number: 9921174
    Abstract: Systems and methods for controlling the temperature of small volumes such as yoctoliter volumes, are described. The systems include one or more plasmonic nanostructures attached at or near a nanopore. Upon excitation of the plasmonic nanostructures, such as for example by exposure to laser light, the nanoparticles are rapidly heated thereby causing a change in the ionic conductance along the nanopore. The temperature change is determined from the ionic conductance. These temperature changes can be used to control rapid thermodynamic changes in molecular analytes as they interact with the nanopore.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2018
    Assignees: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE, THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: John J. Kasianowicz, Joseph E. Reiner, Arvind K. Balijepalli, III, Joseph W. Robertson, Daniel L. Burden, Lisa Burden
  • Patent number: 9903808
    Abstract: A comb source includes a continuous wave frequency source to provide a continuous wave radiation; a first modulator in optical communication with the continuous wave frequency source; a second modulator in optical communication with continuous wave frequency source; and a waveform driver in electrical communication with the first modulator and the second modulator. A process for producing an analyte spectrum includes producing a first comb from a continuous wave frequency and a first waveform; producing a reference comb and a probe comb from the first comb; subjecting a sample to the probe comb; producing a sample comb in response to subjecting the sample to the probe comb; producing a composite comb from the reference comb and the sample comb; producing a second comb from the continuous wave frequency and a second waveform; and combining the second comb and the composite comb to produce the analyte spectrum.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 6, 2015
    Date of Patent: February 27, 2018
    Assignee: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
    Inventors: David F. Plusquellic, David A. Long, Kevin O. Douglass, Joseph T. Hodges, Adam J. Fleisher
  • Patent number: 9897541
    Abstract: An attenuated total reflection flow cell includes: a source prism; an internal reflection member that produces attenuated reflected light in response to attenuated reflectance of a source light; an exit prism that receives the attenuated reflected light from the internal reflection member; a flow member mechanically coupled to the internal reflection member to provide a flow of fluid to a surface of the internal reflection member.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 20, 2017
    Date of Patent: February 20, 2018
    Assignee: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
    Inventor: Brent A. Sperling
  • Patent number: 9899197
    Abstract: A hybrid extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging spectrometer includes: a radiation source to: produce EUV radiation; subject a sample to the EUV radiation; photoionize a plurality of atoms of the sample; and form photoions from the atoms subject to photoionization by the EUV radiation, the photoions being desorbed from the sample in response to the sample being subjected to the EUV radiation; an ion detector to detect the photoions: as a function of a time-of-arrival of the photoions at the ion detector after the sample is subjected to the EUV radiation; or as a function of a position of the photoions at the ion detector; an electron source to: produce a plurality of primary electrons; subject the sample to the primary electrons; and form scattered electrons from the sample in response to the sample being subjected to the primary electrons; and an electron detector to detect the scattered electrons: as a function of a time-of-arrival of the scattered electrons at the electron detector after the sample is subjected
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 2016
    Date of Patent: February 20, 2018
    Assignees: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE, COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES
    Inventors: Norman A. Sanford, Ann Chiaramonti Debay, Brian P. Gorman, David R. Diercks
  • Patent number: 9828677
    Abstract: A process for etching includes disposing an activating catalyst on a substrate; providing a vapor composition that includes an etchant oxidizer, an activatable etchant, or a combination thereof; contacting the activating catalyst with the etchant oxidizer; contacting the substrate with the activatable etchant; performing an oxidation-reduction reaction between the substrate, the activatable etchant, and the etchant oxidizer in a presence of the activating catalyst and the vapor composition; forming an etchant product that includes a plurality of atoms from the substrate; and removing the etchant product from the substrate to etch the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 2015
    Date of Patent: November 28, 2017
    Assignee: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
    Inventor: Owen Hildreth
  • Patent number: 9809452
    Abstract: A process for making a nanoduct includes: disposing an etchant catalyst on a semiconductor substrate including a single crystal structure; heating the semiconductor substrate to an etching temperature; introducing an oxidant; contacting the semiconductor substrate with the oxidant in a presence of the etchant catalyst; anisotropically etching the semiconductor substrate by the etchant catalyst in a presence of the oxidant in an etch direction that is coincident along a crystallographic axis of the semiconductor substrate; and forming the nanoduct as the etchant catalyst propagates along a surface of the semiconductor substrate during anisotropically etching the semiconductor substrate, the nanoduct being crystallographically aligned with the crystallographic axis of the semiconductor substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 2017
    Date of Patent: November 7, 2017
    Assignee: The United States of America, as represented by the Secretary of Commerce
    Inventor: Babak Nikoobakht, IV
  • Patent number: 9809882
    Abstract: A process for depositing a metal includes disposing an activating catalyst on a substrate; contacting the activating catalyst with a metal cation from a vapor deposition composition; contacting the substrate with a reducing anion from the vapor deposition composition; performing an oxidation-reduction reaction between the metal cation and the reducing anion in a presence of the activating catalyst; and forming a metal from the metal cation to deposit the metal on the substrate. A system for depositing a metal includes an activating catalyst to deposit on a substrate; and a primary reagent to form: a metal cation to deposit on the substrate as a metal; and a reducing anion to provide electrons to the activating catalyst, the metal cation, the substrate, or a combination thereof, wherein the primary reagent forms the metal cation and the reducing anion in response to being subjected to a dissociating condition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 2015
    Date of Patent: November 7, 2017
    Assignee: The United States of America, as represented by the Secretary of Commerce
    Inventor: Owen Hildreth
  • Patent number: 9772263
    Abstract: A sampling system includes an analyte sampler that includes an enclosure; a mount disposed in the enclosure; a capillary tube disposed in the mount; and a thermal member disposed in the enclosure and including a first fluid supply member to provide a fluid to an interior of the enclosure. The sampling system also includes a manifold in fluid communication with the analyte sampler. A process for sampling an analyte includes subjecting the capillary tube to a negative pressure; and controlling the temperature of the capillary tube to immobilize the analyte in the capillary tube; providing an analyte to a second end of the capillary tube; and immobilizing the analyte in the capillary tube to sample the analyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2014
    Date of Patent: September 26, 2017
    Assignee: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
    Inventor: Thomas J. Bruno
  • Patent number: 9746415
    Abstract: A detector mask transmits selectively a plurality of probe particles to a particle detector, the detector mask includes: a plate including a plate wall disposed in the plate and enclosing a transmission orifice arranged in a transmission profile to: transmit probe particles having a trajectory coincident with the transmission orifice, block probe particles having a trajectory external to the transmission orifice, and form a probe particle beam comprising the probe particles transmitted by the transmission orifice to the particle detector, wherein the transmission profile includes a sector, a semi-circle, an annular sector, or a combination including at least one of the foregoing first transmission profiles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 11, 2017
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2017
    Assignee: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
    Inventors: Jason D. Holm, Robert R. Keller, Katherine P. Rice
  • Patent number: 9726553
    Abstract: A thermometer includes a substrate; an optical resonator disposed on the substrate and including an optical resonance, the optical resonator being configured to receive a resonant frequency corresponding to the optical resonance; and a waveguide disposed on the substrate proximate to the optical resonator to receive input light, to communicate the resonant frequency to the optical resonator, and to transmit output light; wherein an aperture is interposed between: the substrate and the optical resonator, the substrate and the waveguide, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing, and the thermometer is configured to change the optical resonance in response to a change in temperature of the optical resonator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 2014
    Date of Patent: August 8, 2017
    Assignee: The United States of America, as Represented by the Secretary of Commerce
    Inventors: Zeeshan Ahmed, Steve Semancik, Jacob M Taylor, Jingyun Fan, Mohammad Hafezi, Haitan Xu, Gregory Strouse
  • Patent number: 9725752
    Abstract: A process for assaying a biological sample includes: receiving a reference sample by an acoustic article including: a resonator including: a substrate; a piezoelectric member; and a phase noise detector; disposing the reference sample on the piezoelectric member; producing a reference phase noise signal; detecting the reference phase noise signal; disposing a biological sample on the piezoelectric member; producing a first biological phase noise signal; detecting the first biological phase noise signal; contacting the biological sample disposed on the piezoelectric member with an antimicrobial agent; producing a second biological phase noise signal; detecting the second biological phase noise signal; and analyzing the first biological phase noise signal, the second biological phase noise signal, and the reference phase noise signal to assay the biological sample.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 2016
    Date of Patent: August 8, 2017
    Assignee: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
    Inventors: Ward L. Johnson, Danielle C. France, Teresa L. Kirschling, Fred L. Walls
  • Patent number: 9719878
    Abstract: An article to determine a sample condition includes a substrate; a reference optical cavity disposed on the substrate and comprising a reference cavity, the reference optical cavity being configured to support a reference optical resonance and to maintain an axial length of the reference cavity; and a sample optical cavity disposed on the substrate and comprising a sample cavity, the sample optical cavity being configured to support a sample optical resonance and to maintain an axial length of the sample cavity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 2015
    Date of Patent: August 1, 2017
    Assignee: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
    Inventors: Jay H. Hendricks, Gregory F. Strouse, Jacob E. Ricker, Douglas A. Olson, Gregory E. Scace, Jack A. Stone, Patrick F. Egan
  • Patent number: 9714991
    Abstract: A susceptometer includes: a substrate; a plurality of electrodes including: a first pair of electrodes disposed on the substrate; a second pair of electrodes disposed on the substrate, the second pair of electrodes arranged collinear with the first pair of electrodes to form a set of aligned electrodes; and a third pair of electrodes disposed on the substrate, the third pair of electrodes arranged noncollinearly with set of aligned electrodes; and a solenoid circumscribingly disposed around the electrodes to: receive the sample such that the solenoid is circumscribingly disposed around the sample; receive an alternating current and produce an primary magnetic field based on the alternating current; and subject the sample to the primary magnetic field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 2016
    Date of Patent: July 25, 2017
    Assignee: The United States of America, as Represented by the Secretary of Commerce
    Inventor: Daniel B. Gopman
  • Patent number: 9688867
    Abstract: A flame retardant coating composition comprising poly(dopamine) and either tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane) or gaseous ammonia, as well as an article comprising a substrate and the flame retardant coating composition, is provided. In various embodiments, the poly(dopamine) is substantially water insoluble. The coating composition can further comprise at least one additional component selected from the group consisting of melamine, an anionic clay, a phosphorus-containing compound, an amine-containing compound, aluminosilicates, silicon oxides, and combinations thereof. Also provided are methods for forming the flame retardant coating composition and methods for increasing flame retardant properties of a substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 2014
    Date of Patent: June 27, 2017
    Assignees: AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE, THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: Mauro Zammarano, Douglas Fox, Philipp Gr├╝tzmacher, Rick Davis