Patents Examined by Anita E. Pellman
  • Patent number: 4944576
    Abstract: A polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) film, along with various fabrication methods that enable partial prealignment of the film's LC bubbles, are described. The film is formed with a matrix of liquid crystal bubbles. Individual liquid crystals within the bubbles are partially, but substantially less than fully, aligned in a given direction. Partial alignment is attained by the controlled application of an electric or magnetic field, or a mechanical flow, during photopolymerization. The resulting films retain the positive qualities of prior PDLCs, and in addition exhibit generally lower threshold and operating voltages, and can be used as tunable birefringent films in the infrared region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 31, 1990
    Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company
    Inventors: Anna M. Lacker, J. David Margerum, Elena Ramos, Willis H. Smith, Jr., Khoon C. Lim
  • Patent number: 4878738
    Abstract: An electro-optical device comprising: an electro-optical panel having two substrates, at least one of which has a first group of lead terminals, a circuit board having a second group of lead terminals corresponding to the first group of the lead terminals, a connector for electrically connecting together the first and second groups of the lead terminals, a frame for positioning both the electro-optical panel and connector to the circuit board, and a buffer provided on at least a portion between the electro-optical panel and the frame.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 1988
    Date of Patent: November 7, 1989
    Assignee: Seiko Instruments, Inc.
    Inventor: Takayoshi Hanami
  • Patent number: 4878740
    Abstract: A liquid crystal cell includes a pair of substrates, and a ferroelectric liquid crystal assuming a first and a second orientation state in response to an electric field applied thereto. The liquid crystal cell is combined with an optical detector including a polarizer and an analyzer to form a liquid crystal device. The absorption (or transmission) axes of the polarizer and the analyzer are disposed to intersect each other and are deviated from the optic axis providing the darkest or brightest state of the liquid crystal device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 1987
    Date of Patent: November 7, 1989
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yutaka Inaba, Osamu Taniguchi
  • Patent number: 4867537
    Abstract: A color liquid crystal display device comprises first and second transparent substrates, and a liquid crystal sealed therebetween. A plurality of display electrodes and thin film transistors each connected to each of the display electrodes are formed on the first transparent substrate. Color filters are formed on the second transparent substrate such that they each face each of the display electrodes. A common electrode is also formed over the entire surface of the second transparent electrode. The gap between adjacent color filters is closed by a metal layer capable of blocking light. These light-blocking layers overlie the common electrode in contact therewith.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 1988
    Date of Patent: September 19, 1989
    Assignee: Hosiden Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Shigeo Aoki, Katsumi Miyake, Yasuhiro Ugai
  • Patent number: 4867536
    Abstract: A system in which several colors of the spectrum are selectable to be displayed having common polarity and with high contrast against a black background, utilizing liquid crystal cells along with linear and color polarizers disposed along an optical axis so that comparable results in either reflective or transmissive modes are achieved, with appropriate light sources.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 1988
    Date of Patent: September 19, 1989
    Assignee: Ford Motor Company
    Inventors: Richard A. Pidsosny, Frederick J. Porter
  • Patent number: 4863244
    Abstract: An electro-optic welding lens assembly for use in a welder's helmet or a protective eyeshield and including at least one liquid crystal filter element adapted to be controlled with regard to its light transmission as well as control means for changing the rate of light transmision of the liquid crystal filter element. The control means comprises a first manually adjustable control circuit operating independently of the amount of light falling on the lens assembly and including means for adjusting the rate of light passing through the liquid crystal filter element. Further, there is provided a second automatically operated control circuit operating in relation to the amount of light falling on the lens assembly. The second control circuit operates only within a range of light intensity above a predetermined threshold value to limit the rate of transmission of light passing through the liquid crystal filter element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 1988
    Date of Patent: September 5, 1989
    Assignee: Optrel AG
    Inventors: Rupert Fuerthbauer, Daniel Stanelli
  • Patent number: 4854675
    Abstract: An improved liquid crystal device for display is disclosed. The device is comprised of a pair of substrates on whose insides a number of electrode strips are formed in a matrix. The electrode strips are formed also near the periphery portions of the substrates which are unnecessary for the pixels of the display. By virtue of the excess electrode strips, joining the substrates can be done without special attention to the coincidence of the substrates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 1987
    Date of Patent: August 8, 1989
    Assignee: Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Shunpei Yamazaki, Akira Mase, Hiroyuki Sakayori
  • Patent number: 4850677
    Abstract: The disclosed liquid crystal display device is composed of a transparent substrate and a plurality of pixels formed on the substrate, each pixel having a vertical electrode, a plurality of horizontal electrodes and liquid crystal interposed between the vertical and horizontal electrodes, and the horizontal electrodes in each pixel having different areas from each other. Ferroelectric liquid crystal is favorably used for the interposed liquid crystal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 25, 1989
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventor: Fujio Okumura
  • Patent number: 4850681
    Abstract: An optical modulation device for effecting optical modulation by controlling the diffraction phenomenon of light, which not only consumes a small amouhnt of the driving energy employed, such as a electric power, but which is also capable of improvements in reliability.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 1987
    Date of Patent: July 25, 1989
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Masao Yamanobe, Yasuyuki Watanabe, Hajime Sakata, Yukitoshi Ohkubo, Tomoyuki Umezawa, Chiori Mochizuki, Kazuya Ishiwata, Takayuki Ishii, Akihiko Nagano, Etsuro Kishi, Ryoji Fujiwara
  • Patent number: 4848875
    Abstract: A dual-pane thermal window unit comprises two nonintersecting or, preferably, substantially parallel, spaced window panes, mounted in a window frame, a first of the panes having affixed thereto a first wall of an electro-optical liquid crystal cell providing a selected light transmittance, and a second of said panes delimiting, with a second wall of said cell, a space providing a thermal break. Each of the first and second walls comprises an electrically conductive film composed of plastic and having sufficient supporting strength to maintain the structural integrity of the cell. The window is light weight, economical to manufacture and efficient and reliable in operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 1987
    Date of Patent: July 18, 1989
    Assignee: Allied-Signal Inc.
    Inventors: Ray H. Baughman, Ernest D. Buff, Helmut Eckhardt, Gerhard H. Fuchs
  • Patent number: 4848878
    Abstract: There is disclosed a rearview mirror absorbing the light when the orientation of the liquid crystal is caused to change.A suitable amount of cholesteric material is added to the nematic liquid crystal of negative dielectric anisotropy mixed with a blue dye by 2%. The ratio of the thickness of the liquid crystal layer to the focal conic pitch d/p is limited within the range of 0.4 to 0.6. A silicone nitride layer is deposited on the upper transparent electrode so as to form an insulating film. A transparent adhesive layer is formed on the upper surface of the upper glass plate with a glass plate being pressed down to said adhesive layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 11, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 18, 1989
    Assignee: Sansung Electron Devices Co. Ltd.
    Inventors: Eung-Sang Lee, Sung-Joon Park
  • Patent number: 4844569
    Abstract: A liquid crystal display device and method of fabrication thereof includes a first twisted nematic liquid crystal cell and an optically anisotropic material sandwiched between two polarizers. A second twisted nematic liquid crystal cell or polymer film serves as the optically anisotropic material. The optically anisotropic material may be disposed on one or both sides of the first twisted nematic liquid crystal. The optically anisotropic material compensates for the elliptical polarization of the light passing through the liquid crystal cell so that the device transmits while light in the OFF state and appears black in the ON state.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 1987
    Date of Patent: July 4, 1989
    Assignee: Seiko Epson Corporation
    Inventors: Hiroshi Wada, Shinji Wada, Chiyoaki Iijima
  • Patent number: 4844587
    Abstract: The semiconductor making it possible to obtain thin film transistors is of hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide. As this material is transparent, the stack constituted by the semiconductor and the insulant can be maintained over the entire wall, so that there is no need to expose the columns and blocks.Application to flat-faced screen displays.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 1987
    Date of Patent: July 4, 1989
    Inventors: Francois Morin, Michel Le Contellec, Joseph Richard
  • Patent number: 4842375
    Abstract: The orientation of a thermotropic LC volume is achieved by means of thermotropic LC molecules firmly bonded chemically to a matrix. The orientation takes place due to the physical and chemical properties of the LC volume, chemically bonded to the matrix on the disordered LC volume. Hydrocarbon polymers or organosilanes are used as the matrix, to the functional groups of which the thermotropic liquid crystal molecules, which also have functional groups suitable for bonding to the matrix, are chemically linked. The chemically linked thermotropic LC may be a nematic, cholesterinic, discotic or smectic LC, with which nematic, cholesterinic, discotic or smectic LC volumes can be oriented. The matrix is chemically bonded covalently to the substrate surface and may be colored due to additional coupling of reactive dyes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 1987
    Date of Patent: June 27, 1989
    Assignee: VEB Werk fuer Fernsehelektronik im VEB Kombinat Mikroelektronik
    Inventors: Arno Seeboth, Joerg Gloede, Hans-Dieter Koswig, Horst Ladwig, Hartwin Obernik, Helmuth Seeboth
  • Patent number: 4840460
    Abstract: A liquid crystal display is described that includes gray scale capability. Each pixel of the display is subdivided into a plurality of subpixels. Each subpixel includes an effective capacitor, with the liquid crystal material contained between the effective capacitor plates, and includes a control capacitor coupled in series with the effective capacitor. By controlling the capacitance of the control capacitors of the subpixels, selected subpixels can be activated as a function of the voltage applied across the series capacitors. By controlling the number of subpixels that are activated by the applied voltage, a gray scale capability can be provided for a liquid crystal display.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 1987
    Date of Patent: June 20, 1989
    Assignee: Honeywell Inc.
    Inventors: Anthony J. Bernot, Michael J. Johnson
  • Patent number: 4838658
    Abstract: A liquid crystal cell is disclosed in which the cell walls facing the liquid crystal material are provided with alignment layers of organic material. This material consists of polymer chains with side chains. The ends of the side chains interact with the liquid crystal molecules. The side chains are shorter than the liquid crystal molecules. By suitable choice of the length of the side chains, the tilt angle can be set. It is also possible to provide alternately different side chains one of which interacts with one end of the liquid crystal molecule, while the neighboring side chain interacts with the other end of the same molecule.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 13, 1987
    Date of Patent: June 13, 1989
    Assignee: Nokia Graetz GmbH
    Inventor: Rolf Zondler
  • Patent number: 4838653
    Abstract: A display comprises an array of a plurality of liquid crystal elements electrically connected in series. The element with the lowest capacitance when energized comprises a liquid crystal material having a positive dielectric anisotropy so that it has a higher capacitance when energized than when non-energized. A second of the elements has a capacitance when non-energized lower than the capacitance of the first element when it is energized. The display can be used for detecting a voltage or an electric field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 1988
    Date of Patent: June 13, 1989
    Assignee: Raychem Corporation
    Inventor: Manoochehr Mohebban
  • Patent number: 4836653
    Abstract: A method for the manufacture of a ferroelectric liquid crystal cell which includes ferroelectric liquid crystal sealed between a pair of opposed but spaced plates, each having formed on one surface a pattern of conductive layer, the plates being disposed with their conductive layers facing each other, comprises the step of rubbing the surfaces of the plates in at least two directions prior to the sealing of the ferroelectric liquid crystal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 26, 1988
    Date of Patent: June 6, 1989
    Assignee: Hosiden Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Katsumi Yoshino, Yasuhiro Shigeno
  • Patent number: 4834509
    Abstract: A liquid crystal optical device comprising a pair of substrates provided with electrodes and a layer containing a liquid crystal material sandwiched between the pair of substrates, wherein said layer is formed by irradiating light to a solution of a nematic liquid crystal material and a photo-curable vinyl compound selected so that the refractive index of the resulting cured product agrees to either the ordinary refractive index (n.sub.o) or the extraordinary refractive index (n.sub.e) of the nematic liquid crystal material used, or the refractive index (n.sub.x) of the nematic liquid crystal material when it is randomly oriented, held between the pair of substrates provided with electrodes, to cure the photo-curable vinyl compound and fix the resulting phase separation of the nematic liquid crystal material and the cured product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 1987
    Date of Patent: May 30, 1989
    Assignee: Asahi Glass Company Ltd.
    Inventors: Tomoki Gunjima, Hiroshi Kumai, Shoichi Tsuchiya, Kaoriko Masuda
  • Patent number: 4834505
    Abstract: An electro-optic display comprises a two dimensional array of liquid crystal cells (C11A,B to C44A,B) each switchable by means of electrical signals applied to respective pairs of address lines connected to the cell by respective transistors (T11-T44). Each main electrode of each transistor is isolated from the rest of the array by a respective cell of the array.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 1987
    Date of Patent: May 30, 1989
    Assignee: The General Electric Company, p.l.c.
    Inventors: Piero Migliorato, Michael G. Clark