Patents Examined by Christopher B. Kilner
  • Patent number: 5857342
    Abstract: A temperature controlled cryogenic package system for efficiently and precisely monitoring and controlling the operating temperature of a high temperature superconductor circuit placed on a substrate. The cryogenic package system comprises a heating element formed on the same substrate as the high temperature superconductor circuit, a control circuit capable of activating and deactivating the heating element, and a temperature sensor placed in thermal proximity to the high temperature superconductor circuit. The temperature sensor monitors the operating temperature of the high temperature superconductor circuit, and conveys temperature information to the control circuit. The control circuit activates or deactivates the heating element according to the warming or cooling effect that is necessary in order to maintain the high temperature superconductor circuit within a predetermined temperature range, where the range of temperature fluctuation is within plus or minus 0.1 K of a predetermined temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 1998
    Date of Patent: January 12, 1999
    Assignee: Superconductor Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Stephan M. Rohlfing, Roger J. Forse, Michael J. Scharen, Wallace Kunimoto
  • Patent number: 5848532
    Abstract: A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 15, 1998
    Assignee: American Superconductor Corporation
    Inventors: Bruce B. Gamble, Ahmed Sidi-Yekhlef
  • Patent number: 5845501
    Abstract: A device for chilling the contents of a beverage container (10, 74) comprising a shell, the interior of which is adapted to accommodate the container (10, 74) the contents of which are to be chilled, and the wall of which comprises an annular reservoir (16, 70) for liquified refrigerant gas under pressure, which surrounds the container. The reservoir (16, 70) is openable at (30, 76) to permit the liquefied refrigerant to escape therefrom and create a cooling effect on the wall of the container (10, 74), consequent on the change of phase from liquid to gas, and expansion of the gas, to chill the container (10, 74) and its contents. The outer surface of the shell is formed with a heat insulating layer (24, 78) so that the cooling effect is preferentially directed towards the interior. The reservoir (16, 70) may be vented at the top of the bottom or through a plurality of apertures (106, 108) distributed around the interior of the shell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 8, 1998
    Inventors: David Richard Stonehouse, Timothy Michael Wood, Craig Harvey Nelson, David Livingstone, Frances Brindle, Philip Theaker
  • Patent number: 5832745
    Abstract: Method of cooling a fluid stream which passes through a hot side (Id, Ib, Ic) of a main heat exchanger (I) comprising removing refrigerant from the main heat exchanger (I); compressing refrigerant in a two-stage compressor unit (7) to obtain refrigerant at high pressure; partly condensing (12) the refrigerant to obtain a first two-phase fluid, and separating (13) the first two-phase fluid into a first condensed fraction (15) and a first gaseous fraction (16); cooling the first condensed fraction (15) in an auxiliary heat exchanger (2) to obtain a cooled first condensed fraction (18), cooling the first gaseous fraction (16) in the auxiliary heat exchanger (2) to obtain a second two-phase fluid (26), wherein cooling is provided by liquid evaporating at intermediate pressure in the cold side (2a); separating (28) the second two-phase fluid into a second condensed fraction (33) and a second gaseous fraction (32); allowing part of the second condensed fraction (49) to evaporate in the cold side (2a) of the auxilia
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1998
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Robert Klein Nagelvoort, Kornelis Jan Vink, Hilary Ann Mercer
  • Patent number: 5829162
    Abstract: A new Portable Clothes Dryer for providing a system for drying an article of clothing by use of a portable hair dryer. The inventive device includes a bag defining an interior volume adapted for enclosing an article of clothing and an intake port providing communication with the interior volume of the bag. The intake port is adapted for receiving and retaining the outlet nozzle of a portable hair dryer whereby air is discharged out the outlet nozzle of the portable hair dryer, through the intake port, and throughout the bag so as to dry the article of clothing placed therein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 3, 1998
    Inventor: David Pace
  • Patent number: 5819555
    Abstract: A process with few parts is provided to remove carbon dioxide from a feed stream. The solid forming property of carbon dioxide and the low vapor phase solubility of carbon dioxide at cold temperatures form the basis for the separation process. The cooled feed stream enters a separation vessel where process means are provided to produce and separate carbon dioxide solids. Carbon dioxide is removed from the vessel as a carbon dioxide rich liquid stream. Purified cold vapor is removed from the separation vessel as a product stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 13, 1998
    Inventor: Gerald Engdahl
  • Patent number: 5813237
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for spraying a cryogen in which a heat load is sprayed with a cryogen from one or more spray nozzles within a spray zone. A heat conductive element is positioned below the article and is provided with a surface sized to catch the liquid content of the cryogen that has been oversprayed, thereby to vaporize the overspray through direct heat transfer with the conductive element. In another aspect the present invention provides an apparatus and method in which a flow network a flow of a liquid cryogen is divided into first and second subsidiary streams. The second subsidiary stream is vaporized within a branch of the network and then mixed back into the first subsidiary stream to produce a two phase flow of the cryogen. The cryogen is then sprayed as the two phase flow. The flow rate of the second subsidiary stream can be controlled with a proportional valve to adjust the quality of the cryogen being sprayed so that pooling of overspray on said heat conductive element is inhibited.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 29, 1998
    Assignee: The BOC Group, Inc.
    Inventors: Mark Thomas Grace, Michael Bruce Pooley, David G. Wardle, Ron C. Lee
  • Patent number: 5758505
    Abstract: A miniature mixed gas refrigeration system and method of operation are disclosed. An optimum gas mixture is formulated from a group of component fluids, according to calculated thermodynamic properties of a group of candidate fluid mixtures. The gas mixture is pressurized by a compressor to a pressure less than 420 psia, for safety reasons. The compressed gas mixture is passed through a primary heat exchanger, and then through a primary-to-secondary heat exchanger, to precool the gas mixture. The secondary side of the primary/secondary heat exchanger is cooled by a secondary Joule-Thomson refrigeration system. Properly sized flow restrictions in the primary side of the primary/secondary heat exchanger can solidify and trap liquid contaminants that may be in the gas mixture. The gas mixture exiting the primary outlet of the primary/secondary heat exchanger passes to a primary Joule-Thomson expansion element where the high pressure gas is expanded isenthalpically to a lower temperature at least as low as 183K.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 2, 1998
    Assignee: CryoGen, Inc.
    Inventors: John D. Dobak, III, Terry L. Brown, Kambiz Ghaerzadeh, Xiaoyu Yu
  • Patent number: 5713210
    Abstract: A sliding-blade refrigeration apparatus and method which utilizes ambient air mixed with water as the refrigerant medium. A mixture of fine droplets of cool water in ambient air is isothermally compressed in a sliding-blade air-water compressor. Compressed air is separated from the water and adiabatically expanded in a sliding-blade air-motor to perform useful work and produce refrigerated air. Separated water is evaporated in a boiler and during the vapor cycle performs useful work in a sliding-blade steam motor. The spent steam is condensed in a condenser and cool water from the condenser is injected back into the air-water compressor completing the cycle. The rotors of the air-motor and steam motor are connected with the rotor of the air-water compressor and cause simultaneous rotation of the air-water compressor rotor as they rotate. In another embodiment, the rotor of the air-water compressor is rotated by an external power source connected to the shaft of the rotor rather than by the working steam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 1996
    Date of Patent: February 3, 1998
    Inventors: Olga Jirnov, Alexei Jirnov
  • Patent number: 5689974
    Abstract: The present invention offers a pre-purification method and apparatus for an air cryogenic separation plant for removing water vapor and carbon dioxide from feed air, which is able to operate at high air temperatures without the use of special installations such as pre-cooling equipment or demoisturizers to replace freon refrigerators or water spray cooling columns. One aspect of the present invention is a pre-purification method for an air cryogenic separation plant which continuously purifies feed air using a plurality of reciprocally-used adsorption columns 5a, 5b filled with adsorbents for adsorption removal of water vapor and carbon dioxide from the feed air. The method includes an adsorption step, a depressurization step, a heating step, a cooling step, and a repressurization step, whereof the adsorption step for adsorption removal of impurities is performed by feeding pressurized feed air at a temperature of 10.degree..about.45.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 25, 1997
    Assignee: Nippon Sanso Corporation
    Inventors: Atsushi Fujita, Morimitsu Nakamura
  • Patent number: 5598720
    Abstract: In coolness storage apparatus wherein brine in heat exchange tubes freezes and melts water and air is bubbled up through the water during the melting cycle to enhance heat exchange efficiency by gently circulating the water, vertical heat transfer strips in thermal conducting contact with the tubes for accelerating melting along each strip early in the discharge cycle to open channels through which the air bubbles stream to the top zone of the tank.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 4, 1997
    Assignee: Calmac Manufacturing Corporation
    Inventors: Mark M. MacCracken, Brian M. Silvetti, Jose R. Bonet
  • Patent number: 5546764
    Abstract: An absorption process for recovering hydrogen, ethylene, methane and heavy hydrocarbons from refinery and petrochemical off-gas streams wherein the absorption solvent is comprised of heavy hydrocarbons derived from the off-gas feed stream; no external solvent is used. The process comprises the steps of absorbing ethylene out of the feed off-gas in an absorber stripper using the absorption solvent, and fractionating the rich absorption solvent in a distillation column to produce an ethylene product stream as the overhead stream and the heavy hydrocarbon absorption solvent as the bottoms stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 20, 1996
    Assignee: Advanced Extraction Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Yuv R. Mehra
  • Patent number: 5520013
    Abstract: A food freezing conveyor system includes a conveying apparatus consisting of multiple tiers of conveyors, a lower horizontal conveying mechanism, a lifting conveying mechanism, an upper horizontal conveying mechanism and a dropping conveying mechanism. Food products to be frozen are transported along an inverted-U shaped path within a freezing chamber. The lifting conveying mechanism and the dropping conveying mechanism are respectively provided with multiple tiers of choke plates on both sides. Each tier of choke plates and each tier of conveyors jointly define a plurality of inter-connected airflow passages, dividing a freezing operation zone and a manhole maintenance space.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 28, 1996
    Assignee: Industrial Technology Research Institute
    Inventor: Ju-Chia Kuo
  • Patent number: 5463871
    Abstract: A cryogenic rectification system employing a double column and an auxiliary side column in which product lower purity oxygen is produced wherein the side column is driven by condensing compressed feed air enabling the system to operate with lower head pressure and thus lower operating costs.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 7, 1995
    Assignee: Praxair Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Harry Cheung
  • Patent number: 5426946
    Abstract: For extracting argon, air is separated in a rectifying system comprising at least one air separating column and one crude argon column. An argon-containing oxygen fraction is taken from the air separating column and is introduced into a crude argon column. In the upper area of the crude argon column, a crude argon fraction is removed and a first reflux liquid is charged. A first residual fraction is taken from the lower area of the crude argon column. The crude argon fraction is introduced into the lower area of a semipure column. In the upper area of the semipure column, an argon fraction is taken which has reduced oxygen, and a second reflux liquid is charged. From the lower area of the semipure column, a second residual fraction is taken which forms the first reflux liquid for the crude argon column.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 27, 1995
    Assignee: Linde Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Horst Corduan, Hartwin Lindner
  • Patent number: 5426944
    Abstract: A purification method and apparatus for creating ultra-purity chemicals for semiconductor processing. The purification method includes a step of expanding an ESG chemical through an orifice (17) inside a condenser (21) to a partial condensed state for removing impurities from ESG chemical. During the expansion step, the higher boiling point impurities remain in the liquid phase and the impurities in the vapor phase are removed at least in part by a scavenging technique. After purification, the ultra-purified gas is transferred to a semiconductor manufacturing operation (24). The manufacturing operation includes both dry and wet processes. The method may also be integrated into a large volume on-site purification system (30), on-line point of use purifier (50), or small volume trans-filling purification system (70).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 1993
    Date of Patent: June 27, 1995
    Assignee: American Air Liquide, Inc.
    Inventors: Yao-En Li, John Rizos
  • Patent number: 5417079
    Abstract: A modular refrigeration apparatus containing a cabinet with a front opening and divided into lower and upper portions, for separately receiving a plurality of removable modular units, said removable modular units including one of a selected plurality of interchangeable storage units and a universal refrigeration unit. A selected one of the plurality of interchangeable storage units is positioned within the upper portion of the cabinet for storing a plurality of containers. The refrigeration unit is positioned within the lower portion of the cabinet and in communication with the upper portion for cooling the entire interior of the cabinet. The cabinet is designed so that the interchangeable storage units and refrigeration unit can be respectfully removed or inserted from the cabinet without affecting the other units.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 14, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 23, 1995
    Assignee: The Coca-Cola Company
    Inventors: Arthur G. Rudick, Shaun B. Gatipon, Howard W. Wachenheim
  • Patent number: 5390500
    Abstract: A cryogenic liquid vaporizer system 10 comprising an outer tube 22 for exposure to the atmosphere and enclosing an inner tube 16 to form an annulus 36. The fluid enters the inner tube 16 as liquid, flows in the inner tube 16 where it is at least partially vaporized, and discharges into the outer tube 22. In one embodiment the fluid discharges near the end 34 of the outer tube 22 and counterflow in the annulus 36 where it is usually completely vaporized and partially superheated. In another embodiment, the fluid discharges into the outer tube 22 and continues to flow in the longitudinal space 38 provided by the length of outer tube 22. The annulus 36 is occupied by quiescent fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 21, 1995
    Assignee: Praxair Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Norman H. White, Boris Pevzner, Thomas D. High
  • Patent number: 5371950
    Abstract: Microprocessor controlled isopropyl alcohol vapor dryer system for robotic drying of wafer cassettes containing wafers or substrates. A wetted wafer or substrate is robotically placed into a virgin isopropyl alcohol vapor zone. The wetted surface and free-moving contaminants are replaced by a layer of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) which condenses on the surface. The dryer then robotically moves the IPA coated wafer or substrate into an upper cooling zone causing the isopropyl alcohol layer to flash off of the substrate surface, leaving the surface completely dry to a molecular level. IPA vapors are heated at the bottom of a quartz tank and maintained as a vapor by electric heating panels surrounding the quartz tank.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 1991
    Date of Patent: December 13, 1994
    Assignee: S & K Products International, Inc.
    Inventor: Kevin S. Schumacher
  • Patent number: 5347827
    Abstract: A modular refrigeration apparatus containing a cabinet with a front opening and divided into lower and upper portions, for separately receiving a plurality of removable modular units, said removable modular units including one of a selected plurality of interchangeable storage units and a universal refrigeration unit. A selected one of the plurality of interchangeable storage units is positioned within the upper portion of the cabinet for storing a plurality of containers. The refrigeration unit is positioned within the lower portion of the cabinet and in communication with the upper portion for cooling the entire interior of the cabinet. The cabinet is designed so that the interchangeable storage units and refrigeration unit can be respectfully removed or inserted from the cabinet without affecting the other units.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 20, 1994
    Assignee: The Coca-Cola Company
    Inventors: Arthur G. Rudick, Shaun B. Gatipon, Howard W. Wachenheim