Abstract: A method for providing video programming in a nearly on demand basis is disclosed. A video network includes a video server that operates several video recorders to simultaneously exhibit video performances or programs on a plurality of channels. The video server is controlled in real time in accordance with data presented to it in an exhibition plan. The exhibition plan calls for two or more channels to show the same program on a time offset basis. Due to the offset in exhibiting a given program, a subscriber may view a program at any time, from the beginning of a program, by waiting for a period of time that is no longer than the offset. Preferably, this offset is substantially shorter than the run time of the program. The channels carrying this program are unscrambled prior to the beginning of the program and for a predetermined duration into the program so that subscribers may preview the program. However, the channels are scrambled for the remainder of the exhibition of the program.
November 22, 1996
Date of Patent:
June 5, 2001
GTE Service Corporation, GTE Laboratories Incorporated
Kathryn E. Ullrich, Stephen S. Walker, Lauren F. Calaby, David E. Seibel, Thomas F. Gillette
Abstract: A method of generating a substitution box (S-box) involves generating an S-box with desired characteristics, forming a new S-box with another column such that the new S-box has the desired characteristics as well, and continuing to add columns in these ways until the S-box has the proper size.
Abstract: The system includes a plurality of decision units, at least one verification unit, and at least one counting unit, the units being functionally and structurally separate from each other. Each decision unit includes means for producing a source information item and an identity information item, and means for enciphering this source information item in such a way as to render it essentially indecipherable by the verification unit but decipherable by the counting unit. The verification unit includes a file which includes the identities of the decision units, means for checking the identity of the decision unit from which an incoming message originates, and means for compiling an anonymous derived message which is essentially devoid of any identity information item decipherable by the counting unit.
Abstract: A method for establishing key agreement between two communicating parties using a general linear protocol in finite and infinite dimensional spaces. Two topological linear spaces, in particular Euclidean spaces, and a non-trivial degenerate linear operator are selected. Each party respectively selects a secret element, and exchanges with the other party an image under the transformation of a matrix. Key agreement is therefore mutually established between the two communicating parties having the same cryptographic key. Various illustrative embodiments of the general linear operator are disclosed, including a rectangular matrix, a square matrix, a symmetric matrix, a skew symmetric matrix, an upper triangular square matrix, a lower triangular square matrix, a special type of skew symmetric matrix to generate a modified cross product protocol, a series of matrices to generate a sequential key protocol, and a combination of circulant matrices.
Abstract: In a method of communication using quantum cryptography, single-photon signals from a highly attenuated source are modulated and subsequently detected. In the step of detecting the modulated signal, the signal is split between two branches according to its encoded statc. Signals corresponding to different encoded states are detected independently in the respective branches and the rate of detection of coincident signals is determined. This rate is compared with a threshold to detect the presence of an eavesdropper.
January 30, 1997
Date of Patent:
September 14, 1999
British Telecommunications public limited company
Abstract: A method of encrypting or decrypting an input message block of binary data of predetermined length 2n into an output message block by dividing the message block into two equal size halves, performing one or more transformation rounds on the message block halves, each transformation round further comprising the steps of determining a key, processing the first half data block using a hash function to obtain a modified first half data block of length n, and combining the modified first half data block with the second half data block to obtain a modified second half data block of length n; and, lastly, appending the first modified half data block to the second modified half data block to obtain the output message block.
Abstract: Electronic steganographic techniques can be used to encode a rights management control signal onto an information signal carried over an insecure communications channel. Steganographic techniques ensure that the digital control information is substantially invisibly and substantially indelibly carried by the information signal. These techniques can provide end-to-end rights management protection of an information signal irrespective of transformations between analog and digital. An electronic appliance can recover the control information and use it for electronic rights management to provide compatibility with a Virtual Distribution Environment. In one example, the system encodes low data rate pointers within high bandwidth time periods of the content signal to improve overall control information read/seek times.
Abstract: An apparatus for processing digital data signals which may be used in recording/reproducing and transmitting/receiving of such signals. During recording or transmission, error correction codes are added to the digital signals and a portion of such error correction codes is replaced with other information. Such other information may provide an indication as whether the digital signals are original signals or a copy thereof. During reproduction or reception, the other information is extracted and utilized in a predetermined manner. For example, reproduced digital signals may or may not be outputted depending on whether the extracted information indicates that the digital signals are original signals or a copy thereof. As a result, unauthorized copying of signals may be discouraged or prevented. Furthermore, by replacing a portion of the error correction code with the other information, storage capacity for the digital signals and/or the rate for processing such signals may not be adversely effected.
Abstract: A system and process for guaranteeing the signatures on securities to be transferred, comprising an electronic storage medium adapted to generate a profile of an individual guarantor enrolled in a signature guarantee program. The profile is divided into fields which can be sorted and used to generate all program documents and reports related to each guarantor. The storage medium maintains lists of qualified guarantors for access by transfer agents. A medallion(s) is issued to each guarantor, carrying information to identify the guarantor. Application of the medallion to a security notifies a transfer agent that the signature authorizing the transfer of the security is valid and in conformance with the law as set forth in the Uniform Commercial Code of the United States. A communications system is connected to the database and is adapted to transmit information from a selected profile in the database to a manufacturer for shipment of an individualized medallion directly to a guarantor.
Abstract: An encrypted signal compatible with first and second encryption systems is generated by producing encryption data signals relating to each encryption system. A difference signal is derived from the two encryption data signals and the signal to be encrypted is encrypted in accordance with one of the encryption systems. At an output the encrypted signal, the two encryption signals, and the difference signal are made available. At a decoder compatible with, for example, the first encryption system, the encrypted data, the second encryption data signal, and the different signal are received. The decoder can then derive the first encryption data signal from the second encryption data signal and the difference signal and can then decode the encrypted signal.
Abstract: A portable electronic authorization device for approving a transaction request originated from an electronic transaction system. The portable electronic authorization device includes first logic circuit configured to receive first digital data representative of the transaction request. There is further included second logic circuit configured to form second digital data responsive to the transaction request received by the first logic circuit if the transaction request is approved by a user of the portable electronic transaction device. The second digital data represents encrypted data signifying an approval by the user of the transaction request. Additionally, the portable electronic authorization device includes transmission circuitry coupled to the second logic circuit. The transmission circuitry is configured to transmit the second digital data from the portable electronic authorization apparatus to the electronic transaction system if the user approves the transaction request.
Abstract: In an electronic cash implementing method using a trustee, a user registers his identification information ID.sub.U and anonymous public key N with the trustee and receives a license (B,I). The user processes the license (B,I) by a public key corresponding to the amount to be issued and sends the processed information to a bank to have it attach a blind signature to the information so that the user obtain electronic cash C from the blind signature. The user transmits to a shop the information B,I,C,N and a digital signature that assures the divisional use of the electronic cash. The shop verifies the validity of the information B and C and accepts it as cash and sends a history H of communication with the user to the bank and receives a payment therefrom.
Abstract: A public key encryption system for authenticating an image includes a digital camera having embedded therein a private key unique to the digital camera. A known public key uniquely based upon the private key is used to decrypt digital data encrypted with the private key to establish authenticity of the image. The encryption system further comprises means for generating one or more patterns each composed of at least one individual area that is visible together with the image of the object, means for designating at least one individual area as an active area of the image suitable for authentication and for generating location data identifying the active area, and means for calculating image hash from image data of the active area of the image using a predetermined hash algorithm.
April 14, 1997
Date of Patent:
April 27, 1999
Eastman Kodak Company
John R. Squilla, Omid A. Moghadam, Majid Rabbani
Abstract: A process for the dissimulation of concealment of a secret code in a data authentication device by encrypting the secret code by an encrypting function for forming an image of the secret code and storing the secret code image in the authentication device. Beforehand, an encrypting function is chosen such that with each stored secret code image corresponds a plurality of antecedent codes all differing from the secret code, but which, once encrypted by the encrypting function have an image identical to that of the secret code. The secret code of a user has an authentication device in which is stored the secret code image.
April 9, 1997
Date of Patent:
April 13, 1999
Olivier Clemot, Mireille Campana, David Arditti
Abstract: The implementations of digital watermarks can be optimally suited to particular transmission, distribution and storage mediums given the nature of digitally-sampled audio, video and other multimedia works. Watermark application parameters can be adapted to the individual characteristics of a given digital sample stream. Watermark information can be either carried in individual samples or in relationships between multiple samples, such as in a waveform shape. More optimal models may be obtained to design watermark systems that are tamper-resistant given the number and breadth of existent digitized sample options with different frequency and time components. The highest quality of a given content signal may be maintained as it is mastered, with the watermark suitably hidden, taking into account usage of digital filters and error correction. The quality of the underlying content signals can be used to identify and highlight advantageous locations for the insertion of digital watermarks.
Abstract: A portable device 12 is capable of communicating with a host device 10 remotely, via a communications network 22 which may be prone to interception, and directly (e.g. via an I.R. Link 24, 40), when the devices are in close physical proximity and when the risk of interception is minimal. The host device 10 and the portable device 12 update a shared security key or the like when they communicate directly and this key is used to authenticate the portable device 12 and/or encrypt the communication when the portable device 12 attempts to communicate remotely.
Abstract: In a compression coding device having a scrambling function, a variable length coder outputs coded image data. When the image data are to be written to a memory included in a multiplexer, a controller generates a control signal for writing the image data in the order of the positions of slices constituting a single picture, and feeds it to the memory. When the image data should be scrambled on the basis of a preselected scrambling system, the controller outputs a control signal for reading the image data out of the memory in a different order with respect to the positions of slices, and feeds it to the memory. The multiplexer multiplexes the image data in a preselected position of an MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) 2 output data format. Further, the controller outputs information representative of the positions of the slices occurred before and after the scrambling, and causes the multiplexer to multiplex them in another preselected position of the MPEG2 output data format.
Abstract: A video disk playback apparatus includes a disk driver which retrieves video data and a key data table from a digital video disk, and a decoder board which has its own ID. The disk driver receives the ID from the decoder board, verifies the ID, selects key data based on it, calculates a first datum from the selected key data, and sends the datum to the decoder board. The decoder board calculates a second datum from the key data and first datum, and returns the second datum to the disk driver. The disk driver verifies the second datum, produces an encryption key, encrypts the video data based on it, and feeds the encrypted video data to the decoder board. The decoder board calculates a decryption key from the first datum, decrypts the video data based on it, and decodes the decrypted video data for display.
Abstract: Regular burst signals from video line (n+0) to line (n+3) are replaced by modified burst signals which function as copy prohibit signals. The phase of the modified burst signals is controlled by controlling at least one of the orthogonal vectors into which the phase of the regular burst signal is resolved; and the phase vector of the modified burst signals is equal to the average value of the phase vector of the regular burst signals in lines (n+0) through (n+3). The phase vector of the modified burst signal in line (n+2) exhibits a phase difference of 135.degree. from the phase vector of the original regular burst signal in that line and causes image disturbances when the thus-modified video signal is recorded and reproduced by a VCR. The phase vector of the modified burst signal in each of lines (n+0), (n+1) and (n+3) exhibits a difference as small as 45.degree. from the phase vector of the original regular burst signal in those lines.
Abstract: Techniques for playing and distributing MIDI tracks in the context of a non-real-time network such as the Internet. One of the techniques makes it possible to begin playing a multi-track MIDI file that is being received over the Internet before the entire file has been received. Others of the techniques permit playing of MIDI tracks that are generated in real time and then distributed via the Internet. The techniques ensure that expected network delays will not cause underflow in the MIDI buffer, provide a way of playing an "endless" MIDI stream received via the Internet, and provide ways by which players may collaborate and even participate in jam sessions over the Internet. Also disclosed are techniques for including decrypters in MIDI synthesizers and using the decrypters in the context of encrypted MIDI streams received via the Internet.