Abstract: Bacterial preparation which comprises material belonging to genus Bacillus, producing lipopeptides which decrease surface tension of water, and possessing an ability to propagate in soil in the presence of vegetable cellulosic materials under anaerobic condition, and of bacteria belonging to genus Bacillus or genus Clostridium, producing cellulases and possessing an ability to propagate in soil in the presence of vegetable cellulosic materials, and preferably of bacteria belonging to genus Bacillus or genus Clostridium, fixing nitrogen and possessing an ability to propagate in soil in the presence of vegetable cellulosic materials under anaerobic conditions. Examples of lipopeptide-producing bacteria are: B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. circulans; examples of cellulases-producing bacteria are: B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. circulans, B. polymyxa, B. coagulans, B. macetans, Cl. cellulolyticum, Cl. aerotolerans, Cl. acetobutylicum, examples of nitrogen-fixing bacteria are: B. azotofixans, B. macerans, B.
Abstract: A method of processing fibrous waste materials, such as textile waste, in which the waste materials which are not particulate are formed into particles, and the particles are thoroughly mixed to form a waste mixture. The waste mixture has an increased temperature which allows the mixture to be used as a heat source as well as a plant growth medium. A particulate source of calcium may be added to the mixture if it is to be used as a plant growth medium. The plant growth medium may be mixed after formation with a dry wood waste mixture to enhance both its growth and heat properties.
Abstract: An apparatus for transforming an input garbage mixture into separate fermented and non-fermented output products has a fermentation stage for depositing an input garbage mixture into non-compacted swathes to allow fermentation of the fermentable, organic waste materials therein, an input stage for loading the garbage mixture, and at least one grinder/separator stage having a grinder for grinding the garbage mixture into smaller particles and a separator with a screen of a selected mesh size for separating ground waste particles up to the selected mesh size as a fermented output product, and conveying the remainder of the particles to a reject output as a non-fermented output product. Fermentation of the input garbage mixture allows for organic maturation of the fermentable, organic waste materials in the mixture, as well as softening and rendering the fermented materials more susceptible to being broken up into small particles in the grinder/separator stage.
Abstract: An improved homogenous granular fertilizer composition is disclosed; the composition is comprised primarily of urea, N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), and dicyandiamide (DCD). The composition of this invention can be applied to a field crop in a single surface application and will nevertheless supply sufficient nitrogen to the plants throughout their growth and maturing cycles. The new improved composition increases the nitrogen uptake by plants, enhances crop yields, and minimizes the loss of both ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen from the soil.The NBPT is incorporated into the homogenous granular fertilizer composition of this invention by blending a concentrated solution of NBPT in a solvent selected from the group consisting of liquid amides, 2-pyrrolidone, and N-alkyl 2-pyrrolidones directly into molten urea prior to its granulation; the DCD may be added to the urea melt as a solid or in dissolved form along with the NBPT.
Abstract: A method for the preparation of compositions for modifying crop yield and fruit development including extracting a mixture of polyhydroxycarboxylic acids, carbohydrates, phenols and alcohols, from vegetable residues such as rice and oat hulls, and the compositions resulting from the method. Methods for use of these compositions for modifying crop yield and fruit development are also disclosed.
Abstract: A process and apparatus are described wherein a convective heat transfer reformation of hydrocarbons is conducted with at least an initial prereforming section which decreases the fuel requirements for a given reformate production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide-containing product and/or reduces the size of the reformer.
Abstract: Carbon-containing black glass compositions of matter having the empirical formula SiC.sub.x O.sub.y in which x ranges from about 0.5 to about 2.0, and y ranges from about 0.5 to about 3.0, wherein the carbon content of the black glass ranges from about 10% to 40% by weight, are prepared by pyrolysis of a cyclosiloxane polymer in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature from about 750.degree. C. to about 1400.degree. C.
January 9, 1987
Date of Patent:
September 7, 1993
Roger Y. Leung, Stephen T. Gonczy, Ming S. Shum
Abstract: Useful fertilizer solutions of high nitrogen and high sulfur content can be prepared from ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea in water. By selecting proper ratios, low salt-out temperatures can be achieved to use optimum amounts of inexpensive urea.
Abstract: A process for converting municipal garbage into organic compost material is described.In the first step of this process, a mixture of cellulosic refuse material and earthworms is provided.In the second step of the process, the mixture of refuse material and earthworms is maintained at a moisture content of from about 45 to about 92 weight percent and a temperature of from about 0 to about 54 degrees centigrade for from about 3 to about 8 months.
Abstract: A method for enhancing the water retention capacity of soils and providing plant nutrients thereto over an extended period of time uses chryso-zeolites type A and/or X admixed with a soil at 2 to 30% by weight of the soil. The chryso-zeolites comprise a magnesium-leached asbestos matrix with a zeolite crystalline structure thereon. The composition of the chryso-zeolites includes silica--35 to 60% by weight, MgO--0.1 to 10% by weight, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 --10 to 45% by weight and from 10 to 25% by weight of CaO, the CaO being optionally substituted by one or more of plant nutrient components such as potassium or ammonium. The content of sodium oxide is reduced to less that 3% by weight. The chryso-zeolites of the invention exhibit a very low phytotoxicity, good water retention and easy substitution of calcium by other nutritive components.
Abstract: A binder composition is taught for the granulation of fine particulate fertilizer, which binder comprises an admixture of reactive carbonate, sulfate, silicate strengthener, and water dispersant, said binder being reactive in the presence of an acid activator.
December 1, 1988
Date of Patent:
January 7, 1992
Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties Inc.
Abstract: A foliar spraying agent which is capable of increasing yield and improving quality of plant is obtained by grinding vegetable humus containing 50 to 80% by weight of water, contacting the resulting ground vegetable humus with air sufficiently to activate the ground product and extracting the activated product with water.
Abstract: A method and apparatus is disclosed for composting of organic matter. A ram advances the entire mass of organic matter within the composting chamber to create an evacuated space in the composting chamber, which evacuated space is of substantially greater volume than the volume of an incremental inlet space. The incremental inlet space is a space in the composting chamber defined by a projection of an inlet opening into the composting chamber. After the creation of the evacuated space, a new charge of organic matter is fed through the inlet opening. The ram then moves this new charge of organic matter into the evacuated space in the chamber to join the existing mass of organic matter already in the chamber. The ram also lightly compresses the new charge to a predetermined density or porosity. Typically, the extent of compressive force applied to the new charge is less than that required to move the entire mass of organic matter through the chamber.
Abstract: To produce organic fertilizer which is effective for sterile agricultural land, a mixture comprising coral reef powder, domestic animal excreta, sewage disposal waste and ground cellulose derived from plant fiber is prepared and it is well mixed in the presence of organic compounds and inorganic salts. Thereafter, it is subjected to cultivating in a multi-bath type cultivating bath for a predetermined period of time while temperature and pH are adjusted properly. Cultivation is achieved with the addition of bacilli including nitrogen fixing bacillus such as Azotobactor vinelandii, Bacillus megaterum, Rhizobium leguminosarm or the like, Trichoderma virde acting as raw fiber decomposing bacillus, candida utilus acting as yeast fungus and green algae, each of which is cultivated under the operating condition of symbiosis cultivation. The pH in the cultivating bath is maintained in the range of 5.5 to 7.5, preferably in the range of 6 to 7.
Abstract: Soybean meal and urea compositions have been found to exhibit enhanced and commercially useful nematistatic and nematicidal activity in soils. Chitin-containing materials, e.g., crab shells, shrimp shells, fungal mycella, etc., have also been found to exhibit enhanced and commercially useful nematistatic and nematicidal activity in soils when admixed with other organic nitrogen-containing materials such as ammonium phosphates, a source of urea, and plant, fish or animal meal. Also, compositions formulated of two different chitin source materials can be used. The soybean-urea compositions as well as the blended chitin-containing formulations are non-phytotoxic and simultaneously provide cost-effective biological suppression of plant pathogenic nematode populations and excellent plant nutrition.
Abstract: Unusually high-analysis low-temperature-stable solution-type fertilizers are produced by mixing urea and phosphoric acid with urea-ammonium nitrate solution (UAN). The ratio of P.sub.2 O.sub.5 to total nitrogen and the ratio of CO(NH.sub.2).sub.2 --N(nitrogen) to NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 --N(nitrogen) must be maintained within broad specified parameters in order to ensure the production of the instant high-analysis clear-liquid fertilizers which are stable at temperatures as low as 0.degree. C. For example, to produce a 35 percent total plant nutrient (TPN) product, the weight ratio for P.sub.2 O.sub.5 :N (total) must be within the range of about 0.316 to about 0.538, the weight ratio of urea-N to NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 --N+P.sub.2 O.sub.5 must be in the rang of 1.41 to 1.59, and the weight ratio of CO(NH.sub.2).sub.2 :NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 must be in the range of 15.25 to 3.75. Similar solutions may be produced by dissolving solid urea and ammonium nitrate in pure or impure phosphoric acid or by utilizing urea.H.sub.3 PO.
Abstract: This invention relates to the use of traditional scale inhibitors as fertilizers enhancers. More particularly, this invention relates to compositions which comprise: (a) a phosphate fertilizer and (b) a scale inhibiting compound. Further, this invention relates to a method of stimulating and increasing plant growth, and corresponding yields, comprising adding the above-defined compositions to the soil in which the plants being treated grow.
Abstract: Synthetic inorganic chemical fertilizers are treated with lignosulfonate to harden and provide anti-caking and anti-dusting properties to the fertilizer particles. The fertilizer/lignosulfonate mixture includes up to about 5.0% by weight lignosulfonate on fertilizer. An improved method of treating inorganic fertilizers with lignosulfonate is also disclosed.
Abstract: A completely integrated and automated apparatus by which liquid sewage sludge from any sewage or waste treatment plant may be processed into a completely dry, pelletized and sterilized product of an organic nature containing nutrients valuable for the support of plant life. The apparatus involves one completely integrated and automated unit together with a control center by means of which electric circuits program each component of the apparatus to automatically regulate the operation of each component, so that no labor or other manpower is required in the operation, except for observation, lubrication, maintenance and repair of the various motors and machineries involved.