Patents Examined by G. L. Kaplan
  • Patent number: 5082550
    Abstract: An electrochemical sensor electrode is formed from an electronic conductor coated with a casting solution containing a perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer and a selected enzyme. The selected enzyme catalyzes a reaction between a predetermined substance in a solution and oxygen to form an electrochemically active compound that is detected at the electronic conductor. The resulting perfluorosulfonic acid polymer provides a stable matrix for the enzyme for long lived enzyme activity, wherein only thin coatings are required on the metal conductor. The polymer also advantageously repels interfering substances from contacting the enzyme and contains quantities of oxygen to maintain a sensing capability during conditions of oxygen depletion in the sample. In one particular embodiment, glucose oxidase is mixed with the perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer to form an electrode for glucose detection.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 1989
    Date of Patent: January 21, 1992
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Department of Energy
    Inventors: Judith Rishpon, Thomas A. Zawodzinski, Shimshon Gottesfeld
  • Patent number: 5049247
    Abstract: A method for monitoring for the presence of an electrolyte and for locating the electrolyte upon its presence uses a system comprising an electrically conductive locating member and an electrically conductive source member, between which an electrical connection is made upon the presence of the electrolyte. The locating member and/or the source member comprises (i) an electrode and (ii) an ion exchange material which is in electrical and physical contact with and substantially entirely surrounds all surfaces of the electrode; the ion exchange material having an ionic resistance which depends upon the concentration of a chemical species in the electrolyte. Upon the presence of the electrolyte, a connection to the locating member is made effective at a first point whose location is defined by the presence of the electrolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 1989
    Date of Patent: September 17, 1991
    Assignee: Raychem Corporation
    Inventors: Eric D. Nyberg, Ken A. Klingman, Jeff Curtis, Ray F. Stewart
  • Patent number: 5043053
    Abstract: The reference electrode probe of the present invention utilizes a metal/metal oxide/ZrO.sub.2 electrode sensor. Metal/metal oxide couples suitable include copper/copper oxide, tin/tin oxide, bismuth/bismuth oxide, and iron/iron oxide. The zirconia tube has a closed end and an open end. The closed end contains the metal/metal oxide powder and is retained therein by mineral insulation packing. A first annular metal sleeve is formed of metal exhibiting a coefficient of thermal expansion compatible with the zirconia tube and has a distal open end in sealing engagement with the open end of said zirconia tube. The first annular metal sleeve also has a proximal open end. An insulated first electrical conductor having a distal end in electrical connection with the metal/metal oxide powder extends through the mineral insulation packing and into the first annular sleeve. The first conductor also has a proximal end that terminates near the proximal end of the first annular sleeve.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 27, 1991
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Maurice E. Indig, Laura L. H. King
  • Patent number: 5039576
    Abstract: An electroplating bath, cell and method for the electrodeposition of a wide range of tin-bismuth alloys onto a conductive substrate comprises tin and bismuth ion in aqueous solution, and an alkyl sulfonic or polysulfonic acid or salt as the electrolyte. The sulfonic component is present in amounts sufficient to maintain the bismuth in solution.In the operation of the method of the invention, electroplated tin-bismuth eutectic alloys of controlled composition are obtained. The alloys of tin and bismuth contain amounts of both metals such that the plated alloy has a melting point substantially lower than that of either metal alone, and a melting point lower than that of a tin-lead alloy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 1990
    Date of Patent: August 13, 1991
    Assignee: Atochem North America, Inc.
    Inventor: Harold P. Wilson
  • Patent number: 5024736
    Abstract: A process in which disubstituted ethane sulfonic compounds are employed as electroplating auxiliaries in electroplating. The compounds for use in combination with the claimed process have the general formula: ##STR1## wherein, A represents a pyridinium radical ##STR2## in which R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 denote hydrogen or an alkyl radical having 1 to 3 carbon atoms, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2, together with the pyridinium radical, form a condensed six-membered aromatic ring; or,A represents a mercapto radical of the formula --S--R.sub.4, in which R.sub.4 denotes hydrogen or the group: ##STR3## and R.sub.3 is an alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms. Also included within the scope of the present invention are alkali or ammonium salts of the compounds of the foregoing structural formula.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 18, 1991
    Assignee: Raschig AG
    Inventors: Wolfgang Clauss, Werner Kurze, Ferdinand Leifeld, Willy Wassenberg
  • Patent number: 5011581
    Abstract: A ternary FeCoNi alloy film exhibiting a high magnetic flux density is produced by performing electrodeposition at a cathodic electrode using an electrolytic bath for electrodeposition fed with Fe, Co and Ni ions from sulfates, hydrochlorides or mixtures thereof containing respective divalent ions of Fe, Co and Ni, said bath containing a composition having ratios of divalent ion concentrations in the bath in the ranges:0.05.ltoreq.[Co.sup.2+ ]/[Ni.sup.2+ ].ltoreq.0.6 and0.05.ltoreq.[Fe.sup.2+ ]/[Ni.sup.2+ ].ltoreq.2.0,at an electrodepositing current density J in the range:1<J<60 [mA/cm.sup.2 ].
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 1989
    Date of Patent: April 30, 1991
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Yuuji Omata
  • Patent number: 5011587
    Abstract: An apparatus for the detection of chemical equalization processes in aqueous solutions, in particular for the determination of pH values and/or redox potentials, is described. The apparatus, a so-called interchangeable probe, includes an essentially cylindrical probe body, with a calibrating chamber and with an immersion pipe axially displaceable in a bore of the probe body and having at its front end a protective cylinder, the area adjacent to the immersion pipe being perforated in a basket-like manner. An electrode is set into the immersion pipe with the head of the electrode being located within the basket like perforated area of the protective cylinder. An annular gap between the immersion pipe and the inner wall of the probe body is sealed by at least three gaskets, located on the inner wall of the probe body.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 1990
    Date of Patent: April 30, 1991
    Assignee: Ciba-Geigy Corporation
    Inventor: Wilhelm Schmidt
  • Patent number: 5007424
    Abstract: This invention provides a polarographic/amperometric measuring sensor, particularly useful for transcutaneous determination of the oxygen partial pressure (tcpO.sub.2) in the blood by means of a Clark-type electrode arrangement. According to the invention the counter electrode, preferably made of a noble metal, is disposed about the insulating material encasing the working electrode and is preferably made of the same noble metal as the working electrode. The measuring sensor can also be provided with a pH electrode for simultaneous determination of the carbon dioxide partial pressure (tcpCO.sub.2) in the blood.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 1990
    Date of Patent: April 16, 1991
    Assignee: Hellige GmbH
    Inventors: Walter Ahsbahs, Helmut Leist
  • Patent number: 5006208
    Abstract: Yellow to rose-colored gold alloy coatings with copper and silver are obtained from stable galvanic baths with a pH of 8.5 to 11 containing, 1 to 15 g/liter gold as potassium gold (I) cyanide, 5 to 50 g/liter copper as potassium copper (I) cyanide, 0.05 to 5 g/liter silver as potassium silver (I) cyanide and dipotassium hydrogenphosphate as well as alkali cyanides in amounts of up to 10 g/liter and 0.1-1 mg/liter potassium selenocyanate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 1990
    Date of Patent: April 9, 1991
    Assignee: Degussa Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Werner Kuhn, Wolfgang Zilske
  • Patent number: 5004525
    Abstract: A composition for electroplating copper onto a conductive surface comprising a solution soluble copper salt and an acid electrolyte, said copper salt being present in a concentration of from about 1 to 10 grams per liter of solution and said acid being present in a concentration whereby the acid to copper ratio preferably varies between about 30 to 1 and 50 to 1. The composition is especially useful for the plating of walls of cylindrical openings having a ratio of height to diameter of at least 10 to 1 and a length of at least 0.100 inches.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 1989
    Date of Patent: April 2, 1991
    Assignee: Shipley Company Inc.
    Inventors: Roger F. Bernards, Gordon Fisher, Wade Sonnenberg
  • Patent number: 5004998
    Abstract: An ion-measuring apparatus for use in processes, characterized by comprising 3 or more ion-measuring electrodes for measuring a same one ion contained in a same one sample, means for computing a mean value of measured values obtained by means of said ion-measuring electrodes, an indicating portion for indicating the computed result, means for judging an existence of an abnormality in the ion-measuring electrodes and an alarm for emitting a maintenance alarm when the abnormality occurs in any one of the ion-measuring electrodes so that the ion-measuring electrode, which has been judged to be abnormal, may be excluded to continue a measurement by means of remaining ion-measuring electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 7, 1989
    Date of Patent: April 2, 1991
    Assignee: Horiba, Ltd.
    Inventor: Yoshio Horii
  • Patent number: 5000180
    Abstract: For a potentiostatically operable, polarographic-amperometric sensor, in particular for biomedical use, wherein a working electrode (5) and a reference electrode (4) are covered by an electrolyte layer (9) which is separated from the medium to be measured by a semipermeable membrane (8), the invention proposes to provide the counter electrode (6) in the form of an external electrode which--for example--can be an outer metal coating surrounding the sensor chip (2) in a three electrode system fabricated as micro-sensor with the integrated technique, and which can be made--for example--of a stainless steel material or of a conductive plastics material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1989
    Date of Patent: March 19, 1991
    Assignee: Biomedical Systems Inc.
    Inventors: Martinus H. Kuypers, Gerardus F. J. Steeghs
  • Patent number: 5000829
    Abstract: A process for the preparation of a praseodymium-iron alloy or a praseodymium-neodymium-iron alloy, which comprises using praseodymium fluoride (PrF.sub.3) or a mixture of praseodymium fluoride and neodymium fluoride (NdF.sub.3) as the starting material and carrying out the electrolysis in a fused salt bath having a composition comprising substantially 5 to 34% by weight of PrF.sub.3 or a mixture of PrF.sub.3 and NdF.sub.3 and 95 to 66% by weight of lithium fluoride (LiF) by using an iron cathode, and a process for the preparation of praseodymium metal or a praseodymium-neodymium alloy which comprises using praseodymium fluoride (PrF.sub.3) or a mixture of praseodymium fluoride and neodymium fluodide (NdF.sub.3) as the starting material and carrying out the electrolysis in a fused salt bath having a comprising substantially 5 to 75% by weight of PfF.sub.3 or the mixture of PrF.sub.3 and NdF.sub.3 and 95 to 25% by weight of lithium fluoride (LiF) by using a cathode of carbon or an infusible metal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 1990
    Date of Patent: March 19, 1991
    Assignee: Showa Denko Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Hideo Tamamura
  • Patent number: 4997541
    Abstract: The invention is directed to a dosimeter for detecting gaseous substances or substances dissolved in liquids. The dosimeter includes a detection chamber which is partitioned off with respect to the ambient by a membrane which is permeable to the substance to be detected. The detection chamber is filled with an electrolyte which is subjected to changes in its characteristic under the action of the substance to be detected and these changes can be evaluated as electrical measured values via appropriate electrodes. The electrolyte contains a reagent which goes into an irreversible reaction with the substance to be detected and the dosimeter is improved so that after the evaluation it can be used again for measuring tasks or for collecting the substance to be detected. Furthermore, a calibration or a function test can be carried out on each dosimeter without its measurement readiness being limited thereby.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 1989
    Date of Patent: March 5, 1991
    Assignee: Dragerwerk Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Herbert Kiesele, Jurgen Tewes
  • Patent number: 4995959
    Abstract: In a measuring device for determination of the activity or the concentration of ions in solution comprising a flow channel (24) having a reference electrode and at least one measuring electrode, said flow channel having a first end (22) and a second end (23); a first line (18) connecting said first end of said flow channel to at least one calibrating liquid container (1,2,3) through first valve means (5,6,7); a first pumping means (14A) interposed in said first line (18) between said first valve means (5,6,7) and said first end (22) of said flow channel (24); a discharge line (19) connected to said first line adjacent said first end (22) of said flow channel (24), said discharge line having second pumping means (14B); a sample feed line (25) connected to said second end (23) of said flow channel for providing a sample to said flow channel; first and second sensors (10,11) arranged in said first and second ends of said flow channel, respectively, for detecting the flowing fronts of liquids, said sensors being
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 1989
    Date of Patent: February 26, 1991
    Assignee: Fresenius, AG
    Inventor: Klaus Metzner
  • Patent number: 4995960
    Abstract: An electrochemical reference element is proposed having a metal electrode such as silver coated with the tetraphenyl (TPB) salt of the metal. The element may form the internal reference of an ion selective electrode with an ion selective membrane carried directly upon the TPB coating. The element provides a thermodynamically reversible couple suitable for use in a non-aqueous environment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 1989
    Date of Patent: February 26, 1991
    Assignee: Public Health Laboratory Service Board
    Inventors: Martin C. Wiles, David J. Schiffrin, David J. Clarke
  • Patent number: 4994329
    Abstract: A process of nickel plating for forming a plated film having a high phosphorus content according to this invention comprises the steps of: a first step of electroless plating a substance to be plated in an electroless plating bath capable of forming an electroless plated film having a phosphorus content of from 0.20 to 0.25 in atomic ratio of phosphorus with respect to nickel taken as one (1); and a second step of electroplating the substance to be plated by applying an electric current having an electric current density of from 1 to 10 A/dm.sup.2, and the substance to be plated being left immersed in the electroless plating bath continuously, thereby laminating an electroplated film on the surface of the electroless plated film. The process of nickel plating can form a plated film having a remarkably improved wettability with respect to solders since the electroplated film is formed on the electroless plated film having the high phosphorus content.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 1989
    Date of Patent: February 19, 1991
    Assignee: Aisin Seiki Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Taketoshi Kaimasu, Takayoshi Tsuzuki
  • Patent number: 4994155
    Abstract: An electrolyte, system and process for depositing tin, lead or tin/lead alloys upon a substrate by high speed electroplating, which includes a basis solution of an alkyl or alkylol sulfonic acid; and at least one of a solution soluble tin compound or a solution soluble lead compound; and an alkylene oxide condensation compound of (1) an aliphatic hydrocarbon having seven, preferably six or less, carbon atoms and at least one hydroxy group, or (2) an organic compound having no more than a total of twenty carbon atoms in one or two independent or joined rings optionally substituted with an alkyl moeity of less than six carbon atoms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 1989
    Date of Patent: February 19, 1991
    Assignee: LeaRonal, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael P. Toben, Neil D. Brown, David J. Esterl, Robert A. Schetty
  • Patent number: 4992149
    Abstract: A process for the simultaneous electrolytic production of manganese dioxide and zinc from a mixture, preferably waste material consisting of spent batteries and other electronic components, contains various manganese oxides and zinc in various chemical forms, wherein the mixture is leached with an acidic solvent comprising tetrafluoroboric acid and, preferably, a reducing agent and boric acid, and subjected to an electrolysis in which zinc is plated on the cathode and manganese dioxide is plated on the anode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1990
    Date of Patent: February 12, 1991
    Assignee: Recytec S.A.
    Inventor: Trong T. Nguyen
  • Patent number: 4990224
    Abstract: An acid copper plating bath and process for using with electropositive metals such as aluminum and tungsten is described, wherein the bath contains sulfuric acid, copper sulfate, in solution with urea as a levelling agent, a cationic surfactant as a wetting agent and an ester of a sulfonic acid, Beta-phenylethyltosylate as a brightening agent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 1989
    Date of Patent: February 5, 1991
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Issa S. Mahmoud