Abstract: Whole crude shale oil is contacted with a suitable catalyst, e.g., cobalt molybdate on alumina, and hydrogen within a temperature range of about 600.degree. F.-850.degree. F. and a pressure range of about 200 psig-5000 psig until a substantial amount of nitrogen compounds contained in the oil are converted to at least basic nitrogen compounds. Hydrogen consumption is high, about 700-3000 SCF/Bbl of fresh oil charged. The contacted oil, containing basic nitrogen compounds in the oil, formed by the hydrogen contacting, is reacted with dry HCl and resulting reaction product is removed from the oil. The reaction product can be converted into hydrogen and HCl for use in the process. As a result of the severe hydrogen contacting and the HCl treatment, a major amount of the whole crude shale oil can be converted to jet fuel.
Abstract: Ammonia exchanged large port mordenite, which is subsequently mildly acid leached, and calcined, in which at least 95% of the exchangeable sodium has been removed and having from 0.38 to 0.8 milliequivalents of acid sites at least as strong as 48% sulfuric acid per gram (as measured by titration with butylamine, and employing dicinnamalacetone indicator) has been found to be highly active hydrocarbon isomerization catalyst. Incorporation of noble metal, e.g. palladium, on the catalyst improves the selectivity for isomerization of normal pentane to isopentane for highly active catalysts at high conversion rates.
Abstract: A process for maintaining the fluid-like properties of separate phases formed within a continuous coal deashing process during periods in which the flow of feed to the apparatus is interrupted. In operation, when the flow of feed is interrupted, the flow of solvent to the separation apparatus of the coal deashing process is diverted about said apparatus in such a manner as to maintain the system operating pressure. More specifically, solvent maintained at elevated temperature and pressure is diverted about the mixing and separation apparatus and introduced into a conduit downstream of the separation zone, in advance of a pressure regulating valve, said conduit also connecting to the separation apparatus. The new flow path maintains the pressure within the separation zone through establishment of fluid communication between the elevated pressure solvent and the phases within the separation apparatus.
Abstract: A metal containing hydrocarbon feedstock, such as a heavy residue, is contacted with hydrogen and a material characterized by low porosity, less than 0.3 cc/gram; low surface area, less than 5 m.sup.2 /g; high average pore diameter, greater than 1,000 Angstroms; and a high distribution of large pores, at least 40%, and preferably 50 to 80% of pores greater than 10,000 Angstroms. A preferred material is coke.
Abstract: A process is provided for the simultaneous and separate alkylation of an isoparaffin such as isobutane with different olefins, e.g., propylenes and butylenes in different zones with an HF acid catalyst comprising separating the hydrocarbon phase from each of the alkylation effluents, subjecting each hydrocarbon phase to separate HF stripping, fractionating the liquid phases removed from each of the HF stripping zones, pressurizing the vaporous isoparaffin stream recovered from fractionation and utilizing the pressurized vaporous streams for indirect heat exchange with HF strippers and fractionation zones prior to recycling through alkylation.
Abstract: A process is provided for the alkylation of isoparaffins with olefins in the presence of an HF acid catalyst comprising separating a liquid hydrocarbon phase from the alkylation effluent, subjecting the hydrocarbon phase to HF stripping, separating the stripped hydrocarbon into a liquid and a vapor phase, fractionating the liquid phase into product streams, and pressurizing the vaporous stream prior to separation of C.sub.3 and lighter materials. The HF alkylation process utilizes indirect heat exchange of various streams and compression of HF-free vapors.
Abstract: A reforming process is disclosed which comprises contacting a sulfur-containing hydrocarbon material in at least one scavenging or sulfur removal zone with at least one manganese-containing composition at conditions to remove at least a portion of said sulfur from said hydrocarbon material to produce a hydrocarbon feedstock having a reduced concentration of sulfur; and contacting said hydrocarbon feedstock with a catalyst comprising, optionally, a major amount of a porous solid support, a minor catalytically effective amount of at least one platinum-group metal component, optionally, a minor catalytically effective amount of at least one halogen component, and optionally, at least one rhenium component in the presence of hydrogen at hydrocarbon reforming conditions to obtain a hydrocarbon reformate product.
Abstract: A process for hydrotreating a hydrocarbon stream such as petroleum distillate and similar hydrocarbon materials by contacting said stream with hydrogen and a catalyst comprising a porous refractory inorganic oxide support and deposited thereon hydrogenation components comprising chromium, molybdenum and at least one Group VIII metal. This process enables improved removal of nitrogen and sulfur, particularly from gas oils.
March 19, 1979
Date of Patent:
September 23, 1980
Standard Oil Company (Indiana)
Albert L. Hensley, Jr., Leonard M. Quick, P. Donald Hopkins
Abstract: A method for treating sulfur-containing lubricating oil, by contacting the oil with iodine in the presence of an aqueous solution of alkali and thereafter separating the treated oil from the contacting solution. A lubricating oil having increased resistance to oxidation produced by this method.
Abstract: A process is disclosed for the alkylation of an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon with an olefin-acting alkylating agent. The isoparaffinic hydrocarbon is commingled with a first portion of said alkylating agent in a first alkylation reaction zone at alkylation reaction conditions in contact with a hydrofluoric acid catalyst. The acid phase of the effluent from the first alkylation reaction zone is separated, and the hydrocarbon phase, comprising alkylate and unreacted isoparaffin, is commingled with a second portion of said alkylating agent at alkylation reaction conditions in a second alkylation reaction zone in contact with a hydrofluoric acid catalyst separately charged thereto, the hydrofluoric acid catalyst being that separated from the effluent of the first alkylation reaction zone. The acid phase is separated from the effluent from the second alkylation reaction zone and recycled to the first alkylation reaction zone, and the alkylate product is recovered from the hydrocarbon phase.
Abstract: A process for refining a shale oil or tar fraction boiling below 200.degree. C. is described wherein the shale oil or tar fraction is hydrogenated in the presence of a pre-hydrogenated naphtha which functions as a hydrogen transfer agent. Also described is a method for the production of such pre-hydrogenated naphtha from a solid containing shale oil or tar fraction boiling above 200.degree. C.
Abstract: In a process for producing vinylnorbornene and/or tetrahydroindene by the Diels-Alder reaction between butadiene and cyclopentadiene, the improvement that the intended product is obtained with high selectivity and high conversion can be achieved by carrying out said reaction in a solvent which has a molecular refraction R.sub.D of 30 or more and a boiling point of 150.degree. C. or higher and which is thermally stable and inert to the reactants as well as to the reaction products.
Abstract: Improvements in alkylation effluent flash vaporization systems used in processes of alkylating isoparaffinic hydrocarbons with olefinic hydrocarbons in the presence of acid catalyst and an excess of isoparaffinic hydrocarbons; improvements in heat sources used in such alkylation effluent flash vaporization systems, specifically utilizing hot and compressed isoparaffinic hydrocarbon vapors generally available in such systems from such sources as fractionation (deisobutanizer) overhead or vapor flashing processes utilized in cooling the reaction step or both; improvements in alkylation effluent flash vaporization systems which reduce the load on the conventional step of retrieving excess isoparaffinic hydrocarbons from the alkylation reaction effluent for recycle to the reaction step.
Abstract: A process for the acid-catalyzed alkylation of an alkylatable hydrocarbon with an olefin-acting alkylating agent is disclosed. The alkylation reactor effluent is treated in a unitary settler-soaker vessel whereby a substantial reduction in the acid catalyst inventory of the system is effected. A novel combination soaking-settling apparatus is also disclosed.
Abstract: Crude shale oil produced by in situ retorting of oil shale can contain from about 1 to 2% sulfur by weight, the sulfur being distributed widely through the lower and higher boiling fractions of the shale oil. Substantially non-condensible sulfur containing gas such as hydrogen sulfide is evolved from such crude shale oil by maintaining such shale oil at an elevated temperature in the substantial absence of added reagent, with the maximum temperature below thermal decomposition temperatures of such shale oil for sufficient time to lower the sulfur content of the shale oil.
Abstract: Synthesis gas is converted into gasoline by contacting the gas with a crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite catalyst, the process being characterized by conversion of by-product isobutane into gasoline by alkylation.
December 11, 1978
Date of Patent:
August 19, 1980
Shell Oil Company
Lambert Schaper, Bernardus J. Runderkamp, Swan T. Sie, Nicoline W. Spakman
Abstract: Hydrocarbons are cracked in the presence of a mist of molten salt containing of basic compounds of alkali and alkaline earth metals and mixtures thereof, the amount of the molten salt to hydrocarbon being, by weight, from 0.01:1 to 10:1 followed by quenching at a temperature not lower than the melting point of the molten salt, and separating the cracked gas from the molten salt.
Abstract: Process for the preparation of alkylbenzenes by partial chlorination of linear C.sub.9 -C.sub.15 paraffins, catalytic alkylation of benzene with the resulting mixture and fractionation by distillation of the alkylation products.At least a part of the unreacted paraffins recovered by fractionation and to be recycled to the chlorination stage is submitted, continuously or intermittently, to a purification treatment with molecular sieves.The content in undesired by-products of the alkylbenzenes can thus be maintained at negligibly low values.
September 28, 1978
Date of Patent:
August 5, 1980
Giuseppe Messina, Loreno Lorenzoni, Lucio Di Fiore
Abstract: A process useful for recovering surfactant and oil of low water content in surfactant flood oil recovery projects is disclosed. A produced oil in water emulsion is treated with brine and partitioning agent, preferably isopropyl alcohol, by mixing and settling to form three phases, an oil phase containing a minor amount of surfactant, a partitioning agent phase containing most of the surfactant originally present in the produced emulsion, and a brine phase containing a minor amount of alcohol.
Abstract: A process for the acid-catalyzed alkylation of an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon with an olefinic hydrocarbon is disclosed. The alkylation is effected at alkylation reaction conditions resulting in an alkylation reaction mixture containing a vapor phase generated by the exothermic heat of reaction. The vapor phase so generated has a cooling effect permitting the alkylation reaction to be effected at lower temperatures more conducive to higher quality alkylation product.