Abstract: A process for preparing alkylbenzenes, which comprises alkylation of benzene or alkylderivatives thereof with olefines in the presence of a catalyst comprising a product prepared by reacting metallic aluminum with a chlorinated hydrocarbon in a medium of benzene or an alkylbenzene at a weight ratio between metallic aluminum and said chlorinated hydrocarbon ranging from 1:0.08 to 1:17 respectively; said alkylation being conducted at a temperature within the range of from 50.degree. to 180.degree. C. under a pressure within the range of from 2 to 20 atm. The catalyst employed in the process according to the present invention is non-hygroscopic; it is prepared by rather simple technology; said catalyst ensures a high yield of the desired products (up to 80-96% as calculated for the reacted olefine) while retaining a high quality thereof (for example, purity degree of ethylbenzene prepared thereon is 99.9179% by weight).
June 21, 1976
Date of Patent:
May 22, 1979
Nadyr M. O. Seidov, Mark A. Dalin, Amir-Mamed A. O. Bakhshi-Zade, Sabir M. O. Kyazimov, Tair A. O. Kuliev, Valentina V. Lobkina, Gennady A. Reitman, Julia N. Pshik, Kasum G. O. Kasumov
Abstract: The present invention relates to a silicone lubricant composed of an organopolysiloxane polymer and an effective amount of chlorinated phosphite or phosphonate. Such a lubricant composition is especially effective for lubricating soft metals such as copper or bronze and for improving dimethylpolysiloxane lubricants.
Abstract: A process for the separation of solids containing residues from a liquid fraction containing higher boiling fractions produced in a coal hydrogenation process at elevated temperatures and pressures. The separation process involves two expansion steps, one step in an expansion engine and a subsequent expansion-evaporation step in a pressure release means and a separator chamber, whereby the higher boiling fraction is evaporated and separated from the residue fraction. The separation process in the chamber can be facilitated by creating vacuum conditions therein, or by introducing a foreign gas, preferably heat exchange with the removed hot residue fraction, to thereby reduce the partial pressure of the evaporated higher boiling fraction. The foreign gases can be steam or/and gases obtained from the hydrogenation of the coal.
Abstract: Rust-proof lubricant compositions for coating metals comprising mono, di- or tri-partial esters synthesized from pentaerythritol and fatty acids having more than 6 carbon atoms including the corresponding isomers, or a mixutre thereof as chief constituents.
Abstract: Process and apparatus for the gasification and liquefaction of bituminous type coal to produce fuel oil, including gasoline, and other liquid coal derivatives. The process includes the steps of providing clean, finely pulverized coal, gasifying the pulverized coal to produce hydrogen, by mixing the coal particles with superheated steam in the presence of heat in the range of 1,800.degree. to 2,000.degree. F., in a closed, oxygen-free pressure vessel, separating the hydrogen produced and introducing it into a closed, oxygen-free, coal liquefaction pressure vessel, for admixture with a slurry composed of fine particulate coal and a hydrogenating liquid, and subjecting the mixture to heat, pressure and ultrasonic shock waves to produce liquid effluent consisting of oil and a hydrogenating fluid. The effluent may be subjected either to fractionation in a still, or to centrifugation, to separate its oil and hydrogenating fluid components.
Abstract: Solid, hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, are converted to valuable liquid and gaseous products by an efficient process comprising:(1) preparing a slurry from slurry oil, a hydrogenation catalyst and the hydrocarbonaceous material;(2) hydrogenating the hydrocarbonaceous material to liquid and gaseous hydrogenation products, the liquid hydrogenation product containing suspended particles of ash and catalyst;(3) gravitationally separating the liquid hydrogenation product into a first stream and a second stream, the first stream having both a lower ash concentration than the liquid hydrogenation product and a greater catalyst:ash ratio than the second stream;(4) recycling at least a portion of the first stream for use as at least a portion of the slurry oil and thereby recycling at least a portion of the catalyst.
Abstract: A compound having the following general formula (I); ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 stand for a hydrocarbyl group having from 1 to 24 carbon atoms, x is a number of 0.5 - 2.3, useful as an additive for lubricants.
Abstract: A solid catalyst comprising (1) silver ion, (2) aluminum oxide and (3) silicon oxide, which may further comprise, as the fourth ingredient(s), the oxide and/or ion of one or more of transition elements, alkaline earth metals, boron, thallium, tin, lead and phosphorus gives a high yield of isoprene in the reaction of isobutylene and formaldehdye and has a prolonged catalytic activity.
Abstract: In the hydrogenation of coal slurried in recycle oil in the presence of a suspended hydrogenation catalyst, a substantial proportion of the catalyst can be recovered for recycle to the process by using a catalyst which is significantly more finely divided than the ash particles from the coal, subjecting the hydrogenated slurry to a gravity concentration process whereby the coarser, ash particles are selectively concentrated in a lower layer and a relatively larger proportion of the finer catalyst particles remain suspended in the supernatant oil, and recycling at least a part of the supernatant oil containing suspended catalyst to the coal hydrogenation process.
Abstract: Ethylene copolymers derived from about 2 to 98 wt. % ethylene, and one or more C.sub.3 to C.sub.28 alpha olefins, e.g. ethylene-propylene, are solution-grafted under an inert atmosphere and at elevated temperatures with an ethylenically-unsaturated carboxylic acid material in the presence of a high-temperature decomposable free-radical initiator and thereafter reacted with a polyfunctional material reactive with carboxy groups; such as (a) a polyamine, or (b) a polyol, or (c) a hydroxyamine, or mixtures thereof, to form carboxyl-grafted polymeric derivatives, which have good engine sludge and varnish control behavior in fuels and lubricating oils. If the molecular weight is above 10,000, then these polymers are also useful as multifunctional viscosity index improvers.
Abstract: This invention provides an improved process for solubilizing coal and other solid carbonaceous materials which involves heating a slurry of comminuted carbonaceous material and liquefaction solvent in contact with water, carbon monoxide, and a catalytic quantity of alkanol to produce a heavy oil or bitumen composition.
Abstract: An indigenous aqueous stream can be treated and then recycled, with a suitable donor solvent, to a coal liquefaction zone to catalyze the reaction. In one embodiment, an aqueous fraction is separated from a coal liquefaction zone effluent, a quinone solids portion of the separated fraction is concentrated within the liquid by evaporation of water therefrom to form a slurry, and the slurry is then recycled to the coal liquefaction zone to catalyze the coal liquefaction reaction. Naturally occurring phenols and alkyl substituted phenols, also found within the aqueous stream, can also be converted to quinones, if desired, by a chemical reaction which favors the addition of hydroxyl consitutents to the phenols to form dihydroxy benzenes. Quinones, as disclosed in copending Applications Ser. No. 686,813 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,536; Ser. No. 686,814 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,537; Ser. No. 686,827 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,012 and Ser. No. 686,828, K. W.
Abstract: An indigenous hydrocarbon product stream boiling within a range of from about C.sub.1 -700.degree. F., preferably C.sub.1 -400.degree. F., is treated to produce an upgraded hydrocarbon fuel component and a component which can be recycled, with a suitable donor solvent, to a coal liquefaction zone to catalyze the reaction. In accordance therewith, a liquid hydrocarbon fraction with a high end boiling point range up to about 700.degree. F., preferably up to about 400.degree. F., is separated from a coal liquefaction zone effluent, the separated fraction is contacted with an alkaline medium to provide a hydrocarbon phase and an aqueous extract phase, the aqueous phase is neutralized, and contacted with a peroxygen compound to convert indigenous components of the aqueous phase of said hydrocarbon fraction into catalytic components, such that the aqueous stream is suitable for recycle to the coal liquefaction zone.
Abstract: This invention provides an improved process for deriving motor fuel from coal which involves the steps of solubilizing coal in a liquefaction solvent; separating undissolved solids from the liquefaction solution; fractionating the liquid phase by distillation; subjecting intermediate distillate fractions to denitrification treatment; and catalytic cracking of the resultant denitrified synthetic crude oil to produce premium grade gasoline.
Abstract: A process for the preparation of a diene of the formula ##STR1## in which X and Y are independently fluorine, chlorine or bromineWhich comprises contacting a 1,1,1-trihalo-4-methyl-4-hydroxypentane of the formula ##STR2## in which X and Y have the previously assigned significance and Z is a chorine or bromine atomWith a dehydrohalogenating agent and a dehydration agent.
July 22, 1976
Date of Patent:
March 7, 1978
Reinhard Lantzsch, Dieter Arlt, Ernst Kysela
Abstract: Lubricating oil additives having both dispersant and viscosity index-improving properties are prepared by reacting a selectively hydrogenated star-shaped polymer having at least four arms of polymers or copolymers of dienes and monoalkenyl arenes with an alpha-beta unsaturated carboxylic acid or derivative, and then reacting the resulting intermediate with an alkane polyol.
Abstract: Mineral lubricating oil compositions which contain a predominant proportion of a mineral lubricating oil together with a pour point depressant based on alkyl acrylate or alkyl methacrylate polymers and a viscosity index (VI) improver comprising a special selectively hydrogenated copolymer of styrene and a conjugated diene. The VI improver employed is a selectively hydrogenated, random butadiene-styrene copolymer containing from 35 to 45% by weight of styrene and possessing a particular structure and distribution of the monomers. The compositions exhibit high stability to shear and may therefore in particular be used for lubricating I.C. engines or gearboxes.
January 11, 1977
Date of Patent:
February 14, 1978
Volker Ladenberger, Klaus Bronstert, Friedrich Hovemann, Petr Simak