Abstract: The invention relates to an arrangement and method for multielement analyse of chemical elements in which light cables are used to transmit spectral lines or bands produced by an optical dispersion means from a sample material radiation to an array of photodetectors. The light cable end-portions are inserted as many as required for a definite analyzing program into holes of a plug-in unit and are associated via a mask to definite photodetectors. The plug-in unit is displaceable relative to the mask so that the spectral informations from definite light cables associated to definite spectral lines or bands are evaluated in groups which require similar or equal excitation conditions. The latter are adjustable by respective means.
December 10, 1984
Date of Patent:
December 8, 1987
Jenoptik Jena GmbH
Winfried Quillfeldt, Bernd Naumann, Helmut Becker-Ross
Abstract: The invention relates to a method and device for electrothermal atomization of a sample material, particularly for use in atomic absorption or atomic fluorescence spectroscopy in which an atomizing apparatus including a graphite tube sealed towards ambience is connected to a pressure gas source. The gas inlets provided in said atomizing apparatus serve to produce a symmetrical configuration of an atomized sample material cloud, the atomization of the sample material is acheived by a respective temperature increase which is combined with a pressure gas increase at least during a period of temperature increase. The relation between the starting pressure of the gas and the final pressure of the gas is substantially equal to the relation between the starting temperature and the final temperature. The device used for carrying out the method of the invention includes a control system for control of the temperature and the pressure in said atomization apparatus.
Abstract: A method of aligning an object comprises the steps of providing a V-shaped mark which moves in correspondence with the position of the object, determining a position where this mark and a straight mark detection line crosses each other, and positioning this object on the basis of information on this determined position.
Abstract: The telescope of the level-transit includes two mirrors at 45.degree. to the light path. A first mirror is fixed in the telescope housing by screws which thread into the mirror support to pull it tight against a datum surface established by a cover. The other mirror is mounted for pendulating action to automatically compensate the instrument for deviation from level within the design range. When the instrument is used as a transit the telescope is free to tilt up and down to measure vertical angles. At that time the pendulum is locked in center position. When the instrument is used as a level, the telescope is locked against elevation or depression. The locking mechanism actuates a device which frees the pendulum for operation to automatically compensate the level. The bottom of the pendulum weight has an inverted conical member fixed therein. The conical portion passes through an elongated hole in a leaf spring fixed in the telescope to flex about an axis transverse the mirror pivot axis.
Abstract: A non-contact system for detecting printed circuit wiring defects and for measuring circuit feature height relative to a substrate. The system has an energy source for illuminating the substrate and circuit features and a scanner for both instantaneously receiving energy reflected from the substrate and circuit features and for generating a signal in response to the reflected energy, which signal is adapted to vary with the intensity of the reflected energy. An analyzer is connected to the scanner for correlating the generated signal to a measurement representative of the height of the circuit features relative to the substrate. Variations and non-uniformity of the substrate surface due to bending, warpage or other causes can be accounted for so as to provide an accurate measurement of the height of a circuit feature relative to the substrate surface on which it is mounted.
April 12, 1984
Date of Patent:
March 17, 1987
International Business Machines Corporation
Robert M. Crabb, Steven M. DeFoster, Norman E. Rittenhouse, Mark A. West, Richard A. Ziegler
Abstract: An electrothermal atomizer comprises a graphite tubular member (1) which is clamped between two pairs of graphite contact members (3,5). The contact members are provided with semicircular grooves (14,22) between which the tubular member is clamped with a sufficient force to flex the wall of the tubular member to conform to the profile of the grooves. This arrangement improves the electrical contact between the tubular member (1) and the contact members (3,5) as contact over an area is provided rather than point or line contact.
Abstract: For measurement of chlorine concentration in a process stream, an improved device is set forth measuring light transmission in a selected frequency range. The preferred embodiment uses a light source, a light filter and an optical fiber extending to a pipe or other vessel with flowing chlorine. The light is transmitted from a lens system to another lens system and into a second optical fiber. The second fiber extends to a measuring device.
June 17, 1985
Date of Patent:
March 3, 1987
The Dow Chemical Company
Thomas E. Morris, Tarver G. Snedecor, Jr.
Abstract: When a light emitted during the irradiation by a laser beam onto the surface of steel is spectrally separated and elements contained in the steel are analyzed quantitatively:an infrared pulse laser beam irradiates a sample such that an energy density on the surface of the sample becomes 2.0.times.10.sup.9 W/mm.sup.
Abstract: A double polarized light beam spectrophotometer of a light-source modulation type. A modulated light beam emitted by a light source is conducted through specimen atom vapor generated by a graphite atomizer. Wavelength of light undergone atom absorption is selected and spatially separated into a pair of linearly polarized light beams perpendicular to each other. The pair of the linearly polarized light beams separated are alternately passed through a chopper and received by a photoelectric conversion device to be converted into electric signals which are utilized for determining atomic absorption of the specimen. The phase of modulation of light radiated from the light source is synchronized with phase of a current supplied to the graphite atomizer for heating thereof and the switching timing of the chopper.
Abstract: A device for the collection of Raman scattered light by means of an internally reflective sphere 10 wherein a light source 12 provides light to and through a sample 16, which light is reflected back through that sample by the internally reflective sphere 10. The sample is viewed by means of a spectrograph 30 focused by lenses 26, 28 or a fiberoptic light pipe 46.
Abstract: A method of aligning a first object and a second object comprises the steps of detecting, in at least two directions of detection in each examination region of which is included the superposed portion of a first area type mark formed on the first object and a second area type mark formed on the second object when the two marks are seen from a predetermined direction, the lengths of the superposed portion and the non-superposed portion of the marks in the first and second objects or the images thereof, and comparing the detected lengths and operating a positional deviation.
Abstract: A driving circuit for rotating the grating of a monochromator thereby changing the wavelength of light which is emitted from the monochromator. This driving circuit includes an operating panel for supplying wavelength data, a data converting circuit which obtains a trigonometric function value corresponding to the wavelength data when the data converting circuit receives the wavelength data, and which converts the wavelength data to angle data on the basis of the trigonometric function value, and a motor driver for rotating the grating into the angular position corresponding to the angle data.
Abstract: An improved apparatus for the on site spectrometric analysis of metallic parts in an air gap is disclosed. The apparatus essentially comprises a probe to be positioned on the part, a mobile unit including a current-pulse generator for the probe to excite the part for analysis of its chemical composition in a direct reading optical emission spectrometer contained in the unit, and a flexible optical cable coupling the probe to the unit. The probe is designed for use on both flat and round parts, such as bars, billets, pipes, rods or wires as small as having a radius of one mm. The probe features an adjustable counter electrode, an inner sleeve serving as a contact electrode and an outer sleeve axially movable about the inner electrode and having a positioning V-groove. The probe further includes an electro-mechanical interlock to prevent accidental discharge thereof, and a self-cleaning mechanism for its sensor head.
Abstract: A method and apparatus for measuring the concentration of a substance capable of absorbing infrared, visible or ultraviolet radiation energy, the substance being in a mixture. The method and apparatus involve passing a beam of radiant energy having predetermined spectral response characteristics through the mixture, modulating the beam at a predetermined frequency .omega.
Abstract: A method of colorimetrically evaluating a sheet printed on both sides thereof by means of a scanning densitometer having a mechanically controlled measuring head which is guided along a print control strip, to be evaluated and which produces a multiplicity of color density values representing color properties of the control strip, which includes assigning respective control strip measurement fields for different colors to respective printed parts on mutually opposite first form and perfector sides of a sheet, and forming a common control strip set out of all of the measurement fields, assigning to the measurement fields abbreviations for each of the respective ink colors in accordance with the colors to be printed, and introducing into a measuring system the color abbreviations assigned to the respective printing colors and to the respective sides of the sheet.
Abstract: Light in two different wavelengths, only one of which is attenuated by the presence of a substance to be tested for, is passed through a light path which includes a fluid path. The two wavelengths are equally attenuated by particulate contamination and all other conditions except for the presence of the tested for substance. A light path through a reference cell provides a reference for each wavelength. The presence of the tested for substance provides a differential attenuation which is indicative of the presence of the substance and the degree of differential attenuation is a measure of the concentration of the substance.
Abstract: An optical arrangement for use in spectrometry uses a masking device which eliminates unwanted spectral regions prior to optically resolving the unmasked information. The optical arrangement comprises an entrance slit to select incidence spectral energy from an energized source and a concave grating of relatively low dispersion to image the spectrum of the entrance slit onto a stationary mask which simultaneously selects spectral regions of the dispersed incident spectral energy. The selected spectral regions are collimated and recombined and directed onto an Echelle grating to disperse with high resolution the selected spectral regions. A concave mirror focuses the dispersed selected spectral regions into a focal plane of highly resolved spectral energy which can be detected to determine the spectral information coming from the source. The optical arrangement is particularly well suited for use with narrow spectral bandwidth spectral information distributed over a large spectral range.
December 6, 1984
Date of Patent:
January 13, 1987
PRA International Inc.
Gilbert M. Levy, Alexander Quaglia, Robert E. Lazure
Abstract: A method for determining a parameter that characterizes the cross sectional shape of a running multilobal filament or yarns thereof, by light scattering analysis. The analysis is based on detecting and measuring the intensity of light scattered from the yarn in the plane of the incident beam which is oriented perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the yarn. By comparing the intensity of the scattered light with previously measured standard values for the particular yarn geometry being measured, using correlation techniques, the average cross sectional shape parameter can be determined.
Abstract: A method of examining the state of alignment of headlamp beam axis has the following steps: taking up by a TV camera the image of the light distribution pattern of a headlamp beam on a screen; specifying a closed curved area of illumination intensities higher than a predetermined level in the taken-up image of the light distribution pattern; determining the position of the geometrical center of the specified closed curved area and displaying the position of the geometrical center on a monitor TV; measuring the area of the specified closed curved area; comparing the measured actual area of the closed curved area with a command area; adjusting the quantity of light received by the TV camera in accordance with the result of the comparison until the measured actual area of the closed curved area becomes equal to the command area; and displaying, on a monitor TV, a pattern representing the allowable range and a mark representing the position of the beam axis.
Abstract: In an optical sensor used mainly for determining the partial pressure of O.sub.2 or CO.sub.2 in respiratory gas includes a sample measuring chamber through which sample medium to be analyzed flows or into which it is fed, a reference measuring chamber containing a reference gas or a reference liquid of constant composition, a light source, a unitary excitation filter positioned between the light source and first sides of both the sample measuring chamber and the reference measuring chamber, a single fluorescent sensor element on the second sides of both the sample measuring chamber and the reference measuring chamber, and first and second detectors for detecting the fluorescence radiation from the fluorescent sensor element respectively based on the light passing thereto from the sample measuring chamber and the reference measuring chamber.