Abstract: A process for producing a p-chlorobenzene having the formula: ##STR1## wherein R is a lower alkyl group, a lower alkoxy group or a halogen atom, which comprises chlorinating a benzene having the formula: ##STR2## wherein R is as defined above, in a liquid phase in the presence of a catalyst, characterized in that the catalyst is a combination of an aliphatic alcohol having the formula:R'OH (III)wherein R' is a lower alkyl group or a lower haloalkyl group, and a zeolite having a SiO.sub.2 /Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 molar ratio of from 3 to 8 and a pore size of from 6 to 10 .ANG..
Abstract: A process for the preparation of vinyl chloride by vaporizing liquid 1,2-dichloroethane, thermally cracking the 1,2-dichloroethane and cooling the hot reaction mixture by means of cooled and condensed portions of the reaction mixture, wherein a defined amount of the 1,2-dichloroethane is taken off as liquid in or downstream of the vaporizer and mixed with a defined amount of the cooled liquid portion of the reaction mixture, the mixture is distilled and the constituents taken off the top of the distillation column are mixed with the liquid 1,2-dichloroethane upstream of the vaporizer while the constituents taken off the bottom of the distillation column are worked up by distillation.
October 9, 1984
Date of Patent:
January 19, 1988
Werner Hebgen, Eckehard Danz, Gerd Krome, Erhard Stahnecker
Abstract: Monohalobenzene compounds are iodinated with an iodination reagent selected from the group consisting of (i) iodine monochloride and (ii) I.sub.2 /Cl.sub.2 mixtures having a mol ratio of about 1:3-5:1, in the presence of a catalyst selected from the group consisting of MoCl.sub.5, FeCl.sub.3, lanthanide chlorides and mixtures thereof. Preferably one of chlorobenzene and fluorobenzene is at least partially converted to at least one of para-iodochlorobenzene and para-iodofluorobenzene. Various other aromatic compounds, preferably di- and trichlorobenzene, xylenes, nitrobenzene and ethyl benzoate, are iodinated with an iodination reagent selected from the group consisting of (i) iodine monochloride and (ii) I.sub.2 /Cl.sub.2 mixtures having a mol ratio of about 1:3-5:1, in the presence of a catalyst comprising FeCl.sub.3 and, optionally, a lanthanide chloride.
Abstract: 3,3-dichloro-2-methylpropene is prepared by reacting 1-chloro-2-methylpropene with sulfuryl chloride in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of nitrogen-containing bases or phosphines. Suitable nitrogen-containing bases are preferably aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic amines, as well as mixtures thereof; suitable phosphines are preferably aliphatic or aromatic phosphines.
Abstract: 1,2,3-trichloropropane is prepared by reacting allyl chloride with sulfuryl chloride, in the presence of 1-10,000 ppm of a nitrogen-containing base, a phosphine or a phosphine oxide. Suitable nitrogen-containing bases include aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic amines, and mixtures thereof; suitable phosphines are preferably aliphatic or aromatic phosphines and suitable phosphine oxides are aliphatic or aromatic phosphine oxides.
Abstract: A vapor phase synthesis of hexafluoroisobutylene, which comprises contacting in the vapor phase in a catalyst zone, B, of a reactor hexafluoropropylene oxide with a fluorinated catalyst such as fluorinated silica-alumina at a temperature of about 400.degree.-600.degree. C. for a residence time sufficient to form a vapor stream comprising hexafluoroacetone which is thereafter directly contacted in a heating zone of the reactor with a vapor stream comprising a keytone-generating compound such as acetic anhydride at a temperature of about 500.degree.-700.degree. C. for a residence time sufficient to form a stream comprising hexafluoroisobutylene, substantially-free of perfluoroisobutylene and recovering the hexafluoroisobutylene product is disclosed.
Abstract: This invention relates to the fluorination of carboxylic acids with xenon difuoride in the presence of hydrogen fluoride. Novel fluorinated compounds containing aliphatic unsaturation are also disclosed.
Abstract: A method for the isomerization of linalyl halides is disclosed, improved by the presence of an alcohol. The improved method of the invention requires less energy for completion of the isomerization and shortens the isomerization times.
Abstract: Benzylic and aromatic mercaptans are desulphurized by contacting the mercaptan with carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures in the presence of an aqueous hydrocarbon and a cobalt carbonyl catalyst.
Abstract: The disclosure is of an improved process for the hydrohalogenation of a conjugated diene in the presence of a catalyst, which comprises carrying out the hydrohalogenation in the presence of an organic quaternary salt.
July 1, 1985
Date of Patent:
November 3, 1987
Union Camp Corporation
Peter W. D. Mitchell, Lois T. McElligott, David E. Sasser
Abstract: The separation of oil or bitumen from a surface of a substrate covered with same is effected by first dissolving the oil or bitumen in a solvent to form a solution thereof. A liquid which does not dissolve the oil or bitumen, is non-miscible with the solvent and has substantially higher surface wetting properties than the solvent on subtstrate is then intimately contacted with the surface of the substrate; the solvent and liquid are capable of forming in the presence of the oil or bitumen an interfacial membrane-like material which is impermeable thereto.
Abstract: This invention relates to an improved process for extraction organic material from bituminous sands or oil bearing sand, including: diluent slurrying in a conditioning drum; screening the slurry and directing it into one or two helical classifiers in counter-current with diluent, to obtain in the overflow the organic matter in solution with diluent; feeding the mineral matter, withdrawn from the classifiers, substantially free of bitumen or oil, but saturated with diluent, into a column where it settles towards the bottom through diluent and then through an aqueous medium, under and in direct contact with the diluent. Process control agents are added to the aqueous medium. Diluent and fresh water are continuously fed into the vessel.
July 7, 1983
Date of Patent:
October 27, 1987
Institutul de Cercetari Si Poriectari Pentru Petrol Si Gaze
Abstract: A process for coupling two low molecular weight telomers of chlorotrifluoroethylene comprises reacting the telomers with hydrogen in the presence of an effective amount of a catalyst to form a coupled olefin. The catalyst comprises palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, Raney nickel, Raney cobalt, and mixtures thereof, either supported or unsupported. The olefin can be fluorinated using a suitable fluorinating agent, such as chlorine trifluoride, to form a saturated telomer.
Abstract: An improved process for preparaing telomers of chlorotrifluoroethylene comprises the solution telomerization reaction of chlorotrifluoroethylene with carbon tetrachloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of cupric chloride (CuCl.sub.2) and an iron reductant. Preferably, the solvent for the system comprises acetonitrile, and the telomerization is carried out under elevated pressure conditions and at a temperature in the range of from about 90.degree. C. to about 150.degree. C. The crude telomer prepared by this process can be fluorinated to produce a stabilized oil or grease.
Abstract: In the preparation of m-chlorobenzotrifluoride (m-CBTF) by reaction between benzotrifluoride and chlorine gas, a combination of a chloride of a metal having a valence of 3 to 6 and a small amount of iodine is used as catalyst. Alternative to iodine use can be made of an iodide that liberates iodine in the presence of chlorine. The catalyst exhibits high selectivity for m-CBTF and is effective for increasing the ratio of m-CBTF to p-CBTF in the reaction product.
Abstract: In the process for preparing 1,7-octadiene by hydrodimerizing butadiene in the presence of a solubilized palladium or palladium compound, a tertiary phosphine, formic acid, a base and optionally a solvent, improved rates of conversions of butadiene to 1,7-octadiene are obtained by carrying out the process in the presence of supported palladium, platinum or rhodium.
Abstract: A process for the preparation of bromostyrenes which comprises aqueous alcoholic alkali dehydrohalogenation of a 1-haloethyl bromobenzene, a 2-haloethyl bromobenzene, or a 1-methyl-2-haloethyl brominated benzene in the presence of a phase transfer catalyst at a temperature of between about 0.degree. C. and about 150.degree. C. The bromostyrenes have the particular utility as a comonomer for the preparation of a co-polymer exhibiting a flame retardancy. Both bromostyrenes and brominated alpha-methyl styrenes are formed.
Abstract: Process for preparing 1,3,6,8-tetrabromopyrene by brominating pyrene in aqueous suspension with simultaneous reoxidation of the resulting hydrogen bromide to bromine by means of an oxidizing agent, which comprises reacting pyrene in a highly concentrated aqueous suspension having a pyrene-water weight ratio of 1:1.2 to 2 with bromine at temperatures of 40.degree. to 65.degree. C. with simultaneous reoxidation of the resulting hydrogen bromide to bromine using an oxidizing agent, completing the bromination by heating the reaction mixture to temperatures of 70.degree. to 130.degree. C., reducing excess bromine with a reducing agent to hydrogen bromide and subjecting the 1,3,6,8-tetrabromopyrene formed, preferably without intermediate isolation, to an alkaline aftertreatment at temperatures of 40.degree. to 100.degree. C. within the pH range 8.5 to 12.