Abstract: A method of automatically realigning a steam generator secondary piping system, such as the feedwater system, in the event of a pipe break to a given steam generator in a system having plural steam generators sharing, in part, a common secondary piping system. A feedwater line break is identified by monitoring the respective generators' steam exit line pressures and comparing the several pressures to a first predetermined setpoint. If any one of the several monitored pressures falls below the first setpoint the main steam line isolation valves are automatically closed and the respective generator pressures are again monitored and compared to a second predetermined setpoint. The feedwater line to the generator then exhibiting a drop in pressure below the second setpoint is isolated and the remaining generator main steam line isolation valves may be opened to return the functional intact generators to the system.
July 18, 1978
Date of Patent:
November 4, 1980
Westinghouse Electric Corp.
Glenn E. Lang, Milburn E. Crotzer, John S. Fuoto
Abstract: Steam generator for nuclear power plants including a cylindrical housing, a tube bundle for conducting primary medium enclosed by the housing, at least one tube support plate holding the tube bundle, the cylindrical housing including a base member secured to the tube support plate and defining therewith inlet and outlet chambers for the primary medium, the cylindrical housing having a pair of opposing flanges on portions of the cylindrical housing located on opposite sides of the tube support plate, and flange connection means for tightly connecting the portions of the cylindrical housing on opposite sides of the tube support plate, the flange connection means being releasable for assembling and disassembling the tube bundle and including a stud bolt connection, the flanges having opposing sealing surfaces, a lip seal disposed between the sealing surfaces and having radially outwardly protruding lips tightly welded to one another, the lips having a radially inner region secured by respective circular bead wel
August 4, 1978
Date of Patent:
April 29, 1980
Kraftwerk Union Aktiengesellschaft
Zvonimir Sterk, Martin Sawitzki, Heinz Grimm
Abstract: A generator for the production of both superheated steam and saturated steam has an outer casing formed by an inner cylindrical shell engaged within an outer cylindrical shell, the shells being closed by dished ends. An annular header for the admission of pressurized primary water is formed between an upper annular tube plate and a partition-wall while an outlet header for the discharge of primary water is formed by a central tube plate mounted within the inner shell. A bundle of parallel tubes for the circulation of primary water extends vertically upward from the central tube plate. The end portion of each tube has the shape of a crook in order to join the tubes to the annular tube plate in uniformly spaced relation. The secondary water is admitted into the casing by means of ducts formed in the inner shell near the central tube plate. The steam generated is discharged through ducts formed in the outer shell.
September 22, 1978
Date of Patent:
April 22, 1980
Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique
Jean Forestier, Bernard Leblanc, Marcel Monteil, Pierre Monteil
Abstract: The Inert Focusing "Photon" Energy Collector is a device used to focus the sun rays (or photons) on a piece of metal properly arranged geometrically for the greatest concentration of available photons for the purpose of absorbing, transferring, and, depending on the intent, for temporary or permanent storing of the energy collected. The desirable feature of the device is that it does not require any complicated sun tracking mechanism to maintain the ability to focus the photons during the sun's daylight cycle. The device allows for modification (decreased or increased storage volume) to allow high temperature water to be provided with minimum power consumption by circulation pumps.
Abstract: A waste disposal system for the thermal conversion of municipal and industrial solid wastes into essentially pollution free products of combustion is disclosed. The waste disposal system includes a building enclosure having an interior storage area for accumulating combustible refuse, and an incinerator for thermally oxidizing the refuse. In a preferred embodiment, the incinerator includes a combustion chamber which is maintained at a reduced pressure level relative to the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere. This subatomspheric pressure arrangement produces a positive flow of air into the chamber as it is loaded thereby permitting loading during combustion virtually without risk of injury to personnel or damage to surrounding combustible material. In another preferred embodiment, the incinerator includes a primary combustion chamber which is maintained in an excess air condition as combustion occurs, and a secondary combustion chamber into which an auxiliary source of fuel such as natural gas is injected.
Abstract: The invention relates to a furnace assembly adapted for the combustion of wastes. Its grating is arranged tiltable and a mass of mineral particles is mounted on the latter and for acting as a provisional and stationary furnace bed.
Abstract: After the fly ash is removed from the flue gases by a separator, it is introduced into a combustion chamber which may be either the primary combustion chamber of the furnace or a separate chamber in a secondary combustion chamber. There, it is burned until only the liquid slag remains and then removed, along with the other liquid slag formed in the furnace by the primary combustion process. Various methods and apparatus are described for carrying out the introduction of the fly ash into the combustion chamber.
Abstract: A system for the combustion of moist ligneous and other wastes, such as sawdust and compacted household rubbish in order to generate heat. The system includes a crusher-extractor to divide the waste matter entrained in an air stream to produce a fuel mixture that is fed into one input of an exchanger-separator whose output supplies a pyrolytic burner coupled to a boiler. The hot fumes from the boiler are fed back into the other input of the exchanger-separator which serves to mix fresh divided waste with residue or unburned waste extracted from the fumes, and to separate the waste material to be consumed in the burner from the hot gas and moisture.
Abstract: The apparatus of the invention includes a heat collector which utilizes a dark-colored, conductive, fibrous heat absorber positioned to receive the sun's rays and to absorb heat therefrom. The apparatus also includes heat-transfer means which passes through or flows over the fibrous heat collector and absorbs heat therefrom. The fibrous heat absorber is a large-area sheet, and it is supported so that it has a generally corrugated contour to increase its effective surface area. The heat transfer means may be air or a fluid.The apparatus of the invention also includes a heat storage apparatus, which comprises essentially a container of metal-coated material such as eutectic crystals which are in liquid form when the heat of fusion has been absorbed and which are crystalline in form when the heat of fusion is given up and the crystals cool.
Abstract: A ram is connected to reciprocate its free end up to or into a reinforced aperture in the bottom of one side wall of a wood receiving container to break wood positioned therebetween and push it through the aperture into a feed duct that is connected at its opposite end to the fire chamber of a furnace. The bottom of the container has a higher region and a lower region that is positioned adjacent the aperture and transverse of the ram and which extends either approximately horizontal or inclined downwardly away from both sides of the ram. Pusher flaps with actuating devices are pivotally connected to push material across the regions of the bottom toward the path of the ram and a member pivoted on the side-wall above the aperture is actuated to press material downwardly into the ram path in front of the aperture.
Abstract: A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the fluidized bed and a series of tubes connected at one end to the steam drum. A portion of the tubes are connected to a water drum and in the path of the air and the gaseous products of combustion exiting from the bed. Another portion of the tubes pass through the bed and extend at an angle to the upper surface of the bed.
April 10, 1978
Date of Patent:
January 22, 1980
Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation
Fred M. Talmud, Juan-Antonio Garcia-Mallol
Abstract: A venturi operated water flow responsive valve controls the flow of gas to the burner of an instantaneous water heater by controlling the flow of gas between chambers of a main control valve. The venturi operated valve is of the diaphragm type and the gas flow is controlled as a function of water flow rate.
Abstract: An apparatus for supporting and starting up a fluidized bed in which a grate is disposed in a housing for receiving a single bed of particulate material, portions of which are combustible. The interior of the housing below the grate is divided into a plurality of compartments, and an air damper is disposed in each for selectively controlling the flow of air through the compartments and through the respective portions of the grate to selectively fluidize the corresponding portions of the bed of particulate material. A start-up burner is provided for igniting that portion of the combustible portion of the bed of particulate material extending above one of the compartments and additional combustible particulate material is selectively supplied to the portions of the bed.
Abstract: A chip-firing unit in which a chip container has a discharge attached to the container bottom to supply chips from the container to the inlet of a motor-operated fan attached to the container. The fan is connected to a chip burner and supplies the burner with chips and air drawn in by the fan. The discharge on the container is a pipe with an external thread and is rotated by the same motor which drives the fan. The other end of the discharge pipe provides an intake for the air to be mixed with chips by the discharge. The pipe, furthermore, has an interior enclosing a rod which carries a control unit for chips and air supplies to the fan. This rod is adjusted automatically by a regulator of the hot-water boiler type. Chips are continuously fed to the inlet of the fan during rotation of the pipe. One throttle is provided for controlling the air through the inlet to the pipe, and a second throttle and a regulating rod controls the chip supplied to the burner.
Abstract: A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.
Abstract: A fluidized bed unit in which a grate is disposed in a housing to divide the housing into an upper chamber and a lower chamber. A bed of particulate material including fuel is supported by the grate and extends in the upper chamber. The lower chamber has an inlet for receiving pressurized air for passing through the lower chamber, the grate, and the bed of particulate material to fluidize the particulate material. An electrical heating unit is provided for preheating the air as it passes through the lower chamber to ignite the fuel material during startup.
Abstract: A peripheral seal for a furnace, e.g. a soaking pit, comprising an elongate rectangular section fibre assembly mountable on the furnace roof or door such that a flat face of the assembly can bear on a mating face of the furnace wall, means being provided for advancing the assembly such that the flat face thereof can be maintained in contact with the wall face whereby to compensate for wear and erosion of the fibre assembly.
Abstract: The following disclosure teaches ways and means for incinerating organic materials in a multiple hearth furnace equipped with an afterburner. In the furnace, the wastes are pyrolyzed in an oxygen deficient atmosphere which is regulated to only partially complete the oxidation of the organic substances which are pyrolyzed from the wastes. In the lower part of the furnace fixed carbon is substantially burned. In the afterburner, air is introduced to complete the oxidation of the partially oxidized substances carried by gases and vapors from the furnace. The air supply to the afterburner is controlled so that, at temperatures above a predetermined temperature, the quantity of air introduced is increased with increasing temperatures and is decreased with decreasing temperatures.
Abstract: An arrangement for inhibiting low temperature gas-side corrosion of an out of service steam generator and its heat exchange and gas clean-up adjuncts. The arrangement provides for circulating pressurized heated air through the steam generator and its adjuncts, controlling the pressurization of the air to maintain positive gas-side pressure, controlling the heating of the air to maintain gas-side surfaces above the dew point, and returning the air which has passed through the steam generator and its adjuncts to the forced draft fan to be repressurized, reheated and reintroduced into the steam generator.
Abstract: An economizer system for preheating feed or return water in a high pressure steam or hot water smoke-tube boiler having a smoke-heated convection-effecting portion. The smoke tubes at the end of the smoke tube convection-effecting portion are surrounded by a jacket with staggered baffle plates penetrated by the smoke tubes so as to form a wavy or serpentine flow channel for the feed or return water in forced counterflow to the flue gas. The jacket may be encircled by a second jacket forming a chamber which may be filled with insulating material or form a preheater in the water supply system to the flow channel of the economizer.