Abstract: An electrophotographic process cartridge and an image forming apparatus using such a process cartridge are provided. The process cartridge includes a casing member containing a photosensitive drum; a driven gear co-axial with the drum; a charging member, a developing member, and a cleaning member operable on the drum; and a protuberance adjacent one end of the drum and protruding outwardly of the casing member at one side thereof. An earth contact is provided by the protuberance at the one side of the casing member, and a charging bias contact and a developing bias contact are provided at an opposite side of the casing member and are disposed adjacent to and respectively forwardly and rearwardly of an axis of the drum relative to an insertion direction of the process cartridge into the image forming apparatus.
Abstract: A bearing member for a cartridge frame of a process cartridge detachably mountable to a main assembly of an electrophotographic image forming apparatus, wherein the process cartridge includes an electrophotographic photosensitive drum and process means actable on the electrophotographic photosensitive drum, the bearing member includes a bearing portion for rotatably supporting a shaft provided at an end of the electrophotographic photosensitive drum; a protection portion formed along a circumference of a driving force receptor portion projected outwardly at an end of the shaft, wherein the driving force receptor portion being in the form of a male coupling projection engageable with a female coupling recess provided in a main assembly of the apparatus to receive driving force from the main assembly when the process cartridge is mounted to the main assembly; a locking portion for mounting the bearing member to the cartridge frame.
Abstract: When alignment marks, which have been previously formed on a substrate corresponding to each of two orthogonal axial directions, are detected by a microscope, a main control unit detects positions and numbers of the respective marks, and calculates stretching degrees of the substrate in the two orthogonal axial directions respectively on the basis of information on the detected positions of specified marks and information on designed positions of the specified marks. The main control unit determines a mean value of the stretching degrees by weighting each of the calculated stretching degrees in the two orthogonal axial directions in accordance with the detected numbers of the marks corresponding to each of the two orthogonal axial directions so that the determined weighted mean value of the stretching degrees is set as a magnification correction value.
Abstract: Disclosed is a method for cleaning the contact charger of an electrophotographic apparatus including a photosensitive (photoconductive) drum, developing means, transfer means and main motor, which comprises the steps of applying a charging voltage of a specified level to the contact charger to make the surface of the photosensitive drum keep a surface potential of a given level during rotation of the main motor, cutting off the charging voltage applied to the contact charger and developing voltage applied to the developing means after a specified time so as to transfer the toner of opposite polarity attached to the contact charger to the photosensitive drum, and applying a negative transfer voltage to the transfer means so as to transfer the toner of opposite polarity transferred to the photosensitive drum to a sheet of paper.
Abstract: The present invention relates to a negatively chargeable developing agent for mono-component development comprising;toner particles containing a binder resin and a colorant; andinorganic fine particles which are treated with a hydrophobicizing agent and a surface treating agent having a cationic group, the inorganic fine particles externally added to the toner particles and having a blow-off charge quantity (Q) -800<Q<0 .mu.C/g relative to iron oxide particles, the negatively chargeable developing agent being suitable for use in a mono-component developing device and image-forming apparatus.
Abstract: A projection exposure system for printing the pattern formed on a reticle onto a wafer includes a reticle stage (5) and a wafer stage. A first reference plate (9) having a first reference pattern (MM1) formed thereon is mounted on the reticle stage (5), and a second reference plate (25) having a second reference pattern (WM1) formed thereon is mounted on the wafer stage. The first reference pattern (MM1) comprises two cross-marks (60a, 60b) spaced apart from each other in X-direction, and the second reference pattern (WM1) comprises two cross-marks (61a, 61b) spaced apart from each other in X-direction., Images of the cross-marks (61a, 61b) of the second reference pattern (WM1) are formed through a projection optical system (2) on the reticle stage (5) and superimposed with the cross-marks (60a, 60b) of the first reference pattern (MM1).
Abstract: A focus shift sensor includes a light source which directs light through a first grating to form a pattern of light. The pattern is directed through the lens which images the pattern at a second grating. The two gratings have different periods such that the second grating generates a pattern of Moire fringes which are projected onto a CCD array. The second grating is preferably tilted with respect to the plane of the image of the pattern from the first grating such that only a portion of the second grating is within the range of focus of the lens. As a result, a pattern of shortened Moire fringes is produced. As the range of focus shifts along the second grating, the Moire fringes move along the CCD array. The movement of the fringes is tracked and the system is adjusted to maintain the location of the focal plane of the lens at a desired location.
Abstract: In an apparatus which cannot detect a size of recording sheet before the recording sheet is fed, the first recording sheet is regarded as having the maximum size and paper feeding is controlled on this basis and the size of the sheet is measured during the conveyance of the recording sheet. For the second or third and subsequent recording sheets, paper feeding control is executed at a paper feeding interval at which a maximum throughput is obtained in accordance with the measured size.
Abstract: A process cartridge detachably mountable on the main body of an electrophotographic image forming apparatus comprises an electrophotographic photosensitive member, development means for developing the latent images formed by the electrophotographic photosensitive member, and a toner retaining unit for retaining toner to be used for development by the development means.
Abstract: A concentrate sense window which defines a variable thickness flow path area is provided for sensing the concentration levels of inks having varying levels of luminance. Sensor window panels are configured in relationship to each other such that an area defined therebetween varies from a first area to a second area. An emitter/detector pair are located on opposite sides of the sensor window. The emitter transmits a signal through the sensor area and at least part of the signal is sensed by the detector. The emitter/detector pair are designed so as to be movable along the surface of the sensor window whereby ink of varying illuminance may be sensed without the need of separate windows or multiple emitter/detector pairs.
Abstract: The input device for controlling an apparatus includes: a display device for displaying an image represented by a plurality of dots; a touch panel disposed over the display face of the display device for outputting information of a position where the panel is operated in accordance with the displayed image on the display device; a command content determining device for determining the content of the command selected, based on the relationship between the positional information output from the touch panel and the image displayed on the display device, wherein the image displayed on the display device includes an external outline of the apparatus having the input device; and a switching device for switching the display on the display device, into the display frame for setting the operation of a unit corresponding to the operated part of the external outline of the apparatus when part of the external outline of the apparatus displayed on the display portion is operated through the touch panel.
Abstract: An image forming apparatus includes an image bearing member for carrying toner images of different colors; a rotatable intermediary transfer member to which the toner images are superimposedly transferred from said image bearing member onto said intermediary transfer member at a first transfer position, wherein the toner images are then transferred all together from said intermediary transfer member onto the transfer material at a second transfer position; wherein said intermediary transfer member includes an elastic layer having a thickness of 0.5-2 (mm), a coating layer, on said elastic layer, having a volume resistivity which is larger than that of said elastic layer, and said intermediary transfer member satisfies:T.ltoreq..tau..ltoreq.500 (sec)where .tau.
Abstract: This specification discloses an image forming apparatus having an image bearing member, developing means for causing a developer to adhere to the image bearing member to thereby develop a latent image, the developing means having a developer carrying member carrying the developer thereon, residual amount detecting means for detecting the amount of developer residual in the developing means, the residual amount detecting means measuring the electrostatic capacity between an electrode disposed near the developer carrying member and the developer carrying member, comparing means for comparing the electrostatic capacity measured by the residual amount detecting means with a reference value, and judging whether the amount of residual developer is greater or smaller than a predetermined value, memory means for memorizing information for correcting the reference value, and correcting means for correcting the reference value in conformity with the correcting information.
Abstract: An image processing unit comprises a memory for storing original image data and a print start time therefor, and a reserve print function of reading the original image data from the memory and printing the same at the print start time. The image processing unit further has a monitor for monitoring consumed times for an interruption copy, paper supply and the like, an operator for inputting print data and a desired print end time, a computing element for operating a required time for a print operation on the basis of the print data, and a setter for setting a print start time for each original on the basis of the operating situation of the image processing unit and the required and desired end times for each original for avoiding overlapping of print operations for respective originals.
Abstract: A development system including a developer transport adapted for depositing developer material on an imaging surface having an electrostatic latent image thereon, including a housing defining a chamber storing a supply of developer material including toner. A donor member is mounted partially in said chamber and spaced from the imaging surface, for transporting toner on an outer surface thereof to a region opposed from the imaging surface. The toner donor member has a magnetic assembly which includes a plurality of poles and a sleeve, enclosing said magnetic assembly and rotating about said magnetic assembly. A sensor measures a magnetic field of said donor roll at a predefined position on said donor roll. A control system generates an electric field continuously optimize the development of toner regardless of the ever changing height of the developer bed.
Abstract: An image forming apparatus includes a machine body provided with a cartridge mounting portion, and a process cartridge removably mounted in the machine body for forming images on a recording paper. The process cartridge is provided with a first terminal, whereas the machine body is provided with a second terminal for contact with the first terminal when the process cartridge is loaded at the cartridge mounting portion. Further, the machine body is also provided with a charge removing member which comes into contact with the first terminal when the process cartridge is mounted at the cartridge mounting portion but before the first terminal comes into contact with the second terminal.
Abstract: A photographic printer has an exposure station for exposing and printing images of photographic film on printing paper, a cutter for cutting the photographic film, after a printing process, to film pieces of a length having a predetermined number of frames, and cartridges for collecting the film pieces as sorted into separate orders. Each cartridge stores a group of film pieces stacked one upon the other, and transports the group of film pieces to a film outlet.
Abstract: In a projection exposure apparatus for projecting an image of a pattern on a reticle through a projection optical system onto a wafer, in order to quickly measure imaging characteristics of the projection optical system without actual exposure, an enlarging optical system consisting of an objective lens and a relay optical system, and an image pickup element are provided on a Z-stage on which the wafer is mounted. Illumination light illuminates an index pattern formed on the reticle to form an image thereof near a first lens in the objective lens through the projection optical system, the enlarging optical system enlarges the thus formed image of the index pattern to form an enlarged image thereof on a receiving surface of the image pickup element, the image pickup element converts it into a signal, and an image processing system processes the signal from the image pickup element, thereby measuring the imaging characteristics of the projection optical system, based on the processing results.
Abstract: An exposure method of illuminating a pattern on a mask by a light beam from an illuminating optical system and exposing the image of the pattern onto a photosensitive substrate through a projection optical system comprises the steps of discriminating the kind of the mask, setting the state of at least one of the field stop of the illuminating optical system, the aperture stop of the illuminating system and the aperture stop of the projection optical system in conformity with the discriminated kind of the mask, and projecting the image of the pattern on the mask onto a predetermined area of the photosensitive substrate.
Abstract: An image transfer apparatus which comprises a platen (8) to which an image-forming material is to be attached and a transfer cylinder (1) to which an image receptor is to be attached, and which is for transferring an image formed in a photosensitive layer of an image-forming material to an image receptor by the introduction of the image-forming material and the image receptor into a nip formed by the platen and the transfer cylinder by the rotation of the platen and the transfer cylinder, the apparatus having an image-forming material attaching device comprising a device for holding the top end side of the image receptor to a platen surface along the entire width of the image receptor and a device for holding the bottom end side of the image receptor to a platen surface along the entire width of the image receptor, the device for holding the top end side being a pin bar (13) having pins protruded from an inside of a blanket (10) in a slope portion (12) continued from a partial cut-off portion formed in the pl