Abstract: A rear right source device having a lamp chamber in which straight-tube light source lamps are arranged in the vertical direction. The light source device includes a ventilating hole formed on the upper lateral face of the lamp chamber for releasing the air of the lamp chamber heated by the light source lamps to the extrior, and a seal member mounted on the lower lateral face of the lamp chamber and substantially closing the gap between the lamp and an aperture for inserting the lamp.
Abstract: The projection-type color display device of the invention includes: a white light source; a splitting means for splitting white light emitted from the white light source into a first, a second, and a third beam having respectively different wavelength regions; a modulation means for modulating the first, the second and the third beams; an irradiation means for irradiating the first, the second and the third beams onto a principal surface of the modulation means at respectively different angles; and a projection means for projecting the first, the second and the third beams modulated by the modulation means. In the projection-type color display device, the first beam includes a color beam having a weakest intensity among the beams in three primary colors contained in the white light; and a direction of the first beam incident onto the principal surface of the modulation means is closer to a normal of the principal surface of the modulation means as compared with the second and the third beams.
Abstract: Methods for making plates which have columnar features approximately in the direction of light propagation which are capable of total internal reflection, a controllable numeric aperture (NA) at input and output surfaces, rotational azimuthal averaging and translation of the object plane from a back surface of the plate to a front surface of the plate and are optical equivalent of a FOFP. These plates are made from a range of materials including a variety of monomer or polymer networks.The resultant plates contain adjacent areas with differing refractive indices which result in a substrate containing a plurality of cylindrical features whose boundaries are defined by a discontinuity of refractive indices wherein the index of refraction within the cylindrical features is greater than the index of refraction at the boundaries and external to the cylindrical features.
December 19, 1996
Date of Patent:
March 10, 1998
Gregory P. Crawford, Thomas G. Fiske, Louis D. Silverstein
Abstract: The dynamic range of operation of a differential transconductance input stage is reduced when the amplitude of the input signal decreases, thus reducing the level of the noise that is generated by the input stage. A DC signal representative of the sensed amplitude of the input signal is employed for either reducing the value of a common, emitter-degenerating resistance or of the bias current that is forced in the two branches of the differential input stage.
Abstract: In a circuit equivalent to a plasma addressed display device for one pixel, a liquid crystal layer and a dielectric sheet are constructed according toRLC/(RLC+RG)<CG/(CLC+CG)where RLC and CLC are respectively the resistance and capacity of the liquid crystal layer, and where RG and CG are respectively the resistance and capacity of the dielectric sheet. Accordingly, the circuit has a high pass characteristic, so that the circuit can reduce the gain of the DC component. Even when a data voltage includes a direct current offset, the DC component applied to the liquid crystal layer is low, and accordingly, it is possible to prevent the occurrence of image sticking.
Abstract: An electrode substrate is produced through at least the following steps of: forming a plurality of first electrodes on a light-transmissive substrate while leaving a spacing between the first electrodes, filling a resin in the spacing, curing the filled resin, and forming a plurality of second electrodes on the first electrodes and the resin so as to be in contact with the associated first electrodes, respectively. In the electrode substrate, the first electrodes have a thickness h (nm) and an average surface roughness d (nm) and the resin has a curing shrinkage ratio .alpha. (%). The thickness h, the average surface roughness d and the curing shrinkage ratio a satisfies the following relationship: d.gtoreq..alpha..multidot.h/1000.
Abstract: A polarizing element used for LCD projectors or LCD monitors, which includes a polarized beam separating and composing prism and either a twisted nematic (TN) liquid crystal or an 1/2 or 1/4 wavelength plate, thereby being capable of not only doubling the efficiency of the light source, but also obtaining a uniform intensity of light. The polarized beam separating and composing prism serves to transmit light beams being parallel to the polarization direction of the polarizer therethrough while shielding light beams being non-parallel to the polarization direction of the polarizer. With such a construction, it is possible to double the light efficiency while using the same light source. Where the polarizing element is applied to an optical system, certain elements of the optical system such as a reflecting mirror and condenser lens can have a reduced size which corresponds to 1/2 of the size of each LCD panel.
Abstract: A liquid crystal display device comprises: a first substrate formed with a plurality of liquid crystal driving active elements; first, second and third liquid crystal cells stacked in this order on an inter-layer film formed on the first substrate; and a second substrate disposed on the third liquid crystal cell with intervention of a planarizing film; wherein the first, second and third liquid crystal cells each have a counter electrode, a liquid crystal layer and a driving electrode connected to a corresponding one of the liquid crystal driving active elements formed on the first substrate, and are each electrically isolated by an insulating layer from the counter electrode and driving electrode of an adjacent liquid crystal cell.
Abstract: In an active matrix type display device using TFTs as switching elements, in order to remarkably improve the aperture ratio and, at the same time, largely lower a dissipation power, an extending electrode is provided as one unit to a scanning line and light is shut off at those areas between a signal line and two display pixel electrodes situated adjacent the signal line, the two display pixel electrodes being arranged with the signal line interposed.
Abstract: A liquid crystal display device includes a substrate, a thin film transistor including a gate line, a source electrode, and a drain electrode formed on the substrate, a first protective layer formed on the thin film transistor, a black matrix pattern formed on the first protective layer, a second protective layer covering the black matrix pattern, and a pixel electrode connected to the drain electrode of the thin film transistor, wherein the first protective layer is selectively removed using the black matrix pattern as a mask to expose the pixel electrode, and wherein the second protective layer is formed using a shadow mask.
Abstract: The projection type liquid crystal display apparatus of the invention includes: a light source; a liquid crystal display device; and a projection lens. In the projection type liquid crystal display apparatus, the projection lens and the liquid crystal display device are arranged to satisfy the relationship: .theta..sub.LC-max -1.degree..ltoreq..theta..sub.LENS .ltoreq..theta..sub.LC-max +1.degree., where .theta..sub.LENS is a collection angle of the projection lens and .theta..sub.LC-max is a maximum viewing angle of the liquid crystal display device at which a contrast ratio of an image light beam emitted through the projection lens CR.sub.PROJ is equal to a prescribed contrast ratio CR.sub.TARGET, and CR.sub.PROJ is calculated by the following equation:CR.sub.PROJ =.intg.T.sub.max (.theta..sub.LC, u, V.sub.LC-max).multidot.t(.theta..sub.LC) d.theta..sub.LC /.intg.T.sub.min (.theta..sub.LC, u, V.sub.LC-min).multidot.t(.theta..sub.LC)d.theta..sub.LC,where, u=d.multidot..DELTA.n/.lambda.; t(.theta.
Abstract: A circuit comprising a transistor which, when supply is turned off, locks the output of the audio amplifier to the supply line, the potential of which is reduced gradually by a filter capacitor, so that the output voltage follows the supply voltage with the same slope, and is so controlled by the filter capacitor, thus eliminating undesired noise ("popping") at the output caused by electric transients in the audio amplifier.
Abstract: In a liquid crystal device, three semi-spherical protrusions are fixed on an inner surface of a bottom wall of a spacer. These protrusions are in contact with an outer surface of an elongated sheet portion of an electrode sheet for the liquid crystal device. The protrusions form an isosceles triangle so that the electrode sheet is supported at three points. Each elastic member is held between the elongated sheet portion of the electrode sheet and a top wall of a frame at a position facing each protrusion.
Abstract: The invention relates to a TN cell which contains a nematic liquid crystal having positive dielectric anisotropy and a twist angle of essentially 90.degree., between two substrates provided with electrode and alignment layers, where the product of the separation between the substrate plates d and the optical anisotropy d.multidot..DELTA.n ?sic! of the liquid crystal is between 0.15 and 0.70 .mu.m, characterized in that the liquid crystal contains a doping component in order to improve the grey shade capacity, so that the cell has a value for the undisturbed quotient of the separation between the substrate plates d and the pitch of the liquid crystal p of 0.1.ltoreq.d/p.ltoreq.0.5.
December 11, 1996
Date of Patent:
December 9, 1997
Merck Patent Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung
Herbert Plach, Paulus Adrianus Breddels
Abstract: A liquid crystal display device including, a first substrate, a second substrate spaced apart from and facing to the first substrate, and provided with a counter electrode, and a liquid crystal composition layer hermetically filled in between the first substrate and the second substrate, wherein a switching element and a transparent pixel electrode connected to the switching element are formed on the first substrate, and the switching element comprises an active layer formed of either polycrystalline silicon or amorphous silicon, an insulating layer containing silicon which is formed on the active layer and provided with an opening, and a wiring electrically connected via the opening with the active layer and formed the insulating layer. The wiring is formed of an alloy comprising 0.1 to 10 mol % of a metal which is capable of reducing the insulating layer containing silicon and 90 mol % or more of copper.
Abstract: A color liquid crystal display device includes a liquid crystal display panel having color filters corresponding to primaries red, green and blue, and a backlight unit disposed behind the liquid crystal display panel. The color liquid crystal display device satisfies a relationship of an isochromatic viewing angle>a half-brightness angle, for at least one azimuthal viewing angle. The half-brightness angle is defined as an angle of a direction inclined with respect to a normal direction of the liquid crystal display panel in which brightness of light emerging from the backlight unit into the liquid crystal display panel becomes 50% of that in the normal direction. The isochromatic viewing angle is defined as a range of viewing angles from the normal direction wherein an absolute shift in an x coordinate of the primary red viewed at off-normal angles is not greater than 0.0314, an absolute shift in a y coordinate of the primary green viewed at off-normal angles is not greater than 0.
Abstract: An analog switch (100) isolates a microprocessor (120) from potentially damaging programming voltages input to a PROM (110). The microprocessor (120) controls the switch (100) to allow a lower, status voltage to be input to the microprocessor (120). When the PROM (110) is to be programmed, the microprocessor (120) opens the switch (100) to isolate the microprocessor (120) and allow the 12 VDC to only be coupled to the PROM (110).
Abstract: In a liquid-crystal display, a gate line and a gate electrode for a thin film transistor, and constituting a part of the gate line, are formed to be narrower than the line width of an insulating layer disposed below them. A distance from the gate line and the gate electrode to a source electrode and a drain electrode for the thin film transistor, as well as a pixel electrode and a drain line disposed below the insulating layer, is increased by a difference between the line widths of the gate line and the gate electrode and the line width of the insulating layer. Thus, the possibility of a short-circuit occurring between the gate line and the gate electrode due to hillocks is lowered. Further, the line widths of the gate line and the gate electrode are adjusted by adjusting the etching quantity of the side faces of the gate line and the gate electrode.
Abstract: A color liquid crystal display device comprising a color filter having a structure including a black matrix BM formed on a transparent substrate, a colored layer FIL colored into at least three primary colors and formed by thermal dye transfer technology, a protective area for protecting against dye diffusion filling the gaps between the colored patterns, a transparent protective overcoat PSV2 formed on the colored layer and a transparent conductive electrode ITO2 formed on the transparent protective overcoat. The protective area against dye diffusion is constituted of a not-colored part FIL(T) of a dye receiving layer, protective overcoats PSV2 and PSV3, or of a black matrix with a high heat resistance.
Abstract: In order to drastically decrease, the differences of reflection as well as the differences of color in the region with a conductive electrode structure (5) facing the viewing environment (U) on a liquid crystal display, and a region without the structure corresponding to regions (B.sub.I) and (B.sub.o), the invention provides a compensation layer configuration (7) on at least one side of the electrode arrangement (5) facing the viewing environment (U). The configuration is laid out so that reflection differences of the regions become minimal as do the color differences of the regions caused by their spectral reflection profile.