Abstract: Process for pretreatment at atmospheric pressure or a pressure close to atmospheric pressure by alkaline wetting and holding at temperature of natural materials whose gangue comprises argillaceous compounds capable of forming a stable plastic suspension in the presence of water and containing at least one combustible element which can be put into useful form wherein, in order to permit subsequent easy operations for separation of the liquid aqueous and solid phases of the gangue:(a) the natural material which was possibly been subjected to a preliminary drying operation is brought into intimate contact with at least 4 kg expressed in terms of OH.sup.- of at least one alkaline agent per ton of clay contained in said material, the total volume of liquid present in the natural material after the contacting operation being such that the ratio L/S of said volume expressed in terms of cubic meters to the weight of solid expressed in tons of dry ore is at most equal to 0.
Abstract: The invention relates to a ruthenium promoted nickel and/or cobalt dehydrogenation-hydrogenation catalyst. The ruthenium on the catalyst is applied from a solution containing a ruthenium halide compound. The catalyst use in organic reactions and a process performed in its presence are also described. Preferably, the catalyst is used to aminate alkylene oxides, alcohols, phenols, alkanolamines, aldehydes, and ketones.
Abstract: A process is disclosed for the improvement of a vanadium-phosphorus-oxygen catalyst or a vanadium-phosphorus-oxygen-co-metal catalyst suitable for use in the manufacture of maleic anhydride from butane, which process comprises applying in situ water and a phosphorus compound in an amount to partially deactivate a portion of the catalyst in a catalyst bed containing an exotherm of reaction which was present in the catalyst bed prior to the addition of the phosphorus compound, thereby moving the exotherm downstream into the catalyst bed and thus improving the catalyst.These catalysts are useful for the manufacture of maleic anhydride from butane feedstock.
Abstract: A process for the manufacture of a phosphorus-vanadium and phosphorus-vanadium co-metal catalysts suitable for use in the manufacture of maleic anhydride from benzene, butane, and other C.sub.4 hydrocarbons which process comprises reacting at a temperature of about 0.degree. C. to about 200.degree. C. a vanadium compound in an organic ether solvent having about 2 to about 10 carbon atoms with a phosphoryl halide in the presence of water or an aliphatic alcohol having from about 1 to about 8 carbon atoms, eliminating the solvent and activating the catalyst by the addition of the hydrocarbon feedstock and water and a phosphorus compound at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. to about 500.degree. C. wherein the amount of water added is about 1000 parts per million to about 40,000 parts per million by weight of the reactor feed gas stream is disclosed. The catalysts are useful for the manufacture of maleic anhydride from butane, benzene, and other C.sub.4 hydrocarbon feedstocks.
Abstract: A surface of an object, e.g., a semiconductor wafer, is treated to remove impurities, including those in microrecesses having minimum dimensions of ten microns or less. The object is positioned in a sealed chamber which has a limited number of potential spaceborne nucleation centers and is at a treating temperature, T. A condensable solvent is introduced into the chamber until its pressure is close to but below its vapor pressure at the temperature, T. This condition is maintained until a plurality of molecular layers of the solvent is adsorbed in the microrecesses. Then, the pressure of the solvent is increased to at least unity whereat it condenses in the microrecesses. Impurities can be removed from the microrecesses in this manner thus improving product quality.
Abstract: A method for the removal of carbonizable, adherent coatings from the surfaces of metal parts, in which the metal parts are baked or pyrolyzed in the course of the method. The metal parts are brought to the carbonizing temperature in a substantially closed retort. Without leaving the retort, the adherent, carbonized coating is blasted off by means of heated blasting medium as the carbonization proceeds or after it ends. The heating of the metal parts is performed in a fluidized bed within the retort. The medium of the fluidized bed is simultaneously the blasting medium.
Abstract: In a process for hydrogenation of coal, comprising a sequence of reaction steps, connected in series, in which finely divided coal is mixed with oil and pumped to pressure, subsequently is heated to the hydrogenation starting temperature and then is subjected to catalytically activated hydrogenation, in the presence of hydrogen, wherein at least part of the heat required for heating is transferred to the coal by direct heat exchange with the hot product vapors; thereafter extracting a portion of the liquid intermediate product present in the reaction step downstream of the last reaction stage, and feeding, at least part of such product to the coal slurry which has been pumped to pressure. Preferably, the first reaction step is a preliminary reactor and the liquid intermediate product is fed to the coal slurry together with the hot product vapors.
February 26, 1986
Date of Patent:
August 25, 1987
GfK Gesellschaft fur Kohleverflussigung mbH
Abstract: A process for separating solids from hydrocarbons in a slurry of hydrocarbonaceous solids and solvent is disclosed comprising atomizing the slurry, introducing and mixing the atomized slurry and superheated steam in a stripping zone, vaporizing the hydrocarbons, and separately removing the vapors and the solids. The process is particularly useful in an oil shale recovery process.
Abstract: Process for the removal of the residual sulfuric acid from the reaction mixture which has been obtained in the reaction of paraffin with sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water under irradiation by UV light and which has been freed from sulfur dioxide by degassing at an elevated temperature and from which the bulk of the sulfuric acid has been removed by concentration, by warming this concentrated product and adding as much of an alkali metal carbonate, peroxide, hydroxide, sulfate or sulfonate as is required to convert the residual sulfuric acid into an alkali metal bisulfate.
Abstract: A method is described for oxidatively treating the outer surface of a steel shape such as welding wire which comprises, cleaning the surface and subjecting the cleaned surface to a heated atmosphere of air or a gas mixture containing more oxygen than normally found in air. The atmosphere is heated to a range of about 300.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C., and the surface is removed from the heated atmosphere upon oxidation of the surface to a depth of about 0.5 to about 2.5 microns. The resulting welding wire may be used to provide rates of deposition significantly greater than heretofore possible with conventional wire.
Abstract: A catalyst is produced in two stages in that prefabricated carrier bodies are impregnated with solutions which contain vanadium and alkalies. When the impregnated carrier bodies have been dried, the conversion activity of the catalyst is increased further in that the catalyst is activated under oxidizing conditions at a temperature of 700.degree. to 1000.degree. C.
Abstract: An aqueous alkali phosphate solution is made. An organic phase is countercurrently mixed with an aqueous phase, the two phases being used in a volume ratio larger than 1:1 and formed aqueous alkali phosphate solution is separated from the remaining organic phase. The two phases are mixed and reacted in a reaction zone comprised of a mixing and separating zone. The organic phase is continuously dispersed in the aqueous phase. A volume excess of aqueous phase is maintained in the mixing zone and the two phases are used in an overall quantity sufficient to provide a volume ratio of organic to aqueous phase of 4:6 to 2:8.
Abstract: The invention provides an improvement to a process for producing a diesel fuel from a medium heavy oil obtained from coal. The invention increases the amount of medium oil which can be used to produce diesel fuel while keeping the total yield of oil from the coal about the same. Thus, the fraction of the medium oil recovered is greater without altering the total yield of oil from the coal, and now amounts to about 80 to 85 percent of the total oil yield. Accordingly, the amount of light oil derived in this process becomes correspondingly smaller. Thus, the total oil yield is increased by about 4 to 6 percent compared with previously obtained results.
Abstract: A continuous ionizer adapted to introduce selected ions into a continually flowing stream of liquid. To ensure that a maximum concentration of ions is incorporated, the continuous ionizer is configured so that turbulent and intimate mixing of the ionizing gas and liquid to be ionized occurs. The flow of ionizing gas is regulated by a liquid level sensor to prevent a gas/liquid mixture from proceeding downstream from the ionizer. The apparatus and method of this invention are particularly suited to situations where deionized water is used in a process which causes undesired static electricity discharges, and clean, ion-possessing water is preferred, such as semiconductor processing.
Abstract: Iron/lithium promoted phosphorus-vanadium-oxygen catalysts for the production of maleic anhydride are prepared by contacting a substantially tetravalent vanadium-containing compound and a phosphorus-containing compound and a promoter component containing each of iron and lithium in a substantially anhydrous alcohol medium in the presence of anhydrous hydrogen chloride to form an iron/lithium promoted phosphorus-vanadium-oxygen catalyst precursor. The catalyst precursor is recovered, dried, roasted, formed into structures if structures are desired, and calcined.
October 28, 1985
Date of Patent:
June 2, 1987
Robert A. Keppel, Victoria M. Franchetti
Abstract: Catalyst containing a vanadium/phosphorus complex oxide, for the oxidation of hydrocarbons to maleic anhydride. The catalyst contains 1 to 1.3 atoms of phosphorus per atom of vanadium. The pore volume of those pores which have a radius of 100 to 1,000 .ANG. is at least 30 percent of the total pore volume of the pores which have a radius of less than 10,000 .ANG.. The method for preparing the catalyst involves introducing a phosphorus-containing compound into an organic solvent, and continuously adding a vanadium-containing compound over the course of 0.5 to 4 hours. 1 to 1.3 atoms of phosphorus is employed per atom of vanadium. The water formed during the reaction is removed continuously and directly from the reaction mixture. Thereafter the reaction mixture is separated. The V-P-O complex oxide is isolated as a solid, dried at a temperature of 90.degree. to 150.degree. C. and activated at a temperature of 200.degree. to 300.degree. C. to provide the catalyst.
Abstract: A novel bellows expansion joint design and method of preventing stress corrosion cracking incorporates an internal cylindrical weir or sleeve which defines an inner flushing chamber adjacent the expansion bellows wherein connections are provided on the exterior wall of the expansion joint body to allow the admission of a chemical solution or treating fluid directly onto the inside surface of the bellows from an external connection to the expansion joint. In addition, a further connection is provided to a second flushing chamber surrounding the exterior of the bellows so that a similar solution may be admitted and allowed to overflow from an upper portion of the chamber.
Abstract: The invention provides catalysts suitable for hydrotreatment of mineral oil which contain an oxide and/or sulphide derived from a metal of Group VI (B) and one from Group VIII metal and a transition alumina and which show an oxygen chemisorption above 185 micromoles per gram, preferably between 200 and 300. Preferably tha catalysts are free from anions of strong mineral acids.These catalysts can be prepared by impregnation of a transition alumina with an ammoniacal metal solution having an initial pH between 10.5 and 13, preferably between 11.0 and 12.5.
December 9, 1985
Date of Patent:
May 12, 1987
Internationale Octrooi Matschappij "Octropa" B.V.
Willem A. Van Leeuwen, Eduard K. Poels, Leendert H. Staal, Dirk Verzijl
Abstract: A rotary spray nozzle directional tank cleaning machine has a first, stationary housing, a second housing mounted to the first housing for rotation about a first, typically vertical axis, and a third housing mounted to the second housing for rotation about a second axis. The second axis is at a first, acute angle to the first axis. The second housing is driven about the first housing through an impeller driven gear train by the pressurized cleaning liquid passing therethrough. The third housing is driven by a pair of bevel gears mounted to the first and third housings. One or more nozzles, mounted to the third housing, direct cleaning liquid along a third axis oriented at a second, acute angle to the second axis. The first and second, acute angles are preferably 45.degree. to create a hemispherical spray pattern.
Abstract: Ink cleaning compositions are disclosed which degrade or solubilize broad classes of printing ink residues on printing screens for quick removal by a pressurized water stream. The compositions are essentially non-aqueous and contain N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), an oxygenated solvent, such as butyl cellosolve and cyclohexanone, and a surfactant. Alternatingly, compositions containing NMP and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol as the primary components are disclosed. Methods of cleaning and reclaiming printing screens which provide synergistic activities are also disclosed. The compositions meet health and safety standards due to their biodegradability, lack of flammability and high threshold limit values.