Aharon Z. Hed has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).
Abstract: A luminaire which has in its housing a multiplicity of groups of light emitters of different colors or pluralities of optical waveguides constructed to emit light progressively along the lengths thereof and a diffuser at which the colors can be mixed and from which the light emerges. The emitters can be controlled at the housing or light can be delivered to the optical waveguides by optical fibers from remote light sources.
Abstract: A method of making a composite high-temperature superconducting wire in which a layer of a superconductive oxide is coated onto a refractory core by melting a zone of the layer uniformly all around the core as the core is drawn through the focus of a reflector having the shape of a paraboloid of revolution while directing onto the reflector a collimated beam of an energy sufficient to melt the layer. The melted layer is cooled with a substantially radially symmetrical thermal gradient to form the superconducting oxide ceramic layer on the core with radially-directed growth of columnar grains of the superconducting oxide ceramic.
Abstract: A high efficiency integrating sphere that can be used in a large variety of scientific instruments. The sphere having an efficiency gain obtained by using a superconducting material, acting as a perfect reflector, on the inside hollow surface of the sphere. The sphere is operated with a delay between the incident and sensed light, heretofore not possible, and yielding substantial improvement in the signal-to noise ratio of the integrating sphere.
Abstract: A reactor capable of continuously producing activated species of oxygen molecules, specifically those known in the prior art as "Delta Singlet Oxygen". Uses of "Delta Singlet Oxygen" include the maintenance of high oxidation potential during the deposition of layers of high temperature superconductors. Such species are particularly effective in obtaining ultra smooth surfaces when used as the etching gas in plasma milling of a diamond-like carbon film. The use of a film of this type has been found to be the ideal insulating barrier for construction of high temperature superconducting Josephson junctions. The reactor uses toroidal pipes to generate mutual impingement between a reaction machine and chlorine gas.
Abstract: A light system comprising a light source adapted to illuminate an area and at least two refracting substantially transparent and coextensive films juxtaposed with one another and interposed between the source and the area, the films having mutually confronting patterns of refracting rises formed on respective surfaces of the films, the rises being separated by intervening recesses and the rises and recesses being so oriented as to form diversely distributed light-refraction paths across the films, the patterns being selected so that gaps are provided between the films and to effect diffusion of light from the source cast upon the area.
Abstract: Thermoelectric heat pumps using recuperative heat exchange are described. These devices use sets of thermocouples (thermoelectric couples) arranged side-by-side to form a plate. The plate is positioned in a fluid-containing vessel and heat exchanging fluid is flowed down one side of the plate and up the other side. In these devices the heat flow, and thus the driving thermal gradient on each thermoelectric couple in the device, is in a direction from one side of the plate to the other side, i.e., other than the direction of the device's working thermal gradient, which is the direction of the flow of fluid. Generally these two directions (driving gradient on the thermoelectric couples and fluid flow-working thermal gradient) are essentially orthogonal to each other.
Abstract: A thermoelectric device has a cylindrical structure with a hollow central annulus member in which a fluid is pumped so that the heated fluid is pumped from the center of the structure and discharged on the outer surface of an outer annulus member or with the reversal of electrical current, the heated fluid is pumped from the outer periphery and discharged in the central tube. A plurality of thermoelectric cells are positioned in the space between the inner and outer annulus members with the cells being radially directed relative to the axis of the inner annulus member. A thermoelectric device having a similar structure may be used for the conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy when a thermal gradient is imposed between the inner member of the structure and the peripheral surface.
Abstract: Temporal and spatial modulation of magnetic fields created around solenoids and within their hollow is effected using specially configured and movable superconducting elements as well as switchable superconducting elements.
Abstract: A controlled emission of light from an optical waveguide, e.g. a fiber into which light is injected at one end, is effected by modifying the periphery of the waveguide over a generally triangular zone so that there is a controlled emission per unit length at every point along this zone and light emanates continuously over the length of the zone from the fiber.
Abstract: A Josephson junction consisting of high temperature ceramic superconductors layers, separated by an ultra-thin insulating barrier made of an non oxide substance like diamond-like carbon, is described. An integral part of this disclosure is the technique involving the use of an activated oxygen species for providing an oxygen chemical potential which is higher than that obtainable at barometric pressure. Also clarified are the structure and method of manufacturing the said junction, using high temperature superconductors.
Abstract: Probes for medical surgery and flexible catheters for internal tissue ablation in which the tissue cells are frozen and deadened and yet extreme supercooling of tissue below the tissues' melting point is not required. The tissue cells are moderately supercooled by the probe or catheter and freezing of the cells is caused by cavitation nucleation of ice particles within the cells induced by a low power ultrasonic wave generator. The ultrasonic energy causes well distributed nucleation in the supercooled tissue cells and, as a result, the cells rapidly freeze and, due to such freezing, expand and burst their membranes.
Abstract: A heat pump system operates by the inverse magnetocaloric effect in which the working medium is a superconductive body of type II superconductive material having a critical temperature above 23.degree. K. The superconductive body is cooled to below its critical temperature and subjected to a changing magnetic field, which decreases the concentration of paired charged carriers without their complete elimination and induces cooling and/or absorbs heat of the working medium.
Abstract: An array of superconducting elements in which each element can be quenched into the nonsuperconductive or normal state independently at will. The array can be used to form spatially and temporally variable images or for forming spatially and temporally variable magnetic fields. The array is controlled in the form of a network of electrically interconnected superconducting elements in which a given element is quenched if and only if two independent parameters are applied to the element simultaneously.
Abstract: Switchable superconducting rings and hemi-rings positioned on the poles of magnets or electromagnets, are used to electronically concentrate magnetic fluxes, or to diffuse such fluxes within the space that is between such poles.
Abstract: A Josephson junction consisting of high temperature ceramic superconductors layers, separated by an ultra-thin insulating barrier made of an non-oxide substance like diamond-like carbon. An integral part of this disclosure is the technique involving the use of an activated oxygen species for providing an oxygen chemical potential which is higher than that obtainable at barometric pressure.
Abstract: Diamagnetic colloids of superconductive particles form stationary, rotary and translational seals by the use of appropriate magnetic fields. Specific embodiments include a generalized stationary seal and a family of rotary seals with opposing surfaces.
Abstract: An apparatus for the continuous manufacture of high temperature superconducting wires is disclosed. A core on which the superconductive ceramic substance is caused to directionally solidify from the melt is drawn through the melt in such a manner as to obtain an oriented microstructure conductive to high critical current carrying capacity. This also produces a macrostructure with appropriate mechanical strength and flexibility independently of the superconducting substance chosen.
Abstract: Colloids that are formed by the suspension of superconducting particles in liquids and gases are moved under the influence of external magnetic fields. The devices described have the unique advantage of being capable of moving and manipulating such colloids without resorting to mechanically moving and actuated parts. The apparatuses described have the additional advantage that they allow the control of the flow rate of such pumped colloids by electrical, magnetic or electronic means.