Patents by Inventor E. Jennings Taylor

E. Jennings Taylor has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Publication number: 20030075450
    Abstract: The interior of cavities and through-holes in electrically conductive substrates having high-aspect ratios of 8:1 or greater can be electroplated with a uniform layer of metal on their interior surfaces by using a pulse reverse voltage waveform having a pulse train of long cathodic pulses followed by short anodic pulses even in the absence of conventional additives such as levelers and brighteners.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 15, 2001
    Publication date: April 24, 2003
    Inventors: E. Jennings Taylor, Jenny J. Sun
  • Patent number: 6551485
    Abstract: Microscopic mechanical elements suitable for manufacture of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are directly prepared by forming a low-relief base of microscopic dimensions on a substrate surface by any conventional means, and electrodepositing a metal preferentially on the upper surface of the base to produce a vertically-extending 3-dimensional structure. In a first step, the patterned substrate and a counterelectrode are contacted with an electrolyte and an electric current is passed between the substrate and counterelectrode, with the substrate being predominantly cathodic with respect the counterelectrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 22, 2003
    Assignee: Faraday Technology Marketing Group, LLC
    Inventor: E. Jennings Taylor
  • Patent number: 6524461
    Abstract: A layer of a metal is electroplated onto an electrically conducting substrate having a generally smooth surface with a small recess therein, having a transverse dimension not greater than about 350 micrometers, typically from about 5 micrometers to about 350 micrometers, by immersing the substrate and a counterelectrode in an electroplating bath of the metal to be electroplated and passing a modulated reversing electric current between the electrodes. The current contains pulses that are cathodic with respect to said substrate and pulses that are anodic with respect to said substrate. The cathodic pulses typically have a duty cycle less than about 50% and the anodic pulses have a duty cycle greater than about 50%, the charge transfer ratio of the cathodic pulses to the anodic pulses is greater than one, and the frequency of the pulses ranges from about 10 Hertz to about 12000 Hertz. The on-time of the cathodic pulses may range from about 0.83 microseconds to about 50 milliseconds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 25, 2003
    Assignee: Faraday Technology Marketing Group, LLC
    Inventors: E. Jennings Taylor, Jenny J. Sun, Chengdong Zhou
  • Publication number: 20030010642
    Abstract: A continuous layer of a metal is electrodeposited onto a substrate having both hydrodynamically inaccessible recesses and hydrodynamically accessible recesses on its surface by a two-step process in which the hydrodynamically inaccessible recesses are plated using a pulsed reversing current with cathodic pulses having a duty cycle of less than about 50% and anodic pulses having a duty cycle of greater than about 50% and the hydrodynamically accessible recesses are then plated using a pulsed reversing current with cathodic pulses having a duty cycle of greater than about 50% and anodic pulses having a duty cycle of less than about 50%.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 26, 2002
    Publication date: January 16, 2003
    Inventors: E. Jennings Taylor, Jenny J. Sun, Maria E. Inman
  • Patent number: 6402931
    Abstract: Electrochemical machining of metals and alloys is accomplished by using a pulsed electric current incorporating modulated reverse electric current. Reverse (cathodic) pulses are interposed between forward (anodic) pulses. The process is useful for electrochemical shaping of metals, electrochemically polishing metal surfaces, and electrochemical deburring of metal articles. The process is especially useful for electrochemical processing of metals and alloys that readily form passive surface layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 11, 2002
    Assignee: Faraday Technology Marketing Group, LLC
    Inventors: Chengdong Zhou, E. Jennings Taylor, Jenny J. Sun, Lawrence E. Gebhart, Robert P. Renz
  • Publication number: 20020056645
    Abstract: A layer of a metal is electroplated onto an electrically conducting substrate having a generally smooth surface with a small recess therein, having a transverse dimension not greater than about 350 micrometers, typically from about 5 micrometers to about 350 micrometers, by immersing the substrate and a counterelectrode in an electroplating bath of the metal to be electroplated and passing a modulated reversing electric current between the electrodes. The current contains pulses that are cathodic with respect to said substrate and pulses that are anodic with respect to said substrate. The cathodic pulses typically have a duty cycle less than about 50% and the anodic pulses have a duty cycle greater than about 50%, the charge transfer ratio of the cathodic pulses to the anodic pulses is greater than one, and the frequency of the pulses ranges from about 10 Hertz to about 12000 Hertz. The on-time of the cathodic pulses may range from about 0.83 microseconds to about 50 milliseconds.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 3, 2001
    Publication date: May 16, 2002
    Inventors: E. Jennings Taylor, Jenny J. Sun, Chengdong Zhou
  • Publication number: 20020038764
    Abstract: A continuous layer of a metal is electrodeposited onto a substrate having both hydrodynamically inaccessible recesses and hydrodynamically accessible recesses on its surface by a twostep process in which the hydrodynamically inaccessible recesses are plated using a pulsed reversing current with cathodic pulses having a duty cycle of less than about 50% and anodic pulses having a duty cycle of greater than about 50% and the hydrodynamically accessible recesses are then plated using a pulsed reversing current with cathodic pulses having a duty cycle of greater than about 50% and anodic pulses having a duty cycle of less than about 50%.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 3, 2001
    Publication date: April 4, 2002
    Inventors: E. Jennings Taylor, Jenny J. Sun, Maria E. Inman
  • Publication number: 20020033341
    Abstract: A smooth layer of a metal is electroplated onto a microrough electrically conducting substrate by immersing the substrate and a counterelectrode in an electroplating bath of the metal to be electroplated and passing a modulated reversing electric current between the electrodes. The current contains pulses that are cathodic with respect to said substrate and pulses that are anodic with respect to said substrate. The cathodic pulses have a duty cycle less than about 50% and said anodic pulses have a duty cycle greater than about 50%, the charge transfer ratio of the cathodic pulses to the anodic pulses is greater than one, and the frequency of said pulses ranges from about 10 Hertz to about 12000 Hertz. The plating bath is substantially devoid of levelers and may be devoid of brighteners.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 3, 2001
    Publication date: March 21, 2002
    Inventors: E. Jennings Taylor, Chengdong Zhou, Jenny J. Sun
  • Publication number: 20010054557
    Abstract: Excessive evolution of hydrogen in electrolytic deposition of metals on a cathode substrate can be controlled by using a pulsed reverse current. Reverse current pulses interposed between the forward current pulses consume at least some of the nascent hydrogen and prevent the local pH at the cathode surface from becoming excessively alkaline. Control of hydroxide ion concentration by pulsed reverse current alleviates problems caused by reaction of metal-bearing-ions with hydroxide ions generated near the cathode by evolution of hydrogen. The method is useful in depositing functional chromium coatings on electrically conductive substrates from plating baths comprising aqueous solutions of trivalent chromium salts. In such a method the current comprises forward pulses having a duty cycle of from about 50% to about 90% and reverse pulses having a duty cycle of from about 5% to about 30%, and a frequency of from about 5 Hz to about 700 Hz.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 9, 1997
    Publication date: December 27, 2001
    Inventors: E. JENNINGS TAYLOR, CHENGDONG ZHOU, ROBERT P. RENZ, ERIC C. STORTZ
  • Patent number: 6319384
    Abstract: A smooth layer of a metal is electroplated onto a microrough electrically conducting substrate by immersing the substrate and a counterelectrode in an electroplating bath of the metal to be electroplated and passing a modulated reversing electric current between the electrodes. The current contains pulses that are cathodic with respect to said substrate and pulses that are anodic with respect to said substrate. The cathodic pulses have a duty cycle less than about 50% and said anodic pulses have a duty cycle greater than about 50%, the charge transfer ratio of the cathodic pulses to the anodic pulses is greater than one, and the frequency of said pulses ranges from about 10 Hertz to about 12000 Hertz. The plating bath is substantially devoid of levelers and may be devoid of brighteners.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2001
    Assignee: Faraday Technology Marketing Group, LLC
    Inventors: E. Jennings Taylor, Chengdong Zhou, Jenny J. Sun
  • Patent number: 6309528
    Abstract: A continuous layer of a metal is electrodeposited onto a substrate having both hydrodynamically inaccessible recesses and hydrodynamically accessible recesses on its surface by a two-step process in which the hydrodynamically inaccessible recesses are plated using a pulsed reversing current with cathodic pulses having a duty cycle of less than about 50% and anodic pulses having a duty cycle of greater than about 50% and the hydrodynamically accessible recesses are then plated using a pulsed reversing current with cathodic pulses having a duty cycle of greater than about 50% and anodic pulses having a duty cycle of less than about 50%.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 30, 2001
    Assignee: Faraday Technology Marketing Group, LLC
    Inventors: E. Jennings Taylor, Jenny J. Sun, Maria E. Inman
  • Patent number: 6303014
    Abstract: A layer of a metal is electroplated onto an electrically conducting substrate having a generally smooth surface with a small recess therein, having a transverse dimension not greater than about 350 micrometers, by immersing the substrate and a counterelectrode in an electroplating bath of the metal to be electroplated and passing a modulated reversing electric current between the electrodes. The current contains pulses that are cathodic with respect to said substrate and pulses that are anodic with respect to said substrate. The cathodic pulses have a duty cycle less than about 50% and said anodic pulses have a duty cycle greater than about 50%, the charge transfer ratio of the cathodic pulses to the anodic pulses is greater than one, and the frequency of said pulses ranges from about 10 Hertz to about 12000 Hertz. The plating bath may be substantially devoid of levelers and/or brighteners.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2001
    Assignee: Faraday Technology Marketing Group, LLC
    Inventors: E. Jennings Taylor, Jenny J. Sun, Chengdong Zhou
  • Patent number: 6210555
    Abstract: A layer of a metal is electroplated onto an electrically conducting substrate having a generally smooth surface with a small recess therein, having a transverse dimension not greater than about 350 micrometers, typically from about 5 micrometers to about 350 micrometers, by immersing the substrate and a counterelectrode in an electroplating bath of the metal to be electroplated and passing a modulated reversing electric current between the electrodes. The current contains pulses that are cathodic with respect to said substrate and pulses that are anodic with respect to said substrate. The cathodic pulses have a duty cycle less than about 50% and said anodic pulses have a duty cycle greater than about 50%, the charge transfer ratio of the cathodic pulses to the anodic pulses is greater than one, and the frequency of said pulses ranges from about 10 Hertz to about 5000 Hertz.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2001
    Assignee: Faraday Technology Marketing Group, LLC
    Inventors: E. Jennings Taylor, Jenny J. Sun, Chengdong Zhou
  • Patent number: 6203684
    Abstract: A smooth layer of a metal is electroplated onto a microrough electrically conducting substrate by immersing the substrate and a counterelectrode in an electroplating bath of the metal to be electroplated and passing a modulated reversing electric current between the electrodes. The current contains pulses that are cathodic with respect to said substrate and pulses that are anodic with respect to said substrate. The cathodic pulses have a duty cycle less than about 50% and said anodic pulses have a duty cycle greater than about 50%, the charge transfer ratio of the cathodic pulses to the anodic pulses is greater than one, and the frequency of said pulses ranges from about 10 Hertz to about 5000 Hertz.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2001
    Assignee: Faraday Technology Marketing Group, LLC
    Inventors: E. Jennings Taylor, Chengdong Zhou, Jenny J. Sun
  • Patent number: 6080504
    Abstract: A gas diffusion electrode for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is prepared by electrodeposition of a catalytic metal in nanocrystalline form on a substrate by contacting an electrically conductive substrate and a counterelectrode with a plating bath containing ions of a metal to be deposited on the substrate and passing a pulsed electric current between the substrate and counterelectrode having pulses that are cathodic with respect to the substrate and have a short on-time and/or a short duty cycle with a frequency from about 10 hertz to about 5000 hertz. In a preferred embodiment the electric current is a modulated reversing electric current having pulses that are cathodic with respect to the substrate and pulses that are anodic with respect to the substrate, the cathodic pulses having a short on-time and/or short duty cycle, the charge transfer ratio of the cathodic pulses to the anodic pulses being greater than one, and the frequency of the pulses ranging from about 10 hertz to about 5 kilohertz.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 27, 2000
    Assignee: Faraday Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: E. Jennings Taylor, Maria E. Inman
  • Patent number: 5804057
    Abstract: Metal salts are removed from solution in an electrolyte by subjecting the solution to electrolysis in a cell having an anode that has an anion exchange membrane closely associated therewith which sequesters the anion of the salt. The cathode may also be provided with a closely associated cation exchange membrane that sequesters, at least partially, the cation of the salt. A metal salt solution can be regenerated by reversing the polarity of the electrodes and conducting an electrolysis using fresh electrolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 8, 1998
    Assignee: Faraday Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Chengdong Zhou, E. Jennings Taylor, Robert P. Renz, Eric C. Stortz, Jenny J. Sun
  • Patent number: 5695622
    Abstract: In the disclosed electrochemical cell for the production of an alkaline solution of peroxide, especially on-site production, the electrolyte is divided into an aqueous alkaline catholyte and an aqueous alkaline anolyte, and the cathode is a gas-diffusion electrode. The active material of the electrolyte side of the gas-diffusion cathode comprises a particulate catalyst support material having a surface area of about 50 to about 2000 m.sup.2 /g, and, deposited on the particles of this support material, 0.1 to 50 weight-%, based on the weight of the active layer, of gold or gold alloy particles having an average size >40 but less than about 200 .ANG.. These gold or gold alloy particles are substantially selectively catalytic for the reduction of oxygen to peroxide (e.g. HOO.sup..crclbar.). The electrolyte flow patterns are designed to avoid loss of peroxide resulting from oxidation at the anode. In the operation of the cell, a product with a hydroxyl:perhydroxyl ratio lees than 2:1 can be obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 9, 1997
    Assignee: PSI Tecnology Co.
    Inventors: Mark E. Fraser, Alan S. Woodman, Everett B. Anderson, E. Jennings Taylor
  • Patent number: 5647968
    Abstract: In the disclosed electrochemical cell for the production of an alkaline solution of peroxide, especially on-site production, the electrolyte is divided into an aqueous alkaline catholyte and an aqueous alkaline anolyte, and the cathode is a gas-diffusion electrode. The active material of the electrolyte side of the gas-diffusion cathode comprises a particulate catalyst support material having a surface area of about 50 to about 2000 m.sup.2 /g, and, deposited on the particles of this support material, 0.1 to 50 weight-%, based on the weight of the active layer, of gold or gold alloy particles having an average size >40 but less than about 200.ANG.. These gold or gold alloy particles are substantially selectively catalytic for the reduction of oxygen to peroxide (e.g. HOO.sup..crclbar.). The electrolyte flow patterns are designed to avoid loss of peroxide resulting from oxidation at the anode. In the operation of the cell, a product with a hydroxyl:perhydroxyl ratio less than 2:1 can be obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 15, 1997
    Assignee: PSI Technology Co.
    Inventors: Mark E. Fraser, Alan S. Woodman, Everett B. Anderson, E. Jennings Taylor
  • Patent number: 5599437
    Abstract: A waste solution containing electroactive species, e.g., metal ions, can be remediated to very low levels of contaminant by an electrolysis method including the steps of introducing an electrolyte containing an electroactive species into an electrolytic cell having a cathode and an anode, producing a flow of the electrolyte past at least one of the electrodes at an electrolyte flow rate, and passing an electric current through the solution between the anode and the cathode whereby the electroactive species undergoes an electrochemical reaction at one of the electrodes at an electrochemical reaction rate, using an electric current pulsed at a frequency of 0.5 to 1000 Hertz and a duty cycle of not greater than 50%, and adjusting the electrolyte flow rate for the pulsed current electrolysis such that the electrochemical reaction rate for pulsed current electrolysis is greater than the electrochemical reaction rate for direct current electrolysis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 4, 1997
    Assignee: Faraday Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: E. Jennings Taylor, Chengdong Zhou, Robert P. Renz, Mahendra K. Sunkara
  • Patent number: 5565073
    Abstract: In the disclosed electrochemical cell for the production of an alkaline solution of peroxide, especially on-site production, the electrolyte is divided into an aqueous alkaline catholyte and an aqueous alkaline anolyte, and the cathode is a gas-diffusion electrode. The active material of the electrolyte side of the gas-diffusion cathode comprises a particulate catalyst support material having a surface area of about 50 to about 2000 m.sup.2 /g, and, deposited on the particles of this support material, 0.1 to 50 weight-%, based on the weight of the active layer, of gold or gold alloy poly-crystal particles having an average size .gtoreq.5 but less than about 20 nanometers. These poly-crystal gold or gold alloy particles have a structure consisting essentially of combined individual monocrystals and are substantially selectively catalytic for the reduction of oxygen to peroxide ion or hydrogen peroxide (e.g. HOO.sup..theta.).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 15, 1996
    Inventors: Mark E. Fraser, Alan S. Woodman, Everett B. Anderson, E. Jennings Taylor