Patents by Inventor Mark W. Verbrugge

Mark W. Verbrugge has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Publication number: 20240044838
    Abstract: A system for assessing a characteristic of a reference electrode assembly for an electrochemical cell that cycle lithium ions includes a controller and a test cell assembly. The test cell assembly includes a metal case electrically coupled to the controller and a test cell disposed within the metal case. The test cell includes a lithium metal layer and a separator assembly. The separator assembly includes a separator layer, a current collector layer deposited on the separator layer, and optionally an electroactive layer deposited on the separator layer such that the electroactive layer at least partially overlaps the current collector layer. The current collector layer is in direct physical contact with an electroactive layer and is electrically isolated from the lithium metal layer by the separator layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 3, 2022
    Publication date: February 8, 2024
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Biqiong WANG, Insun YOON, Fang DAI, Mark W. Verbrugge
  • Publication number: 20240021866
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides an electrochemical cell that cycles lithium ions. The electrochemical cell includes a first electrode, a second electrode, a separator physically separating the first and second electrodes, a solid-state interlayer disposed between the separator and the first electrode, and a liquid electrolyte disposed in each of the first electrode, the second electrode, the separator, and the solid-state interlayer. The solid-state interlayer includes a plurality of solid-state electrolyte particles. The solid-state interlayer covers greater than or equal to about 85% of a total surface area of the surface of the first electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 9, 2022
    Publication date: January 18, 2024
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Zhe LI, Qili SU, Jingyuan LIU, Haijing LIU, Mark W. VERBRUGGE
  • Patent number: 11876213
    Abstract: A method of making an electrode material for an electrode in an electrochemical cell that cycles lithium ions is provided, where a protective coating is applied to an electrode precursor material. The electrode precursor may be a silicon-containing composition. The protective coating is selected from the group consisting of: an oxide-based coating, a fluoride-based coating, and a nitride-based coating. The method also includes lithiating the electrode precursor material in a continuous process. The continuous process is conducted in a reactor having a first reaction chamber and a second reaction chamber to form a lithiated electrode material comprising the protective coating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 2020
    Date of Patent: January 16, 2024
    Assignee: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Xingcheng Xiao, Xingyi Yang, Raghunathan K, Mark W. Verbrugge
  • Patent number: 11843110
    Abstract: Methods of making negative electrode materials for an electrochemical cell that cycles lithium ions are provided. A surface of the electrode material formed of silicon, silicon-containing alloys, tin-containing alloys, or combinations thereof is treated with an oxidant at a first temperature of greater than or equal to about 100° C. to form a continuous intermediate layer comprising oxides. The method also includes pyrolyzing a carbon-containing precursor over the continuous intermediate layer at a second temperature of greater than or equal to about 600° C. to form a continuous carbon coating thereon. The intermediate layer oxides may be transformed to carbides. The continuous carbon coating comprises both graphitic carbon and amorphous carbon and may be a multilayered coating, where the inner layer predominantly includes amorphous carbon and the outer layer predominantly includes graphitic carbon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 2019
    Date of Patent: December 12, 2023
    Assignee: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Lei Wang, Xingcheng Xiao, Wei Li, Mark W. Verbrugge, Michael P. Balogh
  • Patent number: 11837704
    Abstract: An electrochemical device according to various aspects of the present disclosure includes an electrochemical cell and an inductor coil. The electrochemical cell includes a current collector. The current collector includes an electrically-conductive material. The inductor coil is configured to generate a magnetic field. The magnetic field is configured to induce an eddy current in the current collector to generate heat in the current collector. In various aspects, the present disclosure also provides a method of internally heating an electrochemical cell. In various aspects, the present disclosure also provides a method of controlling heating of an electrochemical cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2021
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2023
    Assignee: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Jingyuan Liu, Dewen Kong, Dave G. Rich, Haijing Liu, Lyall K. Winger, Mark W. Verbrugge
  • Publication number: 20230387381
    Abstract: An all-solid-state electrochemical cell is provided. The electrochemical cell includes an electrode having a current collector that defines a major axis, and an electroactive material layer disposed on or adjacent to the current collector. The electroactive material layer includes a plurality of hierarchical silicon columns, and a solid sulfide electrolyte. The solid sulfide electrolyte is formed in-situ and fills greater than or equal to about 60 vol. % to less than or equal to about 100 vol. % of voids in the electroactive material layer. The voids being defined by openings between the hierarchical silicon columns. A longest dimension of each hierarchical silicon columns is perpendicular to the major axis of the second current collector.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 20, 2022
    Publication date: November 30, 2023
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Zhe LI, Xingcheng XIAO, Yong LU, Haijing LIU, Mark W. VERBRUGGE
  • Patent number: 11824159
    Abstract: An anode-free solid-state battery includes a cathode layer having transient anode elements and a bare current collector devoid of non-transitory anode material and configured to accept thereon the transient anode elements. The battery also includes a solid-state electrolyte layer defining voids and arranged between the current collector and the cathode layer. The battery additionally includes a gel situated within the solid-state electrolyte and cathode layers, to permeate the electrolyte voids and form a gelled solid-state electrolyte layer, coat the cathode layer, and facilitate ionic conduction of the anode elements between the cathode layer, the solid-state electrolyte layer, and the current collector. Charging the battery diffuses the anode elements from the cathode layer, via the gelled solid-state electrolyte layer, onto the current collector. Discharging the battery returns the anode elements, via the gelled solid-state electrolyte layer, to the cathode layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 2021
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2023
    Assignee: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: Zhe Li, Yong Lu, Haijing Liu, Qili Su, Xiaochao Que, Mark W. Verbrugge
  • Patent number: 11784010
    Abstract: A capacitor-assisted electrode for an electrochemical cell that cycles lithium ions is provided. The capacitor-assisted electrode may include at least two electroactive materials disposed on one or more surfaces of a current collector. A first electroactive material of the at least two electroactive materials may have a first reversible specific capacity and forms a first electroactive material having a first press density. A second electroactive material of the at least two electroactive materials has a second reversible specific capacity and forms a second electroactive material having a second press density. The second reversible specific capacity may be different from the first reversible specific capacity. The second press density may be different from the first press density. One or more capacitor materials may be disposed on or intermingled with one or more of the at least two electroactive materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2019
    Date of Patent: October 10, 2023
    Assignee: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Dewen Kong, Xiaochao Que, Meiyuan Wu, Si Chen, Haijing Liu, Mark W Verbrugge
  • Publication number: 20230291077
    Abstract: Presented are electrochemical devices with in-stack reference electrodes, methods for making/using such devices, and battery cells with stacked electrodes segregated by electrode separator assemblies including thermal barriers and built-in reference electrodes. An electrochemical device, such as a lithium-class secondary battery cell, includes an insulated and sealed housing with an ion-conducting electrolyte located inside the housing. A stack of working electrodes is also located inside the device housing, in electrochemical contact with the electrolyte. At least one electrode separator assembly is located inside the device housing, interposed between a neighboring pair of (anode and cathode) working electrodes. The electrode separator assembly includes a separator layer fabricated with an electrically insulating material that is sufficiently porous to transmit therethrough the ions of the electrolyte.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 8, 2022
    Publication date: September 14, 2023
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Jing Gao, Brian J. Koch, Xingcheng Xiao, Mark W. Verbrugge
  • Publication number: 20230282805
    Abstract: A reference electrode assembly for an electrochemical cell includes a separator constructed from an electrically-insulating porous material. The reference electrode assembly also includes a current collector having a sputtered electrically-conducting porous layer arranged directly on the separator and a sputtered lithium iron phosphate (LFP) layer arranged directly on the electrically-conducting porous layer. The reference electrode assembly additionally includes an electrical contact connected to the current collector. A method using successive vacuum deposition of individual layers onto the separator is employed in fabricating the reference electrode assembly.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 3, 2022
    Publication date: September 7, 2023
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Gayatri V. Dadheech, Mark W. Verbrugge, Brian J. Koch, Jing Gao, Alok Warey
  • Patent number: 11749832
    Abstract: Lithiated electrodes, electrochemical cells including lithiated electrodes, and methods of making the same are provided. The method includes lithiating at least one electrode in an electrochemical cell by applying current across a first current collector of the at least one electrode to a second current collector of an auxiliary electrode. The electrochemical cell may be disposed within a battery packaging and the auxiliary electrode may be disposed within the battery packaging adjacent to an edge of the electrochemical cell. The at least one electrode may include a first electroactive layer disposed on or near one or more surfaces of the first current collector, and the auxiliary electrode may include a second electroactive layer disposed at or near one or more surfaces of the second current collector. The method may further include extracting the auxiliary electrode from the battery packaging and sealing the battery packaging, which includes the pre-lithiated electrochemical cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2019
    Date of Patent: September 5, 2023
    Assignee: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Xingcheng Xiao, Xingyi Yang, Mark W. Verbrugge, Raghunathan K, Qinglin Zhang
  • Publication number: 20230253638
    Abstract: A system for detecting a lithium dendrite in a battery cell is provided. The system includes the battery cell including an anode and a cathode. The battery cell further includes a conductive prewarning layer disposed between the anode and the cathode and constructed with a porous material. The battery cell further includes a separator layer disposed between the conductive prewarning layer and the cathode, wherein the separator layer is configured for allowing ions to pass through the separator layer. The system further includes a sensor electrically connected to the anode and the conductive prewarning layer and monitoring data related to a voltage potential between the anode and the conductive prewarning layer. The data is useful to identify a decrease in the voltage potential between the anode and the conductive prewarning layer and diagnose existence of the lithium dendrite.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 8, 2022
    Publication date: August 10, 2023
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Gayatri Vyas Dadheech, Mark W. Verbrugge, Brian J. Koch, Jing Gao, Alok Warey
  • Patent number: 11685288
    Abstract: Presented are control systems for operating rechargeable electrochemical devices, methods for making/using such systems, and vehicles with intelligent battery charging and charging behavior feedback capabilities. A method of operating a rechargeable battery includes an electronic controller receiving battery data from a battery sensing device indicative of a battery state of charge (SOC). Using this battery data, the controller determines a number of low SOC excursions at which the battery SOC is below a predefined low SOC threshold and a number of high SOC excursions at which the battery SOC exceeds a predefined high SOC threshold. The controller then determines if the number of low SOC excursions exceeds a predefined maximum allowable low excursions and/or the number of high SOC excursions exceeds a predefined maximum allowable high excursions. If so, the controller responsively commands a resident subsystem to execute a control operation that mitigates degradation of the rechargeable battery.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2021
    Date of Patent: June 27, 2023
    Assignee: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: Michelle H. Wiebenga, Anil Bika, Wei Li, Mark W. Verbrugge, Charles W. Wampler, Chaitanya Sankavaram
  • Publication number: 20230197930
    Abstract: An electrode for an electrochemical cell includes a positive electroactive material and a polymeric binder. The positive electroactive material is present in an amount greater than 95 weight percent of the electrode. The positive electroactive material includes first, second, and third electroactive materials. The first electroactive material includes a lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC), a lithium nickel manganese cobalt aluminum oxide (NMCA), a lithiated nickel cobalt aluminate (NCA), or a combination thereof. The first electroactive material has a nickel content of greater than or equal to about 60 mole percent. The second electroactive material includes a phosphate-containing positive electroactive material. The third electroactive material includes a lithium manganese oxide (LMO).
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 16, 2021
    Publication date: June 22, 2023
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Bradley R. FRIEBERG, Xiaosong HUANG, Mark W. VERBRUGGE
  • Publication number: 20230155113
    Abstract: Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) particles having a substantially round shape and methods of preparing such LMO particles are provided herein. The method includes, in the presences of a catalyst, calcining (i) a lithium source and a manganese source and/or (ii) a lithium and manganese source to form the LMO particles. Examples of the lithium source include Li2CO3, LiOH, LiNO3, Li2O, and combinations thereof, and examples of the manganese source include MnO2, Mn3O4, and a combination thereof. The lithium and manganese source includes LixMn2O4, where 0.75?x?1.25. The catalyst includes one or more transition metal, such as a period 5 transition metal, a period 6 transition metal, a period 7 transition metal, and a combination thereof, an oxide of the one or more transition metal, a salt of the one or more transition metal, or a combination thereof.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 3, 2022
    Publication date: May 18, 2023
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Jingyuan LIU, Haijing LIU, Mark W. VERBRUGGE, Meiyuan WU
  • Publication number: 20230128413
    Abstract: An anode material includes a plurality of negative solid-state electroactive particles. Each of the plurality of negative solid-state electroactive particles may include a lithium-doped silicon oxide and a solid electrolyte coating at least substantially continuously disposed over substantially all of the surface of the lithium-doped silicon oxide.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 15, 2021
    Publication date: April 27, 2023
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Bradley R. Frieberg, Zhongyi Liu, Xiaosong Huang, Mark W. Verbrugge, Zhe Li
  • Patent number: 11626591
    Abstract: An electrochemical cell is provided herein as well as methods for preparing electrochemical cells. The electrochemical cell includes a negative electrode and a positive electrode. The negative electrode includes a prelithiated electroactive material including a lithium silicide. Lithium is present in the prelithiated electroactive material in an amount corresponding to greater than or equal to about 10% of a state of charge of the negative electrode. The electrochemical cell has a negative electrode capacity to positive electrode capacity for lithium (N/P) ratio of greater than or equal to about 1, and the electrochemical cell is capable of operating at an operating voltage of less than or equal to about 5 volts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 2020
    Date of Patent: April 11, 2023
    Assignee: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Xingcheng Xiao, Mark W. Verbrugge, Xingyi Yang, Lei Wang, Raghunathan K
  • Publication number: 20230063684
    Abstract: An anode-free solid-state battery includes a cathode layer having transient anode elements and a bare current collector devoid of non-transitory anode material and configured to accept thereon the transient anode elements. The battery also includes a solid-state electrolyte layer defining voids and arranged between the current collector and the cathode layer. The battery additionally includes a gel situated within the solid-state electrolyte and cathode layers, to permeate the electrolyte voids and form a gelled solid-state electrolyte layer, coat the cathode layer, and facilitate ionic conduction of the anode elements between the cathode layer, the solid-state electrolyte layer, and the current collector. Charging the battery diffuses the anode elements from the cathode layer, via the gelled solid-state electrolyte layer, onto the current collector. Discharging the battery returns the anode elements, via the gelled solid-state electrolyte layer, to the cathode layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 27, 2021
    Publication date: March 2, 2023
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Zhe Li, Yong Lu, Haijing Liu, Qili Su, Xiaochao Que, Mark W. Verbrugge
  • Patent number: 11569525
    Abstract: Electrodes are formed with a porous layer of particulate electrode material bonded to each of the two major sides of a compatible metal current collector. In one embodiment, opposing electrodes are formed with like lithium-ion battery anode materials or like cathode materials or capacitor materials on both sides of the current collector. In another embodiment, a battery electrode material is applied to one side of a current collector and capacitor material is applied to the other side. In general, the electrodes are formed by combining a suitable grouping of capacitor layers with un-equal numbers of anode and cathode battery layers. One or more pairs of opposing electrodes are assembled to provide a combination of battery and capacitor energy and power properties in a hybrid electrochemical cell. The cells may be formed by stacking or winding rolls of the opposing electrodes with interposed separators.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2020
    Date of Patent: January 31, 2023
    Assignee: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Haijing Liu, Zhiqiang Yu, Jianyong Liu, Xiaochao Que, Mark W. Verbrugge
  • Patent number: 11539071
    Abstract: A sulfide-impregnated solid-state battery is provided. The battery comprises a cell core constructed by basic cell units. Each unit comprises a positive electrode comprising a cathode layer and a positive meshed current collector comprising a conductive material which is further coated by oxide-based solid-state electrolyte. The cell unit further comprises a negative electrode comprising an anode layer and a negative meshed current collector comprising a conductive material which is further coated by oxide-based solid-state electrolyte. The positive and negative electrodes are stacked together to form the cell unit. The two coated oxide-based solid electrolyte layers are disposed between the positive and negative electrode as dual separators. Such a cell unit may be repeated or connected in parallel or bipolar stacking to form the cell core to achieve a desired battery voltage, power and energy. The cell core comprises a sulfide-based solid-state electrolyte dispersed in the pore structures of cell core.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 2019
    Date of Patent: December 27, 2022
    Assignee: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Zhe Li, Xiaochao Que, Haijing Liu, Yong Lu, Mark W. Verbrugge, Meiyuan Wu