Patents by Inventor Mark W. Verbrugge

Mark W. Verbrugge has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Publication number: 20220200077
    Abstract: An electrochemical device according to various aspects of the present disclosure includes an electrochemical cell and an inductor coil. The electrochemical cell includes a current collector. the current collector includes an electrically-conductive material. The inductor coil is configured to generate a magnetic field. The magnetic field is configured to induce an eddy current in the current collector to generate heat in the current collector. In various aspects, the present disclosure also provides a method of internally heating an electrochemical cell. In various aspects, the present disclosure also provides a method of controlling heating of an electrochemical cell.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 23, 2021
    Publication date: June 23, 2022
    Applicant: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: Jingyuan LIU, Dewen KONG, Dave G. RICH, Haijing LIU, Lyall K. WINGER, Mark W. VERBRUGGE
  • Publication number: 20220181712
    Abstract: A reference electrode assembly for an electrochemical cell of a secondary lithium ion battery and methods of manufacturing the same. The reference electrode assembly includes a porous membrane having a major surface and a porous reference structure deposited on the major surface of the porous membrane. The porous reference structure includes a porous carbon layer and a porous reference electrode layer that at least partially overlaps the porous carbon layer on the major surface of the porous membrane.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 4, 2020
    Publication date: June 9, 2022
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Gayatri V. Dadheech, Mark W. Verbrugge, Alok Warey, Brian J. Koch, Jing Gao
  • Publication number: 20220173370
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing an electrode for an electrochemical cell includes providing an admixture including an electroactive material, a binder, and a solvent. The method further includes rolling the admixture to form a sheet and forming a multi-layer stack from the sheet. The method further includes forming an electrode film precursor by performing a plurality of sequential rollings, each including rolling the stack through a first gap. The plurality of sequential rollings includes first and second rollings. In the first rolling, the stack is in a first orientation. In the second rolling, the stack is in a second orientation different from the first orientation. The method further includes forming an electrode film by rolling the electrode film precursor through a second gap less than or equal to the first gap. The method further includes drying the electrode film to remove at least a portion of the solvent.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 1, 2021
    Publication date: June 2, 2022
    Applicant: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: Dewen KONG, Xiaochao QUE, Meiyuan WU, Haijing LIU, Xiaosong HUANG, Mark W. VERBRUGGE
  • Publication number: 20220173377
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates to high capacity (e.g., areal capacity greater than about 4 mAh/cm2 to less than or equal to about 50 mAh/cm2) electrodes for electrochemical cells. An example electrode may include a current collector (e.g., meshed current collector) and one or more electroactive material layers having thicknesses greater than about 150 ?m to less than or equal to about 5 mm. The electroactive material layers may each include lithium manganese iron phosphate (LiMnxFe1-xPO4, where 0?x?1) (LMFP). The electrode may further include one or more electronically conductive adhesive layers disposed between the current collector and the electroactive material layers. The adhesive layers may include one or more polymer components and one or more conductive fillers. The electroactive material layers may be gradient layers, where sublayers closer to the current collector has a lower porosity than layers further from the current collector.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 1, 2021
    Publication date: June 2, 2022
    Applicant: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: Dewen KONG, Xiaochao QUE, Haijing LIU, Xiaosong HUANG, Mark W. VERBRUGGE, Meiyuan WU
  • Patent number: 11342545
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates to electroactive materials for use in electrodes of lithium-ion electrochemical cells and methods of making the same, for example, methods for lithiating electroactive materials. A method of lithiating an electroactive material may include dispersing an electroactive material precursor within a room-temperature electrolyte that includes a lithium-based salt and contacting the electrolyte mixture and a lithium source so as to cause the lithium source to ionize and form lithium ions. The lithium ions may react with the electroactive material precursor to form a fully lithiated electroactive material (e.g., greater than 70% of total lithiation). The method further includes, in certain aspects, electrochemically discharging the fully lithiated electroactive material to form a lithiated electroactive material having an optimized lithiation state (e.g., less than or equal to about 40% of a first lithiation state of the fully lithiated electroactive material).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 2019
    Date of Patent: May 24, 2022
    Assignee: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Jeffrey D. Cain, Andrew C. Bobel, Nicholas P. Pieczonka, Robert D. Schmidt, Anil K. Sachdev, Mark W. Verbrugge
  • Patent number: 11316142
    Abstract: Methods for fabricating electrodes include coating a current collector with a slurry to form a coated current collector. The slurry includes a dry fraction, including silicon particles, polymeric binders, and one or more types of naturally occurring carbonaceous filaments, and one or more solvents. The coated current collector is heat treated to produce the electrode having a layer of silicon-based host material. The one or more naturally occurring carbonaceous filaments can include animal fibers, chitin, alginate, cellulose, keratin, and chitosan, and can have an average length of 1 ?m to 50 ?m and an average diameter of 1 nm to 500 nm. The dry fraction can include 5 wt. % to 95 wt. % silicon particles, 0.1 wt. % to 15 wt. % polymeric binders, and 1 wt. % to 20 wt. % naturally occurring carbonaceous filaments. The method can include assembling a battery cell by disposing the electrode and a positive electrode in electrolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 2019
    Date of Patent: April 26, 2022
    Assignee: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: Meng Jiang, Raghunathan K, Ion C. Halalay, Mark W. Verbrugge
  • Publication number: 20220109136
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a method comprising disposing a slurry comprising an organic binder, an optional conductive filler, an optional solvent and an active material on a current collector; wherein the active material comprises a labile metal ion; removing the optional solvent to form a dry electrode; firing the dry electrode at a temperature of at least 200° C.; and carbonizing the organic binder to form a carbonized layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 1, 2020
    Publication date: April 7, 2022
    Inventors: Nicole Ellison, Xiaosong Huang, Mark W. Verbrugge
  • Patent number: 11295901
    Abstract: A bipolar capacitor-assisted solid-state battery is disclosed that includes a plurality of electrochemical battery unit cells, each of which includes a negative electrode, a positive electrode, and a lithium ion-conductive electrolyte-containing separator disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode. The lithium ion-conductive electrolyte-containing separator of each electrochemical battery unit cell comprises a solid-state electrolyte material, and, additionally, at least one negative electrode of the electrochemical battery unit cells or at least one positive electrode of the electrochemical battery unit cells includes a capacitor material. The bipolar capacitor-assisted solid-state battery further includes a bipolar current collector disposed between a negative electrode of one electrochemical battery unit cell and a positive electrode of an adjacent electrochemical battery unit cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 2019
    Date of Patent: April 5, 2022
    Assignee: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Mengyan Hou, Haijing Liu, Mark W. Verbrugge, Xiaochao Que, Qili Su, Meiyuan Wu
  • Publication number: 20220102725
    Abstract: An electrochemical cell is provided herein as well as methods for preparing electrochemical cells. The electrochemical cell includes a negative electrode and a positive electrode. The negative electrode includes a prelithiated electroactive material including a lithium silicide. Lithium is present in the prelithiated electroactive material in an amount corresponding to greater than or equal to about 10% of a state of charge of the negative electrode. The electrochemical cell has a negative electrode capacity to positive electrode capacity for lithium (N/P) ratio of greater than or equal to about 1, and the electrochemical cell is capable of operating at an operating voltage of less than or equal to about 5 volts.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 30, 2020
    Publication date: March 31, 2022
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Xingcheng XIAO, Mark W. VERBRUGGE, Xingyi YANG, Lei WANG, Raghunathan K.
  • Publication number: 20220102704
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates to a negative electrode material and methods of preparation and use relating thereto. The electrode material comprises a plurality of electroactive material particles, where each electroactive material particle includes an electroactive material core and an electronically conductive coating. The method includes contacting an electroactive material precursor including a plurality of electroactive material particles with a solution so as to form an electronically conductive coating on each of the electroactive material particles. The solution includes a solvent and one or more of copper fluoride (CuF2), titanium tetrafluoride (TiF3 or TiF4), iron fluoride (FeF3), nickel fluoride (NiF2), manganese fluoride (MnF2, MnF3, or MnF4), and vanadium fluoride (VF3, VF4, VF5). The electronically conductive coating includes a plurality of first regions and a plurality of second regions. The plurality of first regions include lithium fluoride.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 30, 2020
    Publication date: March 31, 2022
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Mark W. VERBRUGGE, Xingcheng XIAO, Qinglin ZHANG, Xingyi YANG, Raghunathan K
  • Publication number: 20220069280
    Abstract: A composite electrode material may include a carbon-based matrix component and a silicon-based particulate component embedded in the carbon-based matrix component. The silicon-based particulate component may include a plurality of core-shell structures, with each core-shell structure including: a silicon core, an intermetallic layer overlying the core, and a graphitic shell surrounding the silicon core and the intermetallic layer. In a method of making the composite electrode material, a metal catalyst layer may be deposited on a plurality of silicon particles to form a plurality of precursor structures in particle form. The precursor structures may be dispersed in organic polymeric material to form a precursor electrode material, which may be heated in an inert environment to pyrolyze the organic polymeric material and transform the precursor electrode material into a composite electrode material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 28, 2020
    Publication date: March 3, 2022
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Xingcheng Xiao, Mark W. Verbrugge
  • Patent number: 11217826
    Abstract: A method of making the sulfide-impregnated solid-state battery is provided. The method comprises providing a cell core that is constructed by cell unit. The cell core is partially sealed into the packaging such as the Al laminated film and metal can. The method further comprises introducing a sulfide solid-state electrolyte (S-SSE) precursor solution in the cell core, the S-SSE precursor solution comprises a sulfide solid electrolyte and a solvent. The method further comprises evaporating the solvent from the cell core to dry the cell core to solidify the sulfide-based solid-state electrolyte within the cell core and pressurizing the cell core to densify the solid sulfide-base electrolyte within the cell core. The cell core is then fully sealed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 2019
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2022
    Assignee: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: Zhe Li, Xiaochao Que, Haijing Liu, Yong Lu, Mark W. Verbrugge, Meiyuan Wu
  • Patent number: 11196097
    Abstract: A battery and supercapacitor system of a vehicle includes a lithium ion battery (LIB) disposed within a housing. The LIB includes: an electrolyte including lithium; and first and second electrodes disposed in the electrolyte. A supercapacitor is disposed within the housing and includes: the electrolyte; and third and fourth electrodes disposed in the electrolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 2018
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2021
    Assignee: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Wentian Gu, Haijing Liu, Mark W. Verbrugge, Zhiqiang Yu
  • Patent number: 11196045
    Abstract: Methods of forming a lithium-based negative electrode assembly are provided. A surface of a metal current collector is treated with a reducing plasma gas so that after the treating, a treated surface of the metal current collector is formed that has a contact angle of less than or equal to about 10° and has less than or equal to about 5% metal oxides. The metal current collector may include a metal, such as copper, nickel, and iron. A lithium metal is applied to the treated surface of the metal current collector in an environment substantially free from oxidizing species. Lithium metal flows over and adheres to the treated surface to form a layer of lithium. The layer of lithium may be a thin layer having a thickness of ?about 1 ?m to ?about 75 ?m thus forming the lithium metal negative electrode assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 2018
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2021
    Assignee: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Gayatri V. Dadheech, Li Yang, Mark W. Verbrugge
  • Publication number: 20210316996
    Abstract: Systems, methods and compositions to produce fine powders are described. These include forming a hypereutectic melt including a target material, a sacrificial-matrix material, and an impurity, rapidly cooling the hypereutectic melt to form a hypereutectic alloy having a first phase and a second phase, annealing the hypereutectic alloy to alter a morphology of the target material to thereby produce target particles, and removing the sacrificial matrix to thereby produce a fine powder of the target particles. The first phase is defined by the target material and the second phase is defined by the sacrificial-matrix material. The sacrificial-matrix material forms a sacrificial matrix having the target material dispersed therethrough.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 1, 2019
    Publication date: October 14, 2021
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Mahmoud Abd Elhamid, Andrew C. Bobel, Anil K. Sachdev, Mark W. Verbrugge, Nicholas P. Pieczonka, James R. Salvador
  • Publication number: 20210234153
    Abstract: A method of making an electrode material for an electrode in an electrochemical cell that cycles lithium ions is provided, where a protective coating is applied to an electrode precursor material. The electrode precursor may be a silicon-containing composition. The protective coating is selected from the group consisting of: an oxide-based coating, a fluoride-based coating, and a nitride-based coating. The method also includes lithiating the electrode precursor material in a continuous process. The continuous process is conducted in a reactor having a first reaction chamber and a second reaction chamber to form a lithiated electrode material comprising the protective coating.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 24, 2020
    Publication date: July 29, 2021
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Xingcheng XIAO, Xingyi YANG, Raghunathan K, Mark W. VERBRUGGE
  • Publication number: 20210175486
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates to electroactive materials for use in electrodes of lithium-ion electrochemical cells and methods of making the same, for example, methods for lithiating electroactive materials. A method of lithiating an electroactive material may include dispersing an electroactive material precursor within a room-temperature electrolyte that includes a lithium-based salt and contacting the electrolyte mixture and a lithium source so as to cause the lithium source to ionize and form lithium ions. The lithium ions may react with the electroactive material precursor to form a fully lithiated electroactive material (e.g., greater than 70% of total lithiation). The method further includes, in certain aspects, electrochemically discharging the fully lithiated electroactive material to form a lithiated electroactive material having an optimized lithiation state (e.g., less than or equal to about 40% of a first lithiation state of the fully lithiated electroactive material).
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 6, 2019
    Publication date: June 10, 2021
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Jeffrey D. CAIN, Andrew C. BOBEL, Nicholas P. PIECZONKA, Robert D. SCHMIDT, Anil K. SACHDEV, Mark W. VERBRUGGE
  • Publication number: 20210175491
    Abstract: A method of making a negative electrode material for an electrochemical cell that cycles lithium ions is provided that includes centrifugally distributing a molten precursor comprising silicon and lithium by contacting the molten precursor with a rotating surface in a centrifugal atomizing reactor. The molten precursor is solidified to form a plurality of substantially round solid electroactive particles comprising an alloy of lithium and silicon and having a D50 diameter of less than or equal to about 20 micrometers. In certain variations, the negative electroactive material particles may further have one or more coatings disposed thereon, such as a carbonaceous coating and/or an oxide-based coating.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 6, 2019
    Publication date: June 10, 2021
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Bradley R. FRIEBERG, Xiaosong HUANG, Zhongyi LIU, Mark W. VERBRUGGE
  • Publication number: 20210151260
    Abstract: A capacitor-assisted electrode for an electrochemical cell that cycles lithium ions is provided. The capacitor-assisted electrode may include at least two electroactive materials disposed on one or more surfaces of a current collector. A first electroactive material of the at least two electroactive materials may have a first reversible specific capacity and forms a first electroactive material having a first press density. A second electroactive material of the at least two electroactive materials has a second reversible specific capacity and forms a second electroactive material having a second press density. The second reversible specific capacity may be different from the first reversible specific capacity. The second press density may be different from the first press density. One or more capacitor materials may be disposed on or intermingled with one or more of the at least two electroactive materials.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 15, 2019
    Publication date: May 20, 2021
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Dewen KONG, Xiaochao QUE, Meiyuan WU, Si CHEN, Haijing LIU, Mark W. VERBRUGGE
  • Publication number: 20210151787
    Abstract: Lithiated electrodes, electrochemical cells including lithiated electrodes, and methods of making the same are provided. The method includes lithiating at least one electrode in an electrochemical cell by applying current across a first current collector of the at least one electrode to a second current collector of an auxiliary electrode. The electrochemical cell may be disposed within a battery packaging and the auxiliary electrode may be disposed within the battery packaging adjacent to an edge of the electrochemical cell. The at least one electrode may include a first electroactive layer disposed on or near one or more surfaces of the first current collector, and the auxiliary electrode may include a second electroactive layer disposed at or near one or more surfaces of the second current collector. The method may further include extracting the auxiliary electrode from the battery packaging and sealing the battery packaging, which includes the pre-lithiated electrochemical cell.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 20, 2019
    Publication date: May 20, 2021
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Xingcheng XIAO, Xingyi YANG, Mark W. VERBRUGGE, Raghunathan K, Qinglin ZHANG