Patents by Inventor Nalini K. Ratha

Nalini K. Ratha has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 11354539
    Abstract: An AI model is trained by determining insights for a sequence of computations used in the AI model. The sequence is applied to encrypted data and label pair(s), wherein computational details of each of the computations are defined. Information may also be committed for selected ones of the sequence of computations into a distributed database. The committed information may include computational details used in processing performed for the selected computations, and the distributed database may have a property that the committed information for each selected computation is linked with a verifiable signature of integrity with a previously committed computation in the sequence. Indication is received from an end-user computer system of selected computation(s). Computational details of the indicated selected computation(s) are sent toward the end-user computer system for use by the end-user computer system for verifying the indicated selected computation(s).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 2018
    Date of Patent: June 7, 2022
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Shai Halevi, Sharathchandra Pankanti, Karthik Nandakumar, Nalini K. Ratha
  • Publication number: 20220166607
    Abstract: Securely re-encrypting homomorphically encrypted data by receiving fully homomorphically encrypted (FHE) information from a client device, training a machine learning model using the FHE information, yielding FHE ciphertexts, applying a first transform to the FHE ciphertexts, yielding obfuscated FHE ciphertexts, sending the obfuscated FHE ciphertexts to a secure device, receiving a re-encrypted version of the obfuscated FHE ciphertexts from the secure device, applying a second transform to the re-encrypted version of the obfuscated FHE ciphertexts yielding de-obfuscated re-encrypted FHE ciphertexts, determining FHE ML model parameters according to the de-obfuscated re-encrypted ciphertexts, and sending the FHE ML model parameters to the client device.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 20, 2020
    Publication date: May 26, 2022
    Inventors: Nalini K. Ratha, Karthik Nandakumar, Sharathchandra Pankanti
  • Patent number: 11336643
    Abstract: An anonymized biometric representation of a target individual is used in a computer based security system. A detailed input biometric signal associated with a target individual is obtained. A weakened biometric representation of the detailed biometric signal is constructed such that the weakened biometric representation is designed to identify a plurality of individuals including the target individual. The target individual is enrolled in a data store associated with the computer based security system wherein the weakened biometric representation is included in a record for the target individual. In another aspect of the invention, a detailed input biometric signal from a screening candidate individual is obtained. The detailed biometric signal of the screening candidate is matched against the weakened biometric representation included in the record for the target individual.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2019
    Date of Patent: May 17, 2022
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Jonathan H Connell, II, Fred A Maymir-Ducharme, Nalini K Ratha
  • Patent number: 11321382
    Abstract: A framework is provided in which a querying agency can request (via a query entity) encrypted data through a service provider from a data owning agency that stores encrypted data. The framework uses homomorphic encryption. The data may be gallery entities, and each of the elements in the framework operate on doubly-encrypted information. The service provider compares a representation of an encrypted query entity from the querying agency and representations of encrypted gallery entities from the data owning agency, resulting in doubly-encrypted values of a metric between corresponding compared representations. The querying agency gets result(s), based on the metric, which indicate whether it is probable the service provider has data similar to or the same as query data in the query entity. The elements have to perform communication in order for the querying agency or the data owning agency to get cleartext information corresponding to the query entity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 2020
    Date of Patent: May 3, 2022
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Sharathchandra Pankanti, Karthik Nandakumar, Nalini K. Ratha, Shai Halevi
  • Publication number: 20220110542
    Abstract: Determining lung capacity of includes capturing an audio waveform of the user performing an utterance presented to a user. A video of the user performing the utterance can be captured. The captured audio waveform and the video are analyzed for compliance. Based on the audio waveform, an indicator of respiratory function is determined. The indicator is compared with a reference indicator to determine health of the user. A machine learning model such as neural network can be trained to predict the indicator of the respiratory function based on input features comprising audio spectral and temporal characteristics of utterances. Determining the indicator or respiratory function can include running the trained machine learning model.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 8, 2020
    Publication date: April 14, 2022
    Inventors: Samuel Thomas, Nalini K. Ratha, Jonathan Hudson Connell, II
  • Patent number: 11301504
    Abstract: A bias compensation method, system, and computer program product include modifying a behavior of a first analytic engine service with a second analytic engine service, where the first service accepts user submitted data and communicates an assessment of the data in a form of a label associated with the corresponding submitted data, where the second service accepts an input and communicates an assessment in a form of a label associated with the corresponding input, and where a behavior model of the first service and the second service includes a discrepancy between the output labels by each service with respect to true labels of data accepted, further including composing a new analytic engine service from the first service and the second service to optimize a service bias in terms of a test dataset based on the behavior model and the known true assessments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2022
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Jonathan Hudson Connell, II, Nalini K. Ratha, Sharathchandra Pankanti
  • Patent number: 11301944
    Abstract: A computer-implemented method modifies physical classroom resources in a classroom. One or more processors identify and quantify physical classroom resources in the classroom based on sensor readings received from sensors in a classroom. The processor(s) determine physical classroom resource constraints that impede learning by students in the classroom based on the sensor readings from the sensors in the classroom. The processor(s) detect one or more of the physical classroom resource constraints in the physical classroom resources identified by the sensor readings, and then adjust the one or more physical classroom resources based on the one or more detected physical classroom resource constraints.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 2017
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2022
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Shelby S. Darnell, Sharathchandra U. Pankanti, Nalini K. Ratha, Komminist Weldemariam
  • Patent number: 11244316
    Abstract: An example operation may include one or more of obtaining a first biometric sample of a user from a user device. extracting, by an issuing node of a permissioned blockchain network, a biometric template from the first biometric sample, encrypting the biometric template, distributing an issuetoken proposal comprising the encrypted biometric template to the blockchain network, and generating and distributing a biometric token to the user device. In response to the user indicating to the user device to redeem the biometric token, the method includes one or more of presenting, by the user device, the biometric token to a verifying node of the blockchain network, validating, by the verifying node, the biometric token, receiving, by the verifying node, a second biometric sample from the user device, distributing a redeemtoken proposal to the blockchain network, committing a transaction corresponding to the biometric token, to the blockchain network, and invalidating the biometric token.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 2018
    Date of Patent: February 8, 2022
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Shelby Solomon Darnell, Karthik Nandakumar, Sharathchandra Pankanti, Nalini K. Ratha
  • Publication number: 20220027914
    Abstract: A secure transaction method, system, and computer program product including prior to authorizing a transaction distributing a location challenge code generated by a payment provider to a service provider module physically accessible to a user, distributing a biometric data request indicative of a location of the user by the payment provider to the personal communication device of the user, sending the location challenge code and a biometric data response from the personal communication device of the user to the payment provider, verifying, via the payment provider a match between the biometric data response and biometric data of the user stored in a storage unit and a match between the location challenge code received from the personal communication device of the user and the location challenge code generated by the payment provider, and authorizing the transaction based on a result of the verifying.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 13, 2021
    Publication date: January 27, 2022
    Inventors: Jonathan H. Connell, Nalini K. Ratha, Roberta Sicconi
  • Publication number: 20220012543
    Abstract: An entity learning recognition method and computer program product include learning training a model based on a combination of an original entity and an augmented entity in an augmented database, where the entity includes an image that is used for a training of the model and where the training is based on a visual element portion of the image with added noise.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 23, 2021
    Publication date: January 13, 2022
    Inventors: Gaurav Goswami, Sharathchandra Umapathirao Pankanti, Nalini K. Ratha
  • Publication number: 20210397988
    Abstract: This disclosure provides a method, apparatus and computer program product to create a full homomorphic encryption (FHE)-friendly machine learning model. The approach herein leverages a knowledge distillation framework wherein the FHE-friendly (student) ML model closely mimics the predictions of a more complex (teacher) model, wherein the teacher model is one that, relative to the student model, is more complex and that is pre-trained on large datasets. In the approach herein, the distillation framework uses the more complex teacher model to facilitate training of the FHE-friendly model, but using synthetically-generated training data in lieu of the original datasets used to train the teacher.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 22, 2020
    Publication date: December 23, 2021
    Applicant: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Kanthi Sarpatwar, Nalini K. Ratha, Karthikeyan Shanmugam, Karthik Nandakumar, Sharathchandra Pankanti, Roman Vaculin, James Thomas Rayfield
  • Publication number: 20210376995
    Abstract: A technique for computationally-efficient privacy-preserving homomorphic inferencing against a decision tree. Inferencing is carried out by a server against encrypted data points provided by a client. Fully homomorphic computation is enabled with respect to the decision tree by intelligently configuring the tree and the real number-valued features that are applied to the tree. To that end, and to the extent the decision tree is unbalanced, the server first balances the tree. A cryptographic packing scheme is then applied to the balanced decision tree and, in particular, to one or more entries in at least one of: an encrypted feature set, and a threshold data set, that are to be used during the decision tree evaluation process. Upon receipt of an encrypted data point, homomorphic inferencing on the configured decision tree is performed using a highly-accurate approximation comparator, which implements a “soft” membership recursive computation on real numbers, all in an oblivious manner.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 27, 2020
    Publication date: December 2, 2021
    Applicant: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Nalini K. Ratha, Kanthi Sarpatwar, Karthikeyan Shanmugam, Sharathchandra Pankanti, Karthik Nandakumar, Roman Vaculin
  • Patent number: 11185660
    Abstract: Embodiments include methods, systems, and computer program products for detection and remediation of anxiety. Aspects include receiving an anxiety indicator. Aspects also include analyzing the anxiety indicator to determine whether an anxiety level exceeds an anxiety threshold. Aspects also include, based upon a determination that the anxiety level exceeds the anxiety threshold, selecting a first sound. Aspects also include outputting the first sound. Aspects also include receiving an anxiety feedback. Aspects also include determining, based upon the anxiety feedback, whether the anxiety level is decreasing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 12, 2019
    Date of Patent: November 30, 2021
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Jonathan H. Connell, II, Robert G. Farrell, Nalini K. Ratha
  • Patent number: 11188798
    Abstract: Multiple trained AI models are tested using known genuine samples of respective multiple modalities of multimedia to generate versions of the multiple modalities of a given multimedia sample. Data for the multimedia and the multimedia sample are divided into the multiple modalities. Respective differences are computed between respective components of the multiple trained AI models to produce respective multiple difference vector, which are compared with corresponding baseline difference vectors determined in order to train the multiple trained AI models. The given multimedia sample is classified as genuine or altered using at least the comparison.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 2020
    Date of Patent: November 30, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Gaurav Goswami, Nalini K. Ratha, Sharathchandra Pankanti
  • Publication number: 20210365714
    Abstract: Multiple trained AI models are tested using known genuine samples of respective multiple modalities of multimedia to generate versions of the multiple modalities of a given multimedia sample. Data for the multimedia and the multimedia sample are divided into the multiple modalities. Respective differences are computed between respective components of the multiple trained AI models to produce respective multiple difference vector, which are compared with corresponding baseline difference vectors determined in order to train the multiple trained AI models. The given multimedia sample is classified as genuine or altered using at least the comparison.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 21, 2020
    Publication date: November 25, 2021
    Inventors: Gaurav Goswami, Nalini K. Ratha, Sharathchandra Pankanti
  • Patent number: 11170358
    Abstract: A secure transaction method, system, and non-transitory computer readable medium, for authorizing a transaction between a user having a personal communication device, a service provider, and a payment provider, include requesting a distribution of a location challenge code to the service provider and a distribution of a biometric data request to the personal communication device of the user, verifying the biometric data of the user based on a match of received biometric data from the user and with biometric data of the user stored in a storage unit, verifying that the location challenge code sent from the personal communication device of the user matches the distributed location challenge code, and sending a verification of authentication of the location challenge code and the match to the payment provider.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 2016
    Date of Patent: November 9, 2021
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Jonathan H. Connell, Nalini K. Ratha, Roberto Sicconi
  • Publication number: 20210344478
    Abstract: A method, apparatus and computer program product for homomorphic inference on a decision tree (DT) model. In lieu of HE-based inferencing on the decision tree, the inferencing instead is performed on a neural network (NN), which acts as a surrogate. To this end, the neural network is trained to learn DT decision boundaries, preferably without using the original DT model data training points. During training, a random data set is applied to the DT, and expected outputs are recorded. This random data set and the expected outputs are then used to train the neural network such that the outputs of the neural network match the outputs expected from applying the original data set to the DT. Preferably, the neural network has low depth, just a few layers. HE-based inferencing on the decision tree is done using HE inferencing on the shallow neural network. The latter is computationally-efficient and is carried without the need for bootstrapping.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 30, 2020
    Publication date: November 4, 2021
    Applicant: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Kanthi Sarpatwar, Nalini K. Ratha, Karthikeyan Shanmugam, Karthik Nandakumar, Sharathchandra Pankanti, Roman Vaculin
  • Publication number: 20210322273
    Abstract: A drug delivery device includes a capsule, a logic circuit disposed within the capsule, and an actuator connected to the logic circuit and configured to expose an interior of the capsule to an exterior of the capsule upon activation by the logic circuit.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 29, 2021
    Publication date: October 21, 2021
    Inventors: NOEL C. CODELLA, JONATHAN H. CONNELL, II, SHARATHCHANDRA PANKANTI, NALINI K. RATHA
  • Patent number: 11151236
    Abstract: An example operation may include one or more of initiating, by a file verification device, verification of a source file or a redacted source file, executing one of a smart contract or chaincode to verify the chameleon hash signature and the auxiliary data hash signature, and providing a notification whether the verification was successful or unsuccessful. In response to initiating verification of the source file, the method further includes the file verification device receiving stored source file segments and stored auxiliary data segments, generating a chameleon hash signature, and generating an auxiliary data hash signature. In response to initiating verification of the redacted source file, the method further includes receiving stored redacted file segments, stored auxiliary data segments, and stored modified auxiliary data, generating a chameleon hash signature, and generating an auxiliary data hash signature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 2018
    Date of Patent: October 19, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Karthik Nandakumar, Nalini K. Ratha, Sharathchandra Pankanti
  • Patent number: 11139960
    Abstract: An example operation may include one or more of determining, by a file redaction device, redacted segments of a source file, receiving, by a signature update device, the redacted source file segments, a stored trapdoor key, and stored auxiliary data segments, determining modified auxiliary data from the redacted source file segments, the trapdoor key and the auxiliary data segments, executing chaincode to obtain a modified auxiliary data signature and identifiers of the redacted source file segments, and storing the modified auxiliary data signature and identifiers of the redacted source file segments to a shared ledger of a blockchain network. Each stored auxiliary data segment including a random string of data corresponding to a segment of the source file.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 2018
    Date of Patent: October 5, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Karthik Nandakumar, Nalini K. Ratha, Sharathchandra Pankanti