Patents by Inventor Rudolf M. Tromp

Rudolf M. Tromp has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 10755170
    Abstract: A technique relates a resistive processing unit (RPU) array. A set of conductive column wires are configured to form cross-points at intersections between the set of conductive row wires and a set of conductive column wires. Two-terminal RPUs are hysteretic such that the two-terminal RPUs each have a conductance state defined by hysteresis, where a two-terminal RPU of the two-terminal RPUs is located at each of the cross-points.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 2017
    Date of Patent: August 25, 2020
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Tayfun Gokmen, Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Patent number: 10593510
    Abstract: An electron microscope system and a method of measuring an aberration of the electron microscope system are disclosed. A method of controlling an aberration of an electron microscope includes obtaining a dispersed energy distribution for electrons at a diffraction plane of the electron microscope and placing an aperture at a selected location of the dispersed energy distribution in the diffraction plane. The method measures displacement of an image of the aperture in an image plane of the electron microscope for the selected location of the aperture. The method determines an aberration coefficient of the electron microscope from the measured displacement and the selected location of the aperture and alters a parameter of an element of the electron microscope to control the aberration of the electron microscope based at least in part on the determined aberration coefficient.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2020
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventor: Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Publication number: 20200072687
    Abstract: A force detector and method for using the same include a lens and a cantilever below the lens. A laser above the lens is configured to emit a beam of light that reflects from a surface of the lens and the cantilever. A processor is configured to determine a force between the lens and the cantilever based on interference between the light reflected from the surface and the light reflected from the cantilever.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 6, 2019
    Publication date: March 5, 2020
    Inventors: Arthur W. Ellis, Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Patent number: 10564056
    Abstract: A force detector and method for using the same includes a lens. A cantilever is disposed below the movable lens. A laser is disposed above the movable lens and is configured to emit a beam of light that reflects from a surface of the lens and the cantilever. A processor is configured to determine a force between the movable lens and the cantilever based on a change in phase in images produced by the light reflected from the spherical surface and the light reflected from the cantilever.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 2018
    Date of Patent: February 18, 2020
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Arthur W. Ellis, Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Publication number: 20190206655
    Abstract: An electron microscope system and a method of measuring an aberration of the electron microscope system are disclosed. A method of controlling an aberration of an electron microscope includes obtaining a dispersed energy distribution for electrons at a diffraction plane of the electron microscope and placing an aperture at a selected location of the dispersed energy distribution in the diffraction plane. The method measures displacement of an image of the aperture in an image plane of the electron microscope for the selected location of the aperture. The method determines an aberration coefficient of the electron microscope from the measured displacement and the selected location of the aperture and alters a parameter of an element of the electron microscope to control the aberration of the electron microscope based at least in part on the determined aberration coefficient.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 6, 2019
    Publication date: July 4, 2019
    Inventor: Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Patent number: 10330457
    Abstract: Methods and systems for measuring a distance include measuring a first interference pattern between a lens and a target surface using a light source at a first wavelength. A second interference pattern is measured between the lens and the target surface using a light source at a second wavelength, different from the first wavelength. An absolute measurement of a distance between the lens and the target surface is determined based on the first interference pattern and the second interference pattern.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 2018
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2019
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Patent number: 10330458
    Abstract: Systems for measuring a distance include a lens positioned a distance above a target surface. A camera is configured to measure a first interference pattern between the lens and the target surface using a light source at a first wavelength and to measure a second interference pattern between the lens and the target surface using a light source at a second wavelength. A processor is configured to determine an absolute measurement of the distance between the lens and the target surface based on the first interference pattern and the second interference pattern.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 2018
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2019
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Patent number: 10283315
    Abstract: An electron microscope system and a method of measuring an aberration of the electron microscope system are disclosed. An aperture filters an electron beam at a diffraction plane of the electron microscope to pass through electrons having a selected energy and momentum. A displacement of an image of the passed electrons is measured at a detector in an image plane of the electron microscope. An aberration coefficient of the electron microscope is determined from the measured displacement and at least one of the energy and momentum of the passed electrons. The measured aberration can be used to alter a parameter of the electron microscope or an optical element of the electron microscope to thereby control the overall aberration of the electron microscope.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 7, 2019
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventor: Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Publication number: 20180364022
    Abstract: Methods and systems for measuring a distance include measuring a first interference pattern between a lens and a target surface using a light source at a first wavelength. A second interference pattern is measured between the lens and the target surface using a light source at a second wavelength, different from the first wavelength. An absolute measurement of a distance between the lens and the target surface is determined based on the first interference pattern and the second interference pattern.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 23, 2018
    Publication date: December 20, 2018
    Inventors: Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Publication number: 20180364023
    Abstract: Systems for measuring a distance include a lens positioned a distance above a target surface. A camera is configured to measure a first interference pattern between the lens and the target surface using a light source at a first wavelength and to measure a second interference pattern between the lens and the target surface using a light source at a second wavelength. A processor is configured to determine an absolute measurement of the distance between the lens and the target surface based on the first interference pattern and the second interference pattern.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 23, 2018
    Publication date: December 20, 2018
    Inventors: Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Publication number: 20180356305
    Abstract: A force detector and method for using the same includes a lens. A cantilever is disposed below the movable lens. A laser is disposed above the movable lens and is configured to emit a beam of light that reflects from a surface of the lens and the cantilever. A processor is configured to determine a force between the movable lens and the cantilever based on a change in phase in images produced by the light reflected from the spherical surface and the light reflected from the cantilever.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 17, 2018
    Publication date: December 13, 2018
    Inventors: Arthur W. Ellis, Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Publication number: 20180337017
    Abstract: An electron microscope system and a method of measuring an aberration of the electron microscope system are disclosed. An aperture filters an electron beam at a diffraction plane of the electron microscope to pass through electrons having a selected energy and momentum. A displacement of an image of the passed electrons is measured at a detector in an image plane of the electron microscope. An aberration coefficient of the electron microscope is determined from the measured displacement and at least one of the energy and momentum of the passed electrons. The measured aberration can be used to alter a parameter of the electron microscope or an optical element of the electron microscope to thereby control the overall aberration of the electron microscope.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 16, 2017
    Publication date: November 22, 2018
    Inventor: Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Patent number: 10119801
    Abstract: Methods and systems for measuring a distance include measuring a first interference pattern between a lens and a target surface using a light source at a first wavelength. A second interference pattern is measured between the lens and the target surface using a light source at a second wavelength, different from the first wavelength. An absolute measurement of a distance between the lens and the target surface is determined based on the first interference pattern and the second interference pattern.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 2017
    Date of Patent: November 6, 2018
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Patent number: 10101224
    Abstract: A force detector and method for using the same includes a lens. A cantilever is below the movable lens. A laser above the movable lens emits a beam of light through the movable lens, such that light reflects from the lens and the cantilever. A camera is configured to capture images produced by the light reflected from the lens and the light reflected from the cantilever. A processor is configured to determine a force between the movable lens and the cantilever based on a change in phase of the interference rings.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2017
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2018
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Arthur W. Ellis, Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Publication number: 20180253642
    Abstract: A technique relates a resistive processing unit (RPU) array. A set of conductive column wires are configured to form cross-points at intersections between the set of conductive row wires and a set of conductive column wires. Two-terminal RPUs are hysteretic such that the two-terminal RPUs each have a conductance state defined by hysteresis, where a two-terminal RPU of the two-terminal RPUs is located at each of the cross-points.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 1, 2017
    Publication date: September 6, 2018
    Inventors: Tayfun Gokmen, Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Publication number: 20170292825
    Abstract: Methods and systems for measuring a distance include measuring a first interference pattern between a lens and a target surface using a light source at a first wavelength. A second interference pattern is measured between the lens and the target surface using a light source at a second wavelength, different from the first wavelength. An absolute measurement of a distance between the lens and the target surface is determined based on the first interference pattern and the second interference pattern.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 6, 2017
    Publication date: October 12, 2017
    Inventors: Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Patent number: 9752865
    Abstract: Methods and systems for measuring a distance include measuring a first interference pattern between a lens and a target surface using a light source at a first wavelength. A second interference pattern is measured between the lens and the target surface using a light source at a second wavelength, different from the first wavelength. An absolute measurement of a distance between the lens and the target surface is determined based on the first interference pattern and the second interference pattern.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 2016
    Date of Patent: September 5, 2017
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Publication number: 20170167929
    Abstract: A force detector and method for using the same includes a lens. A cantilever is below the movable lens. A laser above the movable lens emits a beam of light through the movable lens, such that light reflects from the lens and the cantilever. A camera is configured to capture images produced by the light reflected from the lens and the light reflected from the cantilever. A processor is configured to determine a force between the movable lens and the cantilever based on a change in phase of the interference rings.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 28, 2017
    Publication date: June 15, 2017
    Inventors: Arthur W. Ellis, Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Patent number: 9625331
    Abstract: A force detector and method for using the same includes a movable lens having a spherical surface; a cantilever below the movable lens; a laser above the movable lens configured to emit a beam of light through the movable lens, such that light reflects from the spherical surface and the cantilever; a camera configured to capture images of interference rings produced by the light reflected from the spherical surface and the light reflected from the cantilever; and a processor configured to determine a force between the movable lens and the cantilever based on a change in phase of the interference rings.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2015
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2017
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Arthur W. Ellis, Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Rudolf M. Tromp
  • Patent number: 9607804
    Abstract: Embodiments are further directed to an information processing system for generating a corrected image of a sample. The system includes a detector, a memory communicatively coupled to the detector, and a post-detection image processor communicatively coupled to the memory and the detector. The system is configured to perform a method that includes detecting, by the detector, data of a plurality of moving particles, wherein the data of the plurality of moving particles correspond to an uncorrected image of the sample, and wherein the uncorrected image includes defocus, astigmatism and spherical aberration. The method further includes generating, by the post-detection image processor, a corrected image of the sample based at least in part on processing the detected data of the plurality of moving particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 2015
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2017
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventor: Rudolf M. Tromp