Patents by Inventor Stephen R. Forrest

Stephen R. Forrest has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Publication number: 20230255047
    Abstract: An OLED comprises a first electrode, an emissive layer positioned over the first electrode, a charge transport layer positioned over the emissive layer, and a second electrode positioned over the charge transport layer, wherein the charge transport layer is in direct contact with the second electrode, and wherein the charge transport layer has an index of refraction of at least 1.7. An OLED comprises a cavity formed between first and second metal electrodes, an organic light emitting element positioned within the cavity, and an efficiency enhancement layer positioned between the organic light emitting element and the second silver electrode, the efficiency enhancement layer having a refractive index of at least 1.7.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 20, 2023
    Publication date: August 10, 2023
    Inventors: Haonan Zhao, Stephen R. FORREST
  • Publication number: 20230210006
    Abstract: Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) and their compositions are described herein. In one or more embodiments, the acceptor with an active layer of an OPV includes is a non-fullerene acceptor. Such non-fullerene acceptors may provide improved OPV performance characteristics such as improved power conversion efficiency, open circuit voltage, fill factor, short circuit current, and/or external quantum efficiency. One example of a non-fullerene acceptor is (4,4,10,10-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-5,11-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-4,10-dihydro-dithienyl[1,2-b:4,5b?]benzodi-thiophene-2,8-diyl) bis(2-(3-oxo-2,3-dihydroinden-5,6-dichloro-1-ylidene) malononitrile.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 21, 2023
    Publication date: June 29, 2023
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Yongxi Li
  • Publication number: 20230180602
    Abstract: Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) and their compositions are described herein. one or more embodiments, the acceptor with an active layer of an OPV includes is a non-fullerene acceptor. Such non-fullerene acceptors may provide improved OPV performance characteristics such as improved power conversion efficiency, open circuit voltage, fill factor, short circuit current, and/or external quantum efficiency.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 2, 2023
    Publication date: June 8, 2023
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Yongxi Li
  • Publication number: 20230133787
    Abstract: A compound having a surface region of highly negative electrostatic potential, which comprises a ligand LA represented by Formula I may be used in organic electroluminescent devices (OLEDs) and consumer products. Transition metal complexes comprising the ligand LA of Formula I may promote molecular alignment of dopants in OLEDs.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 2, 2022
    Publication date: May 4, 2023
    Inventors: Moon Chul JUNG, John W. FACENDOLA, Jongchan KIM, Peter I. DJUROVICH, Stephen R. FORREST, Mark E. THOMPSON
  • Publication number: 20230094133
    Abstract: A number of new solutions for enhancing the extraction of waveguided mode and suppressing surface plasmon polariton mode in OLEDs are disclosed. For example, an OLED is disclosed that includes: a substrate having a first side and a second side; a reflective layer disposed over the first side of the substrate; a grid layer consisting of two optically transparent materials with different refractive indices disposed on the reflective layer; a transparent first electrode provided over the grid layer; an organic emissive layer provided over the transparent first electrode; and a transparent second electrode provided over the organic emissive layer, where the grid layer scatters trapped waveguided modes from the organic emissive layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 17, 2022
    Publication date: March 30, 2023
    Applicant: Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Stephen R. FORREST, Yue QU
  • Publication number: 20230088880
    Abstract: An organic photovoltaic device comprises a first electrode, at least one organic heterojunction layer positioned over the first electrode, a second electrode positioned over the organic heterojunction layer, and a thin film stack positioned over the second electrode, comprising a plurality of sublayers of a first dielectric material alternating with a plurality of sublayers of a second dielectric material, wherein at least one of the plurality of sublayers of the first dielectric material has a thickness that is different from another of the plurality of sublayers of the first dielectric material, wherein the organic photovoltaic device has a mean transmittance of between 10% and 100% for light between 420 nm and 670 nm, with a variance of ±10%, and wherein an index contrast between the sublayers in the thin film stack is at least 0.1. A method of fabricating an organic photovoltaic device is also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 15, 2022
    Publication date: March 23, 2023
    Inventors: Stephen R. FORREST, Hafiz K.M. Sheriff, JR.
  • Publication number: 20230091551
    Abstract: An organic light emitting device comprises an anode, a first hole transport layer positioned over the anode, a barrier transport layer positioned over the first hole transport layer, a second hole transport layer positioned over the barrier transport layer, at least one emissive layer positioned over the second hole transport layer, and a cathode positioned over the at least one emissive layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 22, 2022
    Publication date: March 23, 2023
    Inventors: Boning Qu, Stephen R. FORREST
  • Publication number: 20230092459
    Abstract: An organic light emitting device (OLED) comprises a substrate layer, a sub-electrode microlens array (SEMLA) at least partially embedded in the substrate layer comprising a plurality of microlenses, a first electrode layer over the substrate layer, a light emitting layer over the first electrode layer, and a second electrode layer over the light emitting layer. The device can further include a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) layer between the substrate and first electrode layers and/or a Purcell Factor (PF) enhancement layer over the second electrode layer, comprising at least one layer pair including a silver mirror electrode and a metal-dielectric layer. Related methods are also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 15, 2022
    Publication date: March 23, 2023
    Inventors: Haonan Zhao, Claire Arneson, Stephen R. FORREST
  • Patent number: 11605787
    Abstract: Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) and their compositions are described herein. In one or more embodiments, the acceptor with an active layer of an OPV includes is a non-fullerene acceptor. Such non-fullerene acceptors may provide improved OPV performance characteristics such as improved power conversion efficiency, open circuit voltage, fill factor, short circuit current, and/or external quantum efficiency. One example of a non-fullerene acceptor is (4,4,10,10-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-5,11-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-4,10-dihydro-dithienyl[1,2-b:4,5b?] benzodi-thiophene-2,8-diyl) bis(2-(3-oxo-2,3-dihydroinden-5,6-dichloro-1-ylidene) malononitrile.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 2018
    Date of Patent: March 14, 2023
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Yongxi Li, Xiao Liu
  • Patent number: 11594686
    Abstract: Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) and their compositions are described herein. one or more embodiments, the acceptor with an active layer of an OPV includes is a non-fullerene acceptor. Such non-fullerene acceptors may provide improved OPV performance characteristics such as improved power conversion efficiency, open circuit voltage, fill factor, short circuit current, and/or external quantum efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 2021
    Date of Patent: February 28, 2023
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Xiaheng Huang, Yongxi Li, Stephen R. Forrest
  • Patent number: 11569777
    Abstract: Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems and devices with improved efficiencies are disclosed herein. In one example, a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell includes an active layer; a back-surface reflective (BSR) layer; and a spacer layer positioned between the active layer and back-surface reflective layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 2019
    Date of Patent: January 31, 2023
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Andrej Lenert, Stephen R. Forrest, Tobias Eugene Burger, Deiju Fan, Kyusang Lee
  • Patent number: 11552247
    Abstract: An organic vapor deposition device comprises a print head, comprising a source channel, in fluid communication with a flow of carrier gas and a quantity of organic source material configured to mix with the carrier gas, a nozzle having a deposition outlet, in fluid communication with the source channel, and a shutter configured at least to open and close the deposition outlet, wherein the print heat is configured to allow the flow of carrier gas and the organic source material exit the deposition outlet when the shutter is in an open position, and to prevent the flow of carrier gas and the organic source material from exiting the deposition outlet when the shutter is in a closed position. A method of manufacturing a device comprising an organic feature on a substrate is also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 2020
    Date of Patent: January 10, 2023
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Jeffrey A. Horowitz, David J. Bishop
  • Patent number: 11539031
    Abstract: A number of new solutions for enhancing the extraction of waveguided mode and suppressing surface plasmon polariton mode in OLEDs are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 2019
    Date of Patent: December 27, 2022
    Assignee: REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Yue Qu
  • Patent number: 11538953
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates to compound parabolic concentrators. In one implementation, a compound parabolic concentrator may include a parabolic array having a base, a side wall, and an aperture for receiving light and a dielectric layer having a refractive index. In another implementation, a stacked compound parabolic concentrator may include a parabolic array having a base, a side wall, and an aperture for receiving light and multiple dielectric layers within the array. Each dielectric layer may have a refractive index, and the refractive index may decrease with each dielectric layer moving from the base of the parabolic array to the light receiving aperture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 2017
    Date of Patent: December 27, 2022
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Kyusang Lee, Byungjun Lee
  • Publication number: 20220399514
    Abstract: An ultra-thin shadow mask comprises a plastic foil including a plurality of apertures, wherein the ultra-thin shadow mask is less than 25 ?m thick, and wherein the ultra-thin shadow mask has a feature size of at least 1 ?m to about 100 ?m. An organic photovoltaic (OPV) device comprises a first electrode including a first grid structure, the first grid structure having a feature size of at least 1 ?m to about 100 ?m, a heterojunction under the first electrode, a second electrode under the heterojunction including a second grid structure, and a plurality of outcoupling layers over the first electrode. Related methods are also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 15, 2022
    Publication date: December 15, 2022
    Inventors: Stephen R. FORREST, Dejiu FAN, Xinjing Huang
  • Publication number: 20220367836
    Abstract: A method of fabricating a light emitting device comprises providing a mold having an unpolished surface with an arithmetic mean roughness Ra in a range from 0.1 ?m to 10 ?m, depositing a thin polymer film over the surface of the mold, wherein the film has a thickness in a range from 1 ?m to 100 ?m, positioning a light emitting body onto the thin polymer film, wherein the light emitting body includes an anode, a cathode, and a light emitting layer positioned between the anode and the cathode, and separating the thin polymer film with the light emitting body from the mold. A light emitting device is also described.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 27, 2022
    Publication date: November 17, 2022
    Inventors: Yue QU, Xiaheng Huang, Stephen R. Forrest
  • Publication number: 20220311375
    Abstract: Implementations of the disclosed subject matter provide a window, an energy and light producing device including at least one transparent photovoltaic device and at least one non-transparent Organic Light Emitting Device (OLED) in an optical path of the window. A controller may control the operation of the non-transparent OLED of the energy and light producing device. An energy storage device may be electrically coupled to the controller and the energy and light producing device to store energy generated by the transparent photovoltaic device and to power the non-transparent OLED. In some implementations, a LED or OLED may be mounted in the frame of the window and may be powered by the energy storage device.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 13, 2022
    Publication date: September 29, 2022
    Inventors: Michael HACK, Stephen R. FORREST
  • Publication number: 20220278280
    Abstract: A method of fabricating an organic optoelectronic device comprises positioning a patterning layer over a substrate, etching the patterning layer using a photolithographic process to create an etched patterning layer, positioning a layer of an organic material over the etched patterning layer, and removing at least a portion of the etched patterning layer and at least a portion of the layer of the organic material to create a patterned organic layer over the substrate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 1, 2022
    Publication date: September 1, 2022
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Xinjing Huang, Dejiu Fan
  • Publication number: 20220271250
    Abstract: An organic electronic optoelectronic device comprises a substrate, a first electrode positioned over the substrate, a first organic buffer layer positioned over the first electrode, and a first inorganic emissive layer positioned over the first organic buffer layer. A method of fabricating an organic optoelectronic device is also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 26, 2022
    Publication date: August 25, 2022
    Inventors: Byungjun Lee, Jongchan Kim, Stephen R. Forrest
  • Publication number: 20220271260
    Abstract: An organic light emitting device comprises an emissive layer stack having an anode side and a cathode side, comprising at least one emissive layer comprising an organic emissive material, an anode layer stack comprising at least one conductive layer, a cathode layer stack comprising at least one conductive layer, an anode-side reflector positioned on the anode side of the emissive layer stack, and a cathode-side reflector positioned on the cathode side of the emissive layer stack, wherein the anode-side reflector and the cathode side reflector are configured to form a resonant, electrically pumped cavity for ultrastrong coupling having a quality factor of at least 10. An electrically-pumped organic light emitting device is also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 21, 2022
    Publication date: August 25, 2022
    Inventors: Stephen R. FORREST, Haonan Zhao