Patents by Inventor Stephen R. Forrest

Stephen R. Forrest has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Publication number: 20210050531
    Abstract: An organic light emitting device (OLED) comprises an anode; a cathode; and a light emitting layer, disposed between the anode and the cathode; wherein the light emitting layer comprises at least one luminescent compound; and wherein the transition dipole moment of the at least one luminescent compound is oriented parallel to the surface of the light emitting layer. A method of fabricating a light emitting layer, comprises the steps of providing a substrate; depositing less than 2 nm of a template material on the substrate; and depositing a composition comprising at least one light emitting compound on the template material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 30, 2020
    Publication date: February 18, 2021
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Jongchan Kim
  • Publication number: 20210028361
    Abstract: An organic photovoltaic device comprises an anode and a cathode, an active layer positioned between the anode and the cathode, comprising a first donor material and a first acceptor material in a first ratio, and an interface layer positioned between the anode and the cathode, comprising a second donor material and a second acceptor material in a second ratio. A method of fabricating an organic photovoltaic device and an organic photovoltaic device produced with the disclosed methods are also disclosed herein.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 23, 2020
    Publication date: January 28, 2021
    Inventors: Stephen R. FORREST, Kan Ding
  • Publication number: 20210028382
    Abstract: Semitransparent organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells provide integrated photovoltaic needs, such as use on windows and other architectural surfaces. These cells can achieve high power conversion efficiency and supply acceptable transparency. Inverted, semitransparent OPV cells are provided that include a mixed organic heterojunction layer or a planar-mixed heterojunction layer. These cells can additionally be used to create a tandem cell, which absorbs light over a broader range of wavelengths.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 1, 2020
    Publication date: January 28, 2021
    Applicant: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Stephen R. FORREST, Xin XIAO, Kyusang LEE
  • Publication number: 20210028233
    Abstract: An organic optoelectronic device comprises a substrate having first and second regions, a first electrode positioned over the first region of the substrate, a shutter electrode positioned over the second region of the substrate, an organic heterojunction layer comprising an organic heterojunction material, positioned over at least a portion of the first electrode, an insulator layer positioned over at least a portion of the shutter electrode, an organic channel layer, comprising an organic channel material, positioned over at least a portion of the heterojunction and insulator layers, and a second electrode positioned over the channel layer in the second region of the substrate, wherein the shutter electrode is configured to generate a repulsive potential barrier in the channel layer, suitable to at least reduce movement of charge in the channel layer. A method of measuring received light in an optoelectronic device is also described.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 3, 2020
    Publication date: January 28, 2021
    Inventors: Stephen R. FORREST, Caleb COBURN, Dejiu FAN
  • Publication number: 20210020697
    Abstract: An organic optoelectronic device comprises a first electrode, a first infrared photovoltaic subcell positioned over the first electrode, a second infrared photovoltaic subcell positioned over the first near-infrared subcell, and a first visible photovoltaic subcell positioned over the second near-infrared subcell, a second electrode positioned between the second near-infrared photovoltaic subcell and the first visible photovoltaic subcell, and a third electrode positioned over the first visible photovoltaic subcell, wherein the first electrode and the third electrode are held at the same potential relative to the second electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 17, 2020
    Publication date: January 21, 2021
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Xiaozhou Che, Yongxi Li
  • Publication number: 20210020867
    Abstract: An OLED device comprises a substrate, a first electrode positioned over the substrate, a second electrode positioned over the first electrode, at least one emissive layer positioned between the first and second electrodes in a first region of the OLED device, and a multilayer dielectric reflector stack, comprising a plurality of dielectric reflector layers positioned between the substrate and the first electrode, wherein the multilayer dielectric reflector stack is configured to form an optical cavity with the emissive layer having a Purcell Factor of at least 3.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 10, 2020
    Publication date: January 21, 2021
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Yue Qu, Haonan Zhao, Mark E. Thompson
  • Publication number: 20210005815
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are organic photosensitive optoelectronic device comprising a first layer comprising one or more of a first layer material, a second layer comprising one or more of a second layer material, and a third layer comprising one or more of a third layer material. The second layer may be dissolved in a semi-orthogonal solvent. The first layer and the third layer may be very slightly soluble or practically insoluble in the semi-orthogonal solvent.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 1, 2020
    Publication date: January 7, 2021
    Applicant: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Stephen R. FORREST, Brian E. LASSITER, Jeramy D. ZIMMERMAN
  • Publication number: 20210005830
    Abstract: Provided herein is an organic photovoltaic device comprising one or ore layers comprising one or more organic and/or organometallic compounds, and one or more of these layers may have a root-mean-square surface roughness ranging from about 2 nm to about 10 nm. Additionally provided is a method of manufacturing an organic photovoltaic device, and may comprise depositing one or more organic and/or organometallic compounds in one or more layers having a root-mean-square surface roughness ranging from about 2 nm to about 10 nm. Also provided is an organic photovoltaic device comprises one or more layers of one or more organic and/or organometallic compounds, the layers are deposited by organic vapor phase deposition, and the PCE may decrease by no more than about 1% after 250 hours of illumination at 1 sun intensity.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 1, 2020
    Publication date: January 7, 2021
    Applicant: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Stephen R. FORREST, Byeongseop SONG
  • Publication number: 20200412297
    Abstract: A method of fabricating a photovoltaic cell having a microinverter is provided. The method may include fabricating a monolithic microinverter layer through epitaxy and operably connecting the at least one microinverter layer to at least one photovoltaic cell formed on a photovoltaic layer. A photovoltaic device is also provided. The device may have a photovoltaic layer comprising at least one photovoltaic cell and a microinverter layer comprising at least one microinverter, wherein the microinverter layer was fabricated through epitaxy, the at least one microinverter is configured to be operably connected to at least one photovoltaic cell.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 14, 2020
    Publication date: December 31, 2020
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Kyusang Lee
  • Patent number: 10843261
    Abstract: A method for making covetic metal-nanostructured carbon composites or compositions is described herein. This method is advantageous, in that it provides substantially oxygen-free covetic materials and allows precise control of the composition of the covetic material to be produced. The method comprises introducing carbon into a molten metal in a heated reactor under low oxygen partial pressure, while passing an electric current through the molten metal. The reactor is heated at a temperature sufficient to form a network of nanostructured carbon within a matrix of the metal. After heating the covetic material is recovered from the reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 2018
    Date of Patent: November 24, 2020
    Assignee: UCHICAGO ARGONNE, LLC
    Inventors: Uthamalingam Balachandran, Beihai Ma, Tae H. Lee, Stephen E. Dorris, David R. Forrest
  • Publication number: 20200328356
    Abstract: Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) and their compositions are described herein. In one or more embodiments, the acceptor with an active layer of an OPV includes is a non-fullerene acceptor. Such non-fullerene acceptors may provide improved OPV performance characteristics such as improved power conversion efficiency, open circuit voltage, fill factor, short circuit current, and/or external quantum efficiency. One example of a non-fullerene acceptor is (4,4,10,10-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-5,11-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-4,10-dihydro-dithienyl[1,2-b:4,5b?] benzodi-thiophene-2,8-diyl) bis(2-(3-oxo-2,3-dihydroinden-5,6-dichloro-1-ylidene) malononitrile.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 5, 2018
    Publication date: October 15, 2020
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Yongxi Li, Xiao Liu
  • Publication number: 20200303645
    Abstract: An organic vapor deposition device comprises a print head, comprising a source channel, in fluid communication with a flow of carrier gas and a quantity of organic source material configured to mix with the carrier gas, a nozzle having a deposition outlet, in fluid communication with the source channel, and a shutter configured at least to open and close the deposition outlet, wherein the print heat is configured to allow the flow of carrier gas and the organic source material exit the deposition outlet when the shutter is in an open position, and to prevent the flow of carrier gas and the organic source material from exiting the deposition outlet when the shutter is in a closed position. A method of manufacturing a device comprising an organic feature on a substrate is also described.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 5, 2020
    Publication date: September 24, 2020
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Jeffrey A. Horowitz
  • Publication number: 20200303660
    Abstract: There is disclosed squaraine compounds of formula I: wherein each of Y1 and Y2 is independently chosen from an optionally substituted amino group and an optionally substituted aryl group. Also described are organic optoelectronic devices comprising a Donor-Acceptor heterojunction that is formed from one or more of the squaraine compounds. A method of making the disclosed device, which may include one or more sublimation step for depositing said squaraine compound, is also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 24, 2019
    Publication date: September 24, 2020
    Applicants: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
    Inventors: Mark E. THOMPSON, Stephen R. FORREST, Guodan WEI, Siyi WANG, Lincoln HALL, Viacheslav V. DIEV, Xin XIAO
  • Publication number: 20200295286
    Abstract: An organic photovoltaic cell comprises a first electrode, a second electrode, an active layer comprising at least one donor material and at least one acceptor material, positioned between the first electrode and the second electrode, an outcoupling layer positioned on a surface of the first electrode such that the first electrode is positioned between the outcoupling layer and the active layer, and an anti-reflective coating positioned over a surface of the second electrode such that the second electrode is positioned between the anti-reflective coating and the active layer, wherein the organic photovoltaic cell is at least semi-transparent to at least one wavelength range. A method of fabricating an organic device is also described.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 27, 2020
    Publication date: September 17, 2020
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Lingjie J. Guo, Yongxi Li, Chengang Ji
  • Patent number: 10778141
    Abstract: A method of fabricating a photovoltaic cell having a microinverter is provided. The method may include fabricating a monolithic microinverter layer through epitaxy and operably connecting the at least one microinverter layer to at least one photovoltaic cell formed on a photovoltaic layer. A photovoltaic device is also provided. The device may have a photovoltaic layer comprising at least one photovoltaic cell and a microinverter layer comprising at least one microinverter, wherein the microinverter layer was fabricated through epitaxy, the at least one microinverter is configured to be operably connected to at least one photovoltaic cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2015
    Date of Patent: September 15, 2020
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Kyusang Lee
  • Patent number: 10770673
    Abstract: An organic light emitting device (OLED) is provided that includes a cathode and an anode; a blue emitting layer; and at least two hybrid red/green emitting layers. One of the at least two hybrid red/green emitting layers is a cathode side, red/green emitting layer that is disposed between the cathode and the blue emitting layer. The second of the at least two hybrid red/green emitting layers is an anode side, red/green emitting layer that is disposed between the blue emitting layer and the anode. The OLED emits white light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 2018
    Date of Patent: September 8, 2020
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Caleb Coburn, Changyeong Jeong
  • Patent number: 10770690
    Abstract: A top-emitting organic light emitting device (OLED) that comprises: a substrate having an inward side and an outward side; an OLED body that includes a transparent bottom electrode proximate to the inward side of the substrate, an organic emitting layer, and a transparent top electrode in that order; a non-metallic, diffuse reflective layer with a roughened top surface proximate to and facing the bottom transparent electrode; and a high refractive index waveguide layer. The diffuse reflective layer is positioned between the inward side of the substrate and the OLED body, and the waveguide layer is positioned between the diffuse layer and the bottom transparent electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 2018
    Date of Patent: September 8, 2020
    Assignee: The Regents of The University of Michigan
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Jongchan Kim
  • Patent number: 10770670
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices grown in an inverted manner. An inverted organic photosensitive optoelectronic device of the present disclosure comprises a reflective electrode, an organic donor-acceptor heterojunction over the reflective electrode, and a transparent electrode on top of the donor-acceptor heterojunction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2016
    Date of Patent: September 8, 2020
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Rhonda F. Bailey-Salzman
  • Publication number: 20200266217
    Abstract: Thin-film electronic devices such as LED devices and field effect transistor devices are fabricated using a non-destructive epitaxial lift-off technique that allows indefinite reuse of a growth substrate. The method includes providing an epitaxial protective layer on the growth substrate and a sacrificial release layer between the protective layer and an active device layer. After the device layer is released from the growth substrate, the protective layer is selectively etched to provide a newly exposed surface suitable for epitaxial growth of another device layer. The entire thickness of the growth substrate is preserved, enabling continued reuse. Inorganic thin-film device layers can be transferred to a flexible secondary substrate, enabling formation of curved inorganic optoelectronic devices.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 4, 2019
    Publication date: August 20, 2020
    Inventors: Stephen R. FORREST, Kyusang LEE
  • Publication number: 20200243786
    Abstract: An OLED device comprises an anode and a cathode, and at least one graded emissive layer disposed between the anode and the cathode, the graded emissive layer comprising first and second materials, wherein a concentration of the first material increases continuously from an anode side of the graded emissive layer to a cathode side of the graded emissive layer, and a concentration of the second material decreases continuously from the anode side of the graded emissive layer to the cathode side of the graded emissive layer. An OLED device comprising a graded emissive layer and a hybrid white OLED device are also described.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 17, 2020
    Publication date: July 30, 2020
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Chan Ho Soh, Mark E. Thompson, Muazzam Idris