Patents by Inventor Stephen R. Forrest

Stephen R. Forrest has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 11329241
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are exciton-blocking treatments for buffer layers used in organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, the organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices described herein include at least one self-assembled monolayer disposed on the surface of an anode buffer layer. Methods of preparing these devices are also disclosed. The present disclosure further relates to methods of forming at least one self-assembled monolayer on a substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2022
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Byeongseop Song, Jeramy D. Zimmerman
  • Publication number: 20220140254
    Abstract: Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) and their compositions are described herein. one or more embodiments, the acceptor with an active layer of an OPV includes is a non-fullerene acceptor. Such non-fullerene acceptors may provide improved OPV performance characteristics such as improved power conversion efficiency, open circuit voltage, fill factor, short circuit current, and/or external quantum efficiency.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 1, 2021
    Publication date: May 5, 2022
    Inventors: Xiaheng Huang, Yongxi Li, Stephen R. Forrest
  • Publication number: 20220131100
    Abstract: An optoelectronic device comprises an anode, an emissive layer positioned over the anode, a charge generation layer stack positioned over the emissive layer, the charge generation layer stack comprising at least one hole transport layer and at least one electron transport layer positioned over the hole transport layer, and a cathode positioned over the charge generation layer stack. Other organic optoelectronic devices are also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 7, 2021
    Publication date: April 28, 2022
    Inventors: Stephen R . Forrest, Caleb COBURN, Yue QU
  • Patent number: 11302881
    Abstract: The present disclosure generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices and polaron pair recombination dynamics to impact efficiency and open circuit voltages of organic solar cells. The present disclosure also relates, in part, to methods of making organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices comprising the same.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2022
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Noel C. Giebink
  • Patent number: 11251386
    Abstract: A highly efficient multi junction photovoltaic device, such as a two, three, or four junction device, is disclosed. The multi-junction device may include a first subcell comprising a first photoactive region and a second subcell comprising a second photoactive region. The first and second photoactive regions are designed to minimize spectral overlap and maximize photocurrent across a broad absorption spectra, such as wavelengths ranging from 400 nm to 900 nm. The device may further include an inter-connecting layer, disposed between the first subcell and the second subcell, that is at least substantially transparent. By introducing a transparent interconnecting layer, a dual element (tandem) cell achieves a power conversion efficiency of 10.0±0.5%. By adding an additional (3rd) sub-cell that absorbs at the second order optical interference maximum within the stack. The triple junction cell significantly improves the quantum efficiency at shorter wavelengths, achieving a power conversion efficiency of 11.1±0.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 2015
    Date of Patent: February 15, 2022
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Xiaozhou Che, Xin Xiao, Stephen R. Forrest
  • Publication number: 20220013672
    Abstract: There is disclosed ultrahigh-efficiency single- and multi-junction thin-film solar cells. This disclosure is also directed to a substrate-damage-free epitaxial lift-off (“ELO”) process that employs adhesive-free, reliable and lightweight cold-weld bonding to a substrate, such as bonding to plastic or metal foils shaped into compound parabolic metal foil concentrators. By combining low-cost solar cell production and ultrahigh-efficiency of solar intensity-concentrated thin-film solar cells on foil substrates shaped into an integrated collector, as described herein, both lower cost of the module as well as significant cost reductions in the infrastructure is achieved.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 24, 2021
    Publication date: January 13, 2022
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Christopher Kyle Renshaw, Michael Slootsky
  • Publication number: 20220006027
    Abstract: An organic light emitting device comprises an anode and a cathode, at least one organic layer configured between the anode and the cathode, and at least one two-dimensional emissive layer configured between the anode and the cathode. A method of fabricating an organic light emitting device is also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 24, 2021
    Publication date: January 6, 2022
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Jongchan Kim, Siwei Zhang
  • Publication number: 20210408422
    Abstract: Arrangements and techniques for providing organic emissive layers are provided, in which the emissive layer includes a first dopant having a dissociative energy level. A second dopant in the emissive layer provides a solid state sink energy level, to which doubly excited excitons and/or polarons may transition instead of to the dissociative energy level, thereby decreasing the undesirable effects of transitions to the dissociative energy level.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 11, 2021
    Publication date: December 30, 2021
    Inventors: Stephen R. FORREST, Michael SLOOTSKY, Mark E. THOMPSON
  • Patent number: 11211559
    Abstract: There is disclosed ultrathin film material templating layers that force the morphology of subsequently grown electrically active thin films have been found to increase the performance of small molecule organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. There is disclosed electron-transporting material, such as hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN) can be used as a templating material that forces donor materials, such as copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) to assume a vertical-standing morphology when deposited onto its surface on an electrode, such as an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. It has been shown that for a device with HAT-CN as the templating buffer layer, the fill factor and short circuit current of CuPc:C60 OPVs were both improved compared with cells lacking the HAT-CN template. This is explained by the reduction of the series resistance due to the improved crystallinity of CuPc grown onto the ITO surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 28, 2021
    Assignees: The Regents of the University of Michigan, Industry-Academic Cooperation Foundation Dankook University
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Brian E. Lassiter, Jun Y. Lee, Kyoung S. Yook, Soon O. Jeon, Byung D. Chin
  • Publication number: 20210343941
    Abstract: Devices, systems, and techniques are provided for improved OVJP deposition using a shutter disposed within the OVJP print head, between the print head inlet and the nozzle outlets. An OVJP print head as disclosed includes an inlet for organic material entrained in a carrier gas, a micronozzle array outlet, and a shutter disposed in the gas flow path between the inlet and the micronozzle array outlet. The shutter allows for rapid cutoff of carrier gas flow through the print head with extremely low latency.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 20, 2021
    Publication date: November 4, 2021
    Inventors: Stephen R. FORREST, Jeffrey A. HOROWITZ
  • Publication number: 20210328087
    Abstract: To reach high efficiencies, thermophotovoltaic cells must utilize the broad spectrum of a radiative thermal source. One promising approach to overcome this challenge is to have low-energy photons reflected and reabsorbed by the thermal emitter, where their energy can have another chance at contributing toward photogeneration in the cell. However, current methods for photon recuperation are limited by insufficient bandwidth or parasitic absorption, resulting in large efficiency losses relative to theoretical limits. This work demonstrates nearly perfect reflection of low-energy photons (˜99%) by embedding an air layer within the TPV cell. This result represents a four-fold reduction in parasitic absorption relative to existing TPV cells. As out-of-band reflectance approaches unity, TPV efficiency becomes nearly insensitive to cell bandgap and emitter temperature. Accessing this regime unlocks a range of possible materials and heat sources that were previously inaccessible to TPV energy conversion.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 16, 2021
    Publication date: October 21, 2021
    Applicant: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
    Inventors: Tobias BURGER, Byungjun LEE, Dejiu FAN, Andrej LENERT, Stephen R. FORREST
  • Publication number: 20210320270
    Abstract: A photovoltaic cell comprises an anode, a cathode, a first subcell positioned between the anode and the cathode, the first subcell comprising a first donor material and a first acceptor material, and a second subcell positioned between the first subcell and the cathode, the second subcell comprising a second donor material and a second acceptor material. A method of fabricating a photovoltaic cell is also described.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 29, 2020
    Publication date: October 14, 2021
    Inventors: Yongxi Li, Stephen R. Forrest
  • Patent number: 11145834
    Abstract: High efficiency multi-junction small-molecule organic photovoltaic devices and methods of fabricating the same are disclosed herein. Design considerations for improving spectral coverage and light-harvesting efficiency using the multi-junction devices are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 2015
    Date of Patent: October 12, 2021
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Xiaozhou Che, Xin Xiao
  • Publication number: 20210288267
    Abstract: The present invention relates in part to an asymmetric non-fullerene acceptor compound for use in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. The invention also relates in part to an OPV device comprising an asymmetric non-fullerene acceptor compound.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 17, 2020
    Publication date: September 16, 2021
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Yongxi Li
  • Publication number: 20210288261
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices comprising two electrodes in superposed relation, a photoactive region located between the two electrodes, wherein the photoactive region comprises a donor mixture and an organic acceptor material, the donor mixture comprising at least one organic polymer donor material and at least one squaraine donor. Methods of fabricating the organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices are also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 19, 2020
    Publication date: September 16, 2021
    Inventors: Stephen R. FORREST, Jun Yeob LEE, Yong Joo CHO, Byung D. CHIN
  • Patent number: 11121336
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices comprising two electrodes in superposed relation; a mixed photoactive layer located between the two electrodes, wherein the mixed photoactive layer comprises at least one donor material having a HOMO energy and at least one acceptor material having a LUMO energy, wherein the at least one donor material and the at least one acceptor material form a mixed donor-acceptor heterojunction; a photoactive layer adjacent to and interfacing with the mixed photoactive layer, wherein the photoactive layer comprises a material having a LUMO energy within 0.3 eV of the LUMO energy of the at least one acceptor material or a HOMO energy within 0.3 eV of the HOMO energy of the at least one donor material; and a buffer layer adjacent to and interfacing with the mixed photoactive layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 2013
    Date of Patent: September 14, 2021
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Jeramy D. Zimmerman, Xin Xiao
  • Patent number: 11094902
    Abstract: A high efficiency small molecule tandem solar cell is disclosed. The tandem cell may include a first subcell comprising a first photoactive region and a second subcell comprising a second photoactive region. The first and second photoactive regions are designed to minimize spectral overlap and maximize photocurrent. The device may further include an interconnecting layer, disposed between the first subcell and the second subcell, that is at least substantially transparent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 2014
    Date of Patent: August 17, 2021
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Xiaozhou Che, Xin Xiao
  • Patent number: 11087974
    Abstract: A method is presented for fabricating a substrate comprised of a compound semiconductor. The method includes: growing a sacrificial layer onto a parent substrate; growing an epitaxial template layer on the sacrificial layer; removing the template layer from the parent substrate using an epitaxial lift-off procedure; and bonding the removed template layer to a host substrate using Van der Waals forces and thereby forming a compound semiconductor substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 2019
    Date of Patent: August 10, 2021
    Assignee: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Kyusang Lee
  • Patent number: 11088338
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates to a photosensitive optoelectronic device comprising two electrodes, an inorganic subcell positioned between the two electrodes, wherein the inorganic subcell comprises at least one inorganic semiconductor material having a band gap energy (EG), and an organic sensitizing window layer disposed on the inorganic subcell. In one aspect, the organic sensitizing window layer comprises a singlet fission material. In another aspect, the organic sensitizing window layer comprises a singlet fission host and a phosphorescent emitter dopant, where the singlet fission host exhibits an excitation triplet energy (ET-SF) greater than or equal to an excitation triplet energy (ET-PE) exhibited by the phosphorescent emitter dopant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2018
    Date of Patent: August 10, 2021
    Assignees: The Regents of the University of Michigan, University of Southern California
    Inventors: Stephen R. Forrest, Mark E. Thompson
  • Publication number: 20210218361
    Abstract: Implementations of the disclosed subject matter provide a window, an energy and light producing device including at least one transparent photovoltaic device and at least one non-transparent Organic Light Emitting Device (OLED) in an optical path of the window. A controller may control the operation of the non-transparent OLED of the energy and light producing device. An energy storage device may be electrically coupled to the controller and the energy and light producing device to store energy generated by the transparent photovoltaic device and to power the non-transparent OLED. In some implementations, a LED or OLED may be mounted in the frame of the window and may be powered by the energy storage device.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 29, 2021
    Publication date: July 15, 2021
    Inventors: Michael HACK, Stephen R. FORREST