Harvesting energy from composite aircraft engine components
The present disclosure is directed to an engine component for a gas turbine engine, the engine component including a substrate that includes a composite fiber and defines a surface. An energy harvesting fiber is positioned within the substrate.
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The present subject matter relates generally to generating power from gas turbine engine waste energy. More specifically, the present subject matter relates to composite gas turbine engine components with integrated energy harvesting materials.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Aircraft gas turbine engines deliver propulsive thrust for aircraft movement as well as provide power for ancillary aircraft systems and sensors, engine sensors, and engine performance enhancements. These sensors may be used to monitor and communicate engine performance and health. Additionally, other systems may be used to extract power to influence engine component characteristics and operational behavior. Increasingly extensive real-time engine performance and health monitoring is being utilized to more accurately and precisely predict potential component failures. In doing so, engines may stay on-wing for longer durations, thereby reducing the amount of time an engine is off-wing and not generating revenue. As analytics becomes more pervasive in monitoring aircraft engines, the need for additional sensors and systems creates an additional need for providing power for these sensors and systems as well as packaging and routing these sensors to their power sources.
Conventionally, power to these sensors and systems is extracted from propulsive energy from an aircraft, such as through engine-mounted generators, aircraft-mounted fuel cells, or auxiliary power units. However, powering such sensors may adversely impact overall engine or aircraft performance, operability, fuel burn, and regulated emissions by increasing the load on a propulsion engine. The increased load on a propulsive engine may take the form of increased weight through added wiring harnesses from a sensor to an engine generator to an electronic engine control or prognostics unit. Therefore, a need exists to minimize the amount of energy taken, directly and indirectly, from propulsive thrust to power ancillary sensors and systems.BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Aspects and advantages of the invention will be set forth in part in the following description, or may be obvious from the description, or may be learned through practice of the invention.
The present disclosure is directed to an engine component for a gas turbine engine, the engine component including a substrate that includes a composite fiber and defines a surface. An energy harvesting fiber is positioned within the substrate.
In one exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure a method of harvesting energy from a gas turbine engine component is provided. The method includes integrating an energy harvesting fiber into a substrate of the engine component and electrically coupling the energy harvesting fiber to a load. The method also includes converting mechanical energy into electrical energy and supplying electrical energy to the load.
In another exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure a method of harvesting energy to absorb vibrations in a gas turbine engine component is provided. The method includes electrically coupling an energy harvesting fiber to a shunt transducer and tuning the shunt transducer to dampen the engine component to a non-resonant mode. The method also includes integrating the energy harvesting fiber and shunt transducer to the engine component, converting mechanical energy into electrical energy, and supplying electrical energy to the shunt transducer.
These and other features, aspects and advantages of the present invention will become better understood with reference to the following description and appended claims. The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate embodiments of the invention and, together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the invention.
A full and enabling disclosure of the present invention, including the best mode thereof, directed to one of ordinary skill in the art, is set forth in the specification, which makes reference to the appended figures, in which:
Repeat use of reference characters in the present specification and drawings is intended to represent the same or analogous features or elements of the present invention.DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Reference now will be made in detail to embodiments of the invention, one or more examples of which are illustrated in the drawings. Each example is provided by way of explanation of the invention, not limitation of the invention. In fact, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications and variations can be made in the present invention without departing from the scope or spirit of the invention. For instance, features illustrated or described as part of one embodiment can be used with another embodiment to yield a still further embodiment. Thus, it is intended that the present invention covers such modifications and variations as come within the scope of the appended claims and their equivalents.
As used herein, the terms “first”, “second”, and “third” may be used interchangeably to distinguish one component from another and are not intended to signify location or importance of the individual components.
The terms “upstream” and “downstream” refer to the relative direction with respect to fluid flow in a fluid pathway. For example, “upstream” refers to the direction from which the fluid flows, and “downstream” refers to the direction to which the fluid flows.
A gas turbine engine component with an energy harvesting fiber positioned on a composite substrate of the engine component is generally provided, along with its methods of manufacture and use. The use of energy harvesting fibers in or on a composite engine component can reduce the weight, complexity, and cost of sensors, systems, and measurement devices that otherwise require an external power source or extensive lead routing. Additionally, sensors, systems, and measurement devices powered by energy harvesting fibers that are positioned in or on engine components can improve sensor performance and mortality by reducing the amount of lead wires applied to an engine, reducing limits to sensor application location on engine components, and reducing limits to the quantity of sensors that can be applied to an engine. Energy harvesting fibers integrated positioned in the composite substrate of an engine component lessens the need to route lead wires from a sensing location to an external power source (e.g. battery or connection to an engine generator) or junction (e.g. relay panel, a patch panel, or slip ring interface). Powering sensors using energy harvesting fibers can enhance gas turbine engine performance through the increased collection of performance, health, and safety data by powering sensors using the waste energy of a gas turbine engine.
Furthermore, energy harvesting fibers that are integrated into the composite substrate of gas turbine engine components may be configured to act as a vibration dampener. This configuration may enhance gas turbine engine performance by controlling certain vibratory modes without changing certain engine component design features. For example, engine airfoil design is often a compromise between meeting structural performance requirements, including vibratory responses, weight limits, and foreign object damage considerations, versus an ideal aerodynamic airfoil design. Integrating energy harvesting fibers into a composite airfoil limits or eliminates these compromises in design by dampening certain vibratory modes without incorporating deleterious design features (e.g. thicker surfaces, heavier materials, or a combination thereof).
Although described below with reference to the turbofan engine 10, the present disclosure is applicable to all turbomachinery, including turboprops, turboshafts, turbojets, industrial and marine gas turbine engines, and auxiliary power units.
Referring now to the drawings,
The exemplary core turbine engine 16 depicted generally includes a substantially tubular outer casing 18 that defines an annular inlet 20. The outer casing 18 encases, in serial flow relationship, a compressor section 21 including a booster or low pressure (LP) compressor 22 and a high pressure (HP) compressor 24; a combustion section 26; a turbine section 31 including a high pressure (HP) turbine 28 and a low pressure (LP) turbine 30; and a jet exhaust nozzle section 32. A high pressure (HP) shaft or spool 34 drivingly connects the HP turbine 28 to the HP compressor 24. A low pressure (LP) shaft or spool 36 drivingly connects the LP turbine 30 to the LP compressor 22. The compressor section 21, combustion section 26, turbine section 31, and nozzle section 32 together define a core air flowpath 37.
For the embodiment depicted, the fan section 14 includes a variable pitch fan 38 having a plurality of fan blades 40 coupled to a disk 42 in a spaced apart manner. As depicted, the fan blades 40 extend outwardly from disk 42 generally along the radial direction R. Each fan blade 40 is rotatable relative to the disk 42 about a pitch axis P by virtue of the fan blades 40 being operatively coupled to a suitable actuation member 44 configured to collectively vary the pitch of the fan blades 40 in unison. The fan blades 40, disk 42, and actuation member 44 are together rotatable about the longitudinal axis 12 by LP shaft 36 across a power gearbox 46. The power gearbox 46 includes a plurality of gears for adjusting the rotational speed of the fan 38 relative to the LP shaft 36 to a more efficient rotational fan speed.
Referring still to the exemplary embodiment of
During operation of the turbofan engine 10, a volume of air 58 enters the turbofan 10 through an associated inlet 60 of the nacelle 50 and/or fan section 14. As the volume of air 58 passes across the fan blades 40, a first portion of the air 58 as indicated by arrows 62 is directed or routed into the bypass airflow passage 56 and a second portion of the air 58 as indicated by arrow 64 is directed or routed into the core air flowpath 37, or more specifically into the LP compressor 22. The ratio between the first portion of air 62 and the second portion of air 64 is commonly known as a bypass ratio. The pressure of the second portion of air 64 is then increased as it is routed through the high pressure (HP) compressor 24 and into the combustion section 26, where it is mixed with fuel and burned to provide combustion gases 66.
The combustion gases 66 are routed through the HP turbine 28 where a portion of thermal and/or kinetic energy from the combustion gases 66 is extracted via sequential stages of HP turbine stator vanes 68 that are coupled to the outer casing 18 and HP turbine rotor blades 70 that are coupled to the HP shaft or spool 34, thus causing the HP shaft or spool 34 to rotate, thereby supporting operation of the HP compressor 24. The combustion gases 66 are then routed through the LP turbine 30 where a second portion of thermal and kinetic energy is extracted from the combustion gases 66 via sequential stages of LP turbine stator vanes 72 that are coupled to the outer casing 18 and LP turbine rotor blades 74 that are coupled to the LP shaft or spool 36, thus causing the LP shaft or spool 36 to rotate, thereby supporting operation of the LP compressor 22 and/or rotation of the fan 38.
The combustion gases 66 are subsequently routed through the jet exhaust nozzle section 32 of the core turbine engine 16 to provide propulsive thrust. Simultaneously, the pressure of the first portion of air 62 is substantially increased as the first portion of air 62 is routed through the bypass airflow passage 56 before it is exhausted from a fan nozzle exhaust section 76 of the turbofan 10, also providing propulsive thrust. The HP turbine 28, the LP turbine 30, and the jet exhaust nozzle section 32 at least partially define a hot gas path 78 for routing the combustion gases 66 through the core turbine engine 16.
A turbofan engine 10 under normal operation will experience an amount of vibrations due to the rotation of the LP shaft 36 and the HP shaft 34, or due to the flow of fluids, such as air 58, through and within the engine 10. In another example, an engine 10 may experience abnormal amounts of vibrations due to a number of issues, including, though not limited to, unbalance in any member of a rotating structure; issues in the flow of oil through the engine 10, including loss of oil, contaminated oil, or defective oil flow and pressure; malfunctions in engine valves, including bleed valves, damper valves, pressure valves, or flow control valves; impending or present engine component liberation (e.g. broken or unfastened components); or issues due to combustion dynamics.
In one embodiment of the engine component 99 in
A mechanical load 101, such as, but not limited to, vibrations, centrifugal force of the airfoil 100 rotation, air 58 across the airfoil 100, tooling strikes during assembly or maintenance, or foreign object ingestion (e.g. bird strikes, hail ingestion) can be used by the piezoelectric fiber to generate an electrical charge to the sensor 114 and the communicator 116. The sensor 114 may include an electrical signal from a pressure transducer, a thermocouple, a strain gage, an accelerometer, a proximity probe, a capacitive clearance probe, non-interference structural measurement system, flow meter, or other measurement device.
For example, the sensor 114 may be a strain gage or thermocouple that can provide structural health and safety data to the communicator 116. The communicator 116 may store or transmit the data from the sensor 114 to a full authority digital engine controller (FADEC) or to another data acquisition unit as part of a learning and development regime. The energy harvesting fiber 106 may be a piezoelectric fiber, in which energy from pressure changes or mechanical loads 101 is provided to power the sensor 114 and is also provided as data to be correlated to the strain gage measurements. In another embodiment, a thermoelectric fiber is used to convert temperatures and changes in the thermal gradient into energy for the sensor 114.
In one embodiment of the substrate 104 shown in
In another embodiment, the substrate 104 includes a matrix 135 and a composite fiber 134 that form a ceramic matrix composite (CMC). Exemplary CMC materials utilized may include silicon carbide, silicon, silica, carbon, or alumina matrix materials or combinations thereof. Ceramic fibers 134 may be embedded within the matrix 135, such as oxidation stable reinforcing fibers including monofilaments like sapphire and silicon carbide (e.g., Textron's SCS-6), as well as rovings and yarn including silicon carbide (e.g., Nippon Carbon's NICALON®, Ube Industries' TYRANNO®, and Dow Corning's SYLRAIVIIC®), alumina silicates (e.g., Nextel's 440 and 480), and chopped whiskers and fibers (e.g., Nextel's 440 and SAFFIL®), and optionally ceramic particles (e.g., oxides of Si, Al, Zr, Y and combinations thereof) and inorganic fillers (e.g., pyrophyllite, wollastonite, mica, talc, kyanite and montmorillonite).
In one embodiment of the substrate 104 shown in
In another embodiment, the substrate 104 made of a PMC or CMC material may be, e.g., layers 136 of composite fibers 134 pre-impregnated (pre-preg) with matrix material and may be formed from pre-preg tapes or the like. For example, the substrate 104 may be formed from a pre-preg tape including a desired ceramic or polymer fiber 134 reinforcement material, one or more precursors of the PMC or CMC matrix material, and organic resin binders. Pre-preg tapes are formed by impregnating the reinforcement material with a slurry that contains the ceramic or polymer precursor(s) and binders. The slurry may contain solvents for the binders that promote the fluidity of the slurry to enable impregnation of the fiber reinforcement material, as well as one or more particulate fillers intended to be present in the ceramic or polymer matrix 135 of the engine component 99, e.g., silicon and/or SiC powders in the case of a Si—SiC matrix. Preferred materials for the precursor will depend on the particular composition desired for the ceramic or polymer matrix 135 of the engine component 99. For example, the precursor material may be SiC powder and/or one or more carbon-containing materials if the desired matrix material is SiC. Carbon-containing materials include carbon black, phenolic resins, and furanic resins, including furfuryl alcohol (C4H3OCH2OH).
In the exemplary embodiment of the engine component 99 defining the airfoil 100 in
In one embodiment, the communicator 116 includes a rectifier, a volatile storage device, and a transmitter. For example, the sensor 114, such as a proximity probe, sends data in the form of an analog signal to the communicator 116, in which a volatile storage device is configured to send data to a transmitter for operatively immediate transfer to a receiver, such as a data acquisition unit. A data acquisition unit may generally refer to a computer or may refer to a plurality of electronics for controlling the engine 10 or aircraft, such as the FADEC.
In another embodiment, the communicator 116 includes a rectifier and a non-volatile storage device. The non-volatile storage device receives and stores data from a sensor 114. The stored data is retrieved at a later time, such as after operation of the engine 10.
In yet another embodiment, the communicator 116 includes a rectifier, a non-volatile storage device, and a transceiver. The non-volatile storage device receives and stores data from a sensor 114. The sensor 114 may include a transducer or other measurement device that takes a quantity of measurements within a period of time. The transceiver may be configured to the sensor 114 and the non-volatile storage to receive and store data on command through a signal received by the transceiver from the FADEC or another computing device.
The embodiment in
The embodiments in either
The thermoelectric cooler 118 includes a second energy harvesting fiber 130 and a third energy harvesting fiber 132, each characterized by the thermoelectric effect, and a P-type and N-type semiconductor 131 in serial electrical arrangement between the second and third energy harvesting fibers 130, 132. The second energy harvesting fiber 130 receives an input voltage from the first energy harvesting fiber 106. The third energy harvesting fiber 132 is electrically coupled to output a voltage to the first energy harvesting fiber 106. The P-type and N-type semiconductor 131 includes an alternating arrangement of two dissimilar semiconductors. The P-type semiconductor is characterized by electron holes being the majority carrier of charges while the N-type semiconductor is characterized by electrons being the majority carrier of charges.
The thermoelectric cooler 118 is positioned adjacent to an enclosure 119 that includes the sensor 114 and the communicator 116. A cooled surface 117 of the thermoelectric cooler 118 is adjacent to the enclosure 119 while heat dissipates from a heat sink 120 opposite of the enclosure 119. In another embodiment, several thermoelectric coolers 118 are arranged to enhance heat transfer at the enclosure 119.
The enclosure 119 is a conduit, cap, or frame that generally protects the sensor 114 and communicator 116 from the surrounding environment. For example, the enclosure 119 may be a structure that is thermally resistant to the temperatures near the combustor section 26 or turbine section 28, 30. In another example, the enclosure 119 protects the sensor 114 and communicator 116 from the bypass air 62. In yet another example, the enclosure 119 is a housing for a sensor 114 that is a capacitance probe, of which the capacitance probe may include a capacitor sensor, wiring, and splices. In still another example, the enclosure 119 is a housing for the sensor 114, in which the sensor 114 is a non-interference structural measurement probe, of which the probe may include a laser, wiring, splices, and fluid cooling conduits. The embodiment shown in
As shown in
The lead wires 107 of the energy harvesting fiber 106 are electrically coupled to a load 98 that requires an input voltage for operation. The load 98 includes sensors 114 or communicators 116, or both, or other devices that may require an input voltage, such as, but not limited to, a thermoelectric cooler 118, a shunt transducer 108, or other engine 10 and aircraft systems.
In another method, as outlined in
The thermoelectric cooler 118 is placed in thermal communication with the sensor 114 and the communicator 116 by way of the enclosure 119. The energy harvesting fiber 106 receives mechanical energy, such as forces due to engine operation or foreign or domestic object strikes onto the engine 10, or waste heat from the combustion gases 66 in the engine 10, and converts it to electrical energy that is distributed to the sensor 114 and the communicator 116. When the thermoelectric cooler 118 is electrically coupled to the first energy harvesting fiber 106, mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy to provide electrical current to the second and third energy harvesting fibers 130, 132.
The embodiment in
As a non-limiting example, some aircraft turbofan fan blades 42 must withstand a large bird ingestion test in which a bird impacts a specific area of a fan blade 42 at a speed of about 200 knots, with the fan blades 42 rotating at a speed equivalent to at least about 90% of the maximum rated takeoff power of the turbofan 10 to which the fan blades 42 are installed. A large bird (or equivalent object) generally must impact the leading edge 124 of the fan blade 42 at about the 50% span or greater (measured from a root 121 to a tip 122). While the use of composite materials alone may meet this requirement, composite materials may require airfoils 100 to have a larger maximum thickness 128 than their heavier, metal counterparts. A larger maximum thickness 128 may decrease the speed of air across the suction side 126 of an airfoil 100, which may promote flow separation, pressure oscillations, vibrations, and structural damage to the airfoil 100 and surrounding casings 18. This may result in decreased airfoil 100 structural life, which may lead to failure of the airfoil 100 and the engine 10 or require more frequent maintenance periods. Additionally, a bird ingestion or any foreign or domestic object strike on the engine component 99 may result in an undesired vibratory response in the impacted engine component 99 or another component in the engine 10. This undesired vibratory response may be the result of another engine component failure, or dislodging an engine component from its correct position, or an interruption in the flow of fluids through the engine, including air, fuel or oil. Therefore, to limit the deleterious effect of a foreign or domestic object impact, or any subsequent engine operation issues, and to limit any deleterious effect of using composite airfoils 100, the energy harvesting fiber 106 configured to act as the piezoelectric actuator 109 may be positioned within the substrate 104 of the fan blades 42 or other engine components 99 to a non-resonant mode following a strike or impact to the engine 10.
Additionally, the fan assembly 14 may be mechanically coupled to the LP turbine 30 by way of the LP shaft 36 without a power gearbox 46. As the rotational speed of the LP turbine 30 and the fan assembly 14 may be the same, the larger diameter fan blades 42 may have a large fan blade tip 122 speed. This high fan blade tip 122 speed may create undesired pressure oscillations and vibratory responses, which may lead to structural degradation and fan blade 42 failure over time. Incorporating an energy harvesting fiber 106, such as a piezoelectric fiber, into the substrate 104 of a fan blade 42, and configuring the energy harvesting fiber 106 to a shunt transducer 108 to produce a piezoelectric actuator 109 that functions as a self-tuning piezoelectric vibration dampener, may dampen the fan blades 42 during engine operation.
As shown in
As modal characteristics of each engine component 99 will be unique to the engine component 99 and its placement within the engine 10, the shunt transducer 108 is tuned to target one or several vibratory modes that the engine component 99 may experience during engine operation. Among the processes to understand the vibratory modes of the engine component 99, and tuning the shunt transducer 108, includes performing a ping test on the engine component 99 to determine its natural frequency. The ping test includes utilizing accelerometers on the engine component 99 and tapping it to produce a response signal. The accelerometers send the response signal to a signal processor, of which the output is a time-dependent frequency response plot. Resonance frequencies of the engine component 99 may appear on the plot, of which can be used as input data for tuning the shunt transducer 108.
The results of the ping test in addition to other data relating to the vibratory modes of interest for the engine component 99 (e.g. data derived from engine testing or other detailed engine component testing), are used to create a mathematical model is to specifically target absorbing and damping the vibratory modes of the engine component 99 to a non-resonant frequency.
The energy harvesting fiber 106 and the shunt transducer 108 are positioned within the substrate 104 of the engine component 99. The substrate 104 may be formed through a number of methods, such as, but not limited to, layers 136 of composite fibers 134 positioned or interleaved upon one another. The energy harvesting fiber 106 and the shunt transducer 108 are layered on or between the layers 136 of composite fibers 134. In other embodiments, the energy harvesting fiber 106 and the shunt transducer 108 are positioned onto the surface 102 defined by the substrate 104 of the engine component 99.
The energy harvesting fiber 106 receives mechanical energy, such as forces due to engine operation or foreign or domestic object strikes onto the engine, and converts it to electrical energy that is distributed through the shunt transducer 108. As the piezoelectric effect is reversible, meaning that an electric current applied to a piezoelectric fiber will cause mechanical deformation, the electrical coupling of one or more energy harvesting fibers 106 to the shunt transducer 108 may result in the piezoelectric fiber altering the engine component 99 to which it is applied such that the vibrations dampened.
This written description uses examples to disclose the invention, including the best mode, and also to enable any person skilled in the art to practice the invention, including making and using any devices or systems and performing any incorporated methods. The patentable scope of the invention is defined by the claims, and may include other examples that occur to those skilled in the art. Such other examples are intended to be within the scope of the claims if they include structural elements that do not differ from the literal language of the claims, or if they include equivalent structural elements with insubstantial differences from the literal languages of the claims.
1. An engine component for a gas turbine engine, the engine component comprising:
- an airfoil comprising a substrate defining a surface, wherein the substrate comprises: a plurality of layers of composite fibers; and an energy harvesting fiber; wherein the energy harvesting fiber is positioned between two of the layers of composite fibers.
2. The engine component as in claim 1, wherein at least one layer of the plurality of layers of composite fibers includes the energy harvesting fiber.
3. The engine component as in claim 1, wherein the energy harvesting fiber is a piezoelectric fiber.
4. The engine component as in claim 3, wherein the piezoelectric fiber is a piezoelectric fiber actuator.
5. The engine component as in claim 4, wherein the piezoelectric fiber actuator comprises a shunt transducer.
6. The engine component as in claim 5, wherein the shunt transducer comprises:
- an inductor;
- a capacitor; and
- a resistor, wherein the inductor, the capacitor, and the resistor are configured to dampen one or more vibratory modes of the engine component to a non-resonant mode.
7. The engine component as in claim 1, wherein the energy harvesting fiber is a thermoelectric fiber.
8. The engine component as in claim 7, wherein the thermoelectric fiber is configured as a thermoelectric cooler.
9. The engine component as in claim 1, further comprising a sensor, wherein the sensor is electrically coupled to an energy harvesting fiber.
10. The engine component as in claim 9, further comprising:
- a communicator electrically coupled to receive an input voltage from the energy harvesting fiber and an analog signal from the sensor.
11. The engine component as in claim 10, wherein the communicator comprises:
- a wireless communicator, wherein the wireless communicator is a signal transfer device that operates on the electromagnetic spectrum; and
- a rectifier.
12. The engine component as in claim 10, wherein the communicator comprises a data storage device.
13. A gas turbine engine comprising the engine component of claim 1.
14. The engine component as in claim 1, wherein the substrate further comprises a second energy harvesting fiber located on the surface of the substrate.
15. The engine component as in claim 1, further comprising a sensor, wherein the sensor is electrically coupled to the energy harvesting fiber, the sensor being configured to monitor and communicate engine performance and health.
16. A method of harvesting energy from a gas turbine engine component that comprises an airfoil, the airfoil comprising a substrate defining a surface, the method comprising:
- providing an energy harvesting fiber;
- providing a plurality of layers of composite fibers;
- positioning the energy harvesting fiber between two of the layers of composite fibers;
- electrically coupling the energy harvesting fiber to a load;
- converting mechanical energy into electrical energy; and
- supplying electrical energy to the load.
17. The method of claim 16, further comprising positioning a second energy harvesting fiber on the surface of the substrate.
18. The method of claim 16, further comprising electrically coupling a sensor to the energy harvesting fiber, the sensor being configured to monitor and communicate engine performance and health.
19. The method of claim 16, further comprising
- electrically coupling a sensor to the energy harvesting fiber;
- electrically coupling a communicator to the energy harvesting fiber;
- receiving an input voltage of the energy harvesting fiber from the communicator;
- receiving an analog signal from the sensor.
20. The method of claim 16, wherein the energy harvesting fiber is a piezoelectric fiber.
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Filed: Jun 22, 2016
Date of Patent: Mar 2, 2021
Patent Publication Number: 20170373612
Assignee: General Electric Company (Schenectady, NY)
Inventors: Aaron Todd Sellinger (Cincinnati, OH), Nicholas Joseph Kray (Mason, OH)
Primary Examiner: Derek J Rosenau
Application Number: 15/189,026
International Classification: H02N 2/18 (20060101); H01L 41/113 (20060101); F04D 29/38 (20060101); H01L 35/32 (20060101); G01L 1/16 (20060101); G01K 7/02 (20210101); F01D 5/28 (20060101); F01D 15/10 (20060101); F01D 5/16 (20060101); C04B 35/52 (20060101); C04B 35/117 (20060101); F03G 7/08 (20060101); C04B 35/565 (20060101); F01D 25/00 (20060101); C04B 35/80 (20060101); F01D 25/04 (20060101); F01D 5/10 (20060101); F01D 25/06 (20060101); F01D 5/26 (20060101);