6-Membered heterocyclic compounds useful for selective inhibition of the coagulation cascade

- Pharmacia Corporation

The present invention relates to compounds, and prodrugs thereof, compositions and methods useful for preventing and treating thrombotic conditions in mammals. The compounds of the present invention, and prodrugs thereof, selectively inhibit certain proteases of the coagulation cascade.

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Description
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims priority from Provisional Application Ser. Nos. 60/326,721 filed Oct. 3, 2001, 60/338,623 filed Oct. 24, 2001, 60/332,857 filed Nov. 6, 2001, 60/350,052 filed on Nov. 7, 2001, and 60/332,107 and 60/331,891 both filed on Nov. 21, 2001, which are all hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to compounds, compositions and methods for preventing and treating thrombotic conditions such as coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease. More particularly, the invention relates to compounds, and prodrugs thereof, that selectively inhibit serine proteases of the coagulation cascade.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Hemorrhage, intravascular thrombosis, and embolism are common clinical manifestations of many diseases (see R. I. Handin in Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (J. D. Wilson, et al. eds., 12th ed. 1991) New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., pp. 348-351). The normal hemostatic system limits blood loss by precisely regulated interactions between components of the vessel wall, circulating blood platelets, and plasma proteins. Unregulated activation of the hemostatic system, however, may cause thrombosis, which can reduce blood flow to critical organs like the brain and myocardium.

Physiological systems control the fluidity of blood in mammals (see P. W. Majerus, et al. in Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (J. G. Hardman & L. E. Limbird, eds., 9th ed. 1996) New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., pp. 1341-1343). Blood must remain fluid within the vascular systems and yet quickly be able to undergo hemostasis. Hemostasis, or clotting, begins when platelets first adhere to macromolecules in subendothelian regions of injured and/or damaged blood vessels. These platelets aggregate to form the primary hemostatic plug and stimulate local activation of plasma coagulation factors leading to generation of a fibrin clot-that reinforces the aggregated platelets. Plasma coagulation factors, also referred to as protease zymogens, include factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII. These coagulation factors or protease zymogens are activated by serine proteases leading to coagulation in a so called “coagulation cascade” or chain reaction.

Coagulation or clotting occurs in two ways through different pathways. An intrinsic or contact pathway leads from XII to XIIa to XIa to IXa and to the conversion of X to Xa. Factor Xa in combination with factor Va converts prothrombin (II) to thrombin (IIa) leading to conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Polymerization of fibrin leads to a fibrin clot. An extrinsic pathway is initiated by the conversion of coagulation factor VII to VIIa by factor Xa. Factor VIIa, a plasma protease, is exposed to, and combines with its essential cofactor tissue factor (TF) which resides constitutively beneath the endothelium. The resulting factor VIIa/TF complex proteolytically activates its substrates, factors IX and X, triggering a cascade of reactions that leads to the generation of thrombin and a fibrin clot as described above.

While clotting as a result of an injury to a blood vessel is a critical physiological process for mammals, clotting can also lead to disease states. A pathological process called thrombosis results when platelet aggregation and/or a fibrin clot blocks (i.e., occludes) a blood vessel. Arterial thrombosis may result in ischemic necrosis of the tissue supplied by the artery. When the thrombosis occurs in a coronary artery, a myocardial infarction or heart attack can result. A thrombosis occurring in a vein may cause tissues drained by the vein to become edematous and inflamed. Thrombosis of a deep vein may be complicated by a pulmonary embolism. Preventing or treating clots in a blood vessel may be therapeutically useful by inhibiting formation of blood platelet aggregates, inhibiting formation of fibrin, inhibiting thrombus formation, inhibiting embolus formation, and for treating or preventing unstable angina, refractory angina, myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attacks, atrial fibrillation, thrombotic stroke, embolic stroke, deep vein thrombosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, ocular build up of fibrin, and reocclusion or restenosis of recanalized vessels.

In order to treat such conditions, researchers have sought to discover chemical compounds that efficaciously and selectively control the clotting process. In addition, such compounds may provide a better understanding of the pathways involved in the coagulation process.

Thus far, many of the compounds that have been discovered possess a polar or basic functional group which is integrally responsible for the desired biological activity. Frequently, this polar functional group is a nitrogen atom of, for example, a guanidine, alkyl-amidine or aryl-amidine group. Because these functionalities are highly basic, they remain protonated at physiologically relevant pH's. The ionic nature of such protonated species hinders their permeability across lipophilic membranes, which can reduce bioavailability when the pharmaceutical agent is administered orally.

In order to circumvent such a problem, it is often advantageous to perform a derivatization or chemical modification of the polar functionality such that the pharmaceutical agent becomes neutrally charged and more lipophilic, thereby facilitating absorption of the drug. However, for the derivatization to be useful, the derivatization must be bioconvertable at the target site or sites of desired pharmacological activity and cleaved under normal physiological conditions to yield the biologically active drug. The term “prodrug” has been used to denote such a chemically modified intermediate.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Among the various aspects of the present invention, therefore, is the provision of compounds useful for selective inhibition of certain enzymes that act upon the coagulation cascade thereby preventing and treating thrombotic conditions in mammals.

Another aspect of the present invention is the provision of prodrug compounds useful for selective inhibition of certain enzymes that act upon the coagulation cascade thereby preventing and treating thrombotic conditions in mammals. In general, these prodrug compounds undergo hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction or elimination at a derivatized amidine group to yield the active compound.

Briefly, therefore, the present invention is directed to a compound, per se, to the prodrug of the compound, to pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compound or prodrug and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and to methods of use. The compound corresponds to formula (1):
wherein:

    • X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 are each ring atoms defining a 6-membered heterocyclic ring;
    • X1, X3, and X4 are independently carbon or nitrogen;
    • X2, X5, and X6 are independently carbon, nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, where X5 and X6 are optionally substituted with a halogen, provided no more than 4 of X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 are sp2 hybridized;
    • L1, L3 and L4 are linkages through which Z1, Z3, and Z4, respectively, are covalently bonded to different ring atoms of the 6-membered heterocyclic ring defined by X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6, wherein Z1 is covalently bonded to X1, Z3 is covalently bonded to X3, and Z4 is covalently bonded to X4, each of L1, L3 and L4 independently being a covalent bond or comprising one or more atoms through which Z1, Z3, and Z4 are covalently bonded to X1, X3 and X4, respectively;
    • Z1 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl;
    • Z2 is hydrogen, an electron pair, or a hydrogen bond acceptor covalently or datively bonded to X2;
    • Z3 comprises a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or aromatic ring substituted with an amidine or a derivatized amidine group, the ring atoms of the 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or aromatic ring of Z3 being carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, or oxygen wherein the 5- or 6-membered ring is optionally substituted at any position with halogen, hydroxy, haloalkyl, alkyl, carboxy, alkoxycarbonyl, or hydrocarbyloxy; and
    • Z4 comprises a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or carbocyclic ring, the ring atoms of the 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or carbocyclic ring of Z4 being carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur.

Other aspects and features of this invention will be in part apparent and in part pointed out hereafter.

Abbreviations and Definitions

The term “elimination” as used herein is generally meant to encompass any one or more of the following reactions: (1) a reaction that results in a compound fragmenting into two or more compounds; and (2) a reaction that results in one or more groups being removed from a compound without being replaced by other groups.

The term “oxidation” as used herein is generally meant to encompass any one or more of the following reactions: (1) a reaction that results in an increase in the oxidation number of an atom in a compound, whether the atom is uncharged or charged and whether free or covalently bound; (2) a reaction that results in the loss of hydrogen from a compound; (3) a reaction that results in the loss or removal of one or more electrons from a compound, with or without concomitant loss or removal of a proton or protons; (4) the action or process of reacting a compound with oxygen; and (5) a reaction that results in the addition of one or more oxygen atoms to a compound.

The term “reduction” as used herein is generally meant to encompass any one or more of the following reactions: (1) any reaction which results in a decrease in the oxidation number of an atom in a compound; and (2) any reaction that results in oxygen being withdrawn from, hydrogen being added to, or an electron being added to (with or without the addition of a proton) a compound.

The term “hydrolysis” as used herein is generally meant to encompass any one or more of the following reactions: (1) any reaction which results in the addition of a nucleophile to a compound to form a new bond with concurrent loss of a group from the compound; (2) any reaction which results in the addition of water to a compound; and (3) any reaction that results in the rupture of one or more chemical bonds by reaction with, and involving the addition of, the elements of water.

The term “physiological conditions” are those conditions characteristic to an organism's (to a human beings) healthy or normal functioning.

The terms “hydrocarbon” and “hydrocarbyl” as used herein describe organic compounds or radicals consisting exclusively of the elements carbon and hydrogen. These moieties include alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, and aryl moieties. These moieties also include alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, and aryl moieties substituted with other aliphatic or cyclic hydrocarbon groups, such as alkaryl, alkenaryl and alkynaryl. Unless otherwise indicated, these moieties preferably comprise 1 to 20 carbon atoms.

The “substituted hydrocarbyl” moieties described herein are hydrocarbyl moieties which are substituted with at least one atom other than carbon, including moieties in which a carbon chain atom is substituted with a heteroatom such as nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, phosphorus, boron, sulfur, or a halogen atom. Exemplary substituted hydrocarbyl moieties include, heterocyclo, alkoxyalkyl, alkenyloxyalkyl, alkynyloxyalkyl, aryloxyalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, protected hydroxyalkyl, keto, acyl, nitroalkyl, aminoalkyl, cyano, alkylalkylthio, arylalkylthio, ketals, acetals, amides, acids, esters and the like.

The term “heteroatom” shall mean atoms other than carbon and hydrogen.

Unless otherwise indicated, the alkyl groups described herein are preferably lower alkyl containing from one to eight carbon atoms in the principal chain and up to 20 carbon atoms. They may be straight or branched chain or cyclic and include methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, cyclopropyl, butyl, hexyl and the like.

Unless otherwise indicated, the alkenyl groups described herein are preferably lower alkenyl containing from two to eight carbon atoms in the principal chain and up to 20 carbon atoms. They may be straight or branched chain or cyclic and include ethenyl, propenyl, isopropenyl, butenyl, isobutenyl, hexenyl, and the like.

Unless otherwise indicated, the alkynyl groups described herein are preferably lower alkynyl containing from two to eight carbon atoms in the principal chain and up to 20 carbon atoms. They may be straight or branched chain and include ethynyl, propynyl, butynyl, isobutynyl, hexynyl, and the like.

The terms “aryl” or “ar” as used herein alone or as part of another group denote optionally substituted homocyclic aromatic groups, preferably monocyclic or bicyclic groups containing from 6 to 12 carbons in the ring portion, such as phenyl, biphenyl, naphthyl, substituted phenyl, substituted biphenyl or substituted naphthyl. Phenyl and substituted phenyl are the more preferred aryl.

The terms “halogen” or “halo” as used herein alone or as part of another group refer to chlorine, bromine, fluorine, and iodine.

The terms “heterocyclo” or “heterocyclic” as used herein alone or as part of another group denote optionally substituted, fully saturated or unsaturated, monocyclic or bicyclic, aromatic or nonaromatic groups having at least one heteroatom in at least one ring, and preferably 5 or 6 atoms in each ring. The heterocyclo group preferably has 1 or 2 oxygen atoms, 1 or 2 sulfur atoms, and/or 1 to 4 nitrogen atoms in the ring, and may be bonded to the remainder of the molecule through a carbon or heteroatom. Exemplary heterocyclos include heteroaromatics such as furanyl, thienyl, pyridyl, oxazolyl, pyrrolyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, or isoquinolinyl and the like. Exemplary substituents include one or more of the following groups: hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, keto, hydroxy, protected hydroxy, acyl, acyloxy, alkoxy, alkenoxy, alkynoxy, aryloxy, halogen, amido, amino, nitro, cyano, thiol, ketals, acetals, esters and ethers.

The term “heteroaromatic” as used herein alone or as part of another group denote optionally substituted aromatic groups having at least one heteroatom in at least one ring, and preferably 5 or 6 atoms in each ring. The heteroaromatic group preferably has 1 or 2 oxygen atoms, 1 or 2 sulfur atoms, and/or 1 to 4 nitrogen atoms in the ring, and may be bonded to the remainder of the molecule through a carbon or heteroatom. Exemplary heteroaromatics include furyl, thienyl, pyridyl, oxazolyl, pyrrolyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, or isoquinolinyl and the like. Exemplary substituents include one or more of the following groups: hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, keto, hydroxy, protected hydroxy, acyl, acyloxy, alkoxy, alkenoxy, alkynoxy, aryloxy, halogen, amido, amino, nitro, cyano, thiol, ketals, acetals, esters and ethers.

The term “acetamidyl” as used herein describes a chemical moiety represented by the formula NR1C(O)R2.

The term “carboxamido” as used herein, describes a chemical moiety represented by the formula C(O)NR1R2.

The term “alkoxycarbonyl” as used herein describes a chemical moiety represented by the formula C(O)OR.

The term “sulfonamido” as used herein describes a chemical moiety represented by the formula SO2NR1R2.

The term “alkylsulfonyl” as used herein describes a chemical moiety represented by the formula SO2R.

The term “sulfonamidyl” as used herein describes a chemical moiety represented by the formula NRSO2R.

As described herein for the terms “acetamidyl”, “carboxamido”, “alkocycarbonyl”, “sulfonamido”, “alkylsulfonyl”, and “sulfonamidyl”, R, R1 and R2 are independently hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, and arylakyl, optionally substituted with halogen, hydroxy or alkoxy.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

In one embodiment of the present invention, the compounds correspond to formula (1):
wherein:

    • X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 are each ring atoms defining a 6-membered heterocyclic ring;
    • X1, X3, and X4 are independently carbon or nitrogen;
    • X2, X5, and X6 are independently carbon, nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur where X5 and X6 are optionally substituted with a halogen, provided no more than 4 of X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 are sp2 hybridized;
    • L1, L3 and L4 are linkages through which Z1, Z3, and Z4, respectively, are covalently bonded to different ring atoms of the 6-membered heterocyclic ring defined by X1, X2, X3, X4, X5 and X6, wherein Z1 is covalently bonded to X1, Z3 is covalently bonded to X3, and Z4 is covalently bonded to X4, each of L1, L3 and L4 independently being a covalent bond or comprising one or more atoms through which Z1, Z3, and Z4 are covalently bonded to X1, X3 and X4, respectively;
    • Z1 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl;
    • Z2 is hydrogen, an electron pair, or a hydrogen bond acceptor covalently or datively bonded to X2;
    • Z3 comprises a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or aromatic ring substituted with an amidine or a derivatized amidine group, the ring atoms of the 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or aromatic ring of Z3 being carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, or oxygen wherein the 5- or 6-membered ring is optionally substituted at any position with halogen, hydroxy, haloalkyl, alkyl, carboxy, alkoxycarbonyl, or hydrocarbyloxy; and
    • Z4 comprises a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or carbocyclic ring, the ring atoms of the 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or carbocyclic ring of Z4 being carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur.

One aspect of the invention encompasses compounds corresponding to formula (1) wherein X1, X3, and X4 are independently carbon or nitrogen and X2, X5, and X6 are independently carbon, nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur. Typically, in this embodiment, no more than 4 of X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 are sp2 hybridized. It one alternative of this embodiment, X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 are independently carbon or nitrogen, provided at least one of X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 is nitrogen. In another alternative of this embodiment, X3 is nitrogen, X2 is carbon, and Z2 is hydrogen, fluorine, oxygen, or sulfur. In yet another alternative of this embodiment, X2 is nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur and Z2 is hydrogen, an electron pair, or a hydrogen bond acceptor. In yet another alternative of this embodiment, X2 is nitrogen and Z2 is hydrogen, oxygen, amino, or acyl. In still another alternative of this embodiment, X2 is carbon and X3 is nitrogen. Still another alternative of this embodiment embraces compounds where at least one of X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 is carbon and the carbon is sp3 hybridized. For each of the alternatives of this embodiment, X5 may be optionally substituted with a halogen. A preferred halogen is chlorine. A more preferred halogen is fluorine.

In another aspect of compounds corresponding to formula (1), X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, and Z2 are as defined for compounds having formula (1) above and are selected to form the following 6-membered heterocyclic rings: piperidinone, dihydropyrimidinone, tetrahydropyrimidinone, dehydropiperidinedione, dihydropyridazinone, dihydroisoxazinone, tetrahydrotriazinedione, tetrahydrotriazinone, piperidine, and piperazine. In one alternative of this embodiment, X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, and Z2 are selected to form a heterocyclic ring selected from tetrahydrotriazinone, piperidinone, dihydropyrimidinone, tetrahydropyrimidinone, piperidine, and piperazine. In another alternative of this embodiment, X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, and Z2 are selected to form a heterocyclic ring selected from tetrahydrotriazinone, piperidinone, dihydropyrimidinone, and tetrahydropyrimidinone. In a preferred alternative of this embodiment, the heterocyclic ring defined by X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, and Z2 is tetrahydrotriazinone.

In one embodiment of compounds having formula (1), L1, is X9NH wherein X9 is covalently bonded to Z1 and X9 is a bond or (CH2)m wherein m is 1 to 5. In one alternative of this embodiment (i.e., when L1 is X9NH), m is 1 to 2. In another alternative of this embodiment, L1 is X9NH wherein X9 is covalently bonded to Z1 and is a bond. In yet another alternative of this embodiment, L1 is a methylene or ethylene group. In another alternative of this embodiment, L1 optionally contains a bond to X6 to form a fused ring with the heterocyclic ring.

In one embodiment of compounds corresponding to formula (1), L3 is selected from the group consisting of a glycine derivative, an alanine derivative, an amino derivative, and a sulfonyl derivative. In one alternative of this embodiment, L3 is a glycine derivative. In another alternative of this embodiment, L3 is CH2CONHCH2 where Z3 is bonded to the methylene bonded to the amine group.

In one embodiment of compounds corresponding to formula (1), L4 is selected from the group consisting of a bond, methylene, ethylene, or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and phosphorus. In one alternative of this embodiment, L4 is (CH2)m wherein m is 0 to 2. In a preferred alternative of this embodiment, L4 is a bond.

In one embodiment of compounds corresponding to formula (1), Z1 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl. In one alternative of this embodiment (i.e., when Z1 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl), Z1 is optionally substituted C2 to C8 alkyl, optionally substituted C3 to C6 cycloalkyl and optionally substituted phenyl. In another alternative of this embodiment, Z1 is selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted cyclopropyl, isopropyl, cyclobutyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, methyl, ethyl, and phenyl. In another alternative of this embodiment, Z1 is C1-C8 alkyl, C2-C8 alkenyl, or C2-C8 alkynyl, the alkyl, alkenyl, or alkynyl being optionally substituted with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy, or alkoxycarbonyl. In yet another alternative of this embodiment, Z1 is selected from the group consisting of cyclopropyl, isopropyl, methyl, ethyl, cyclobutyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, sec-butyl, and phenyl optionally substituted at any substitutable position with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy or alkoxycarbonyl. In yet another alternative of this embodiment, Z1 is propyl, isopropyl, cyclopropyl, tert-butyl and cyclobutyl. In another alternative of this embodiment, Z1 is cyclopropyl or isopropyl optionally substituted at any substitutable position with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy or alkoxycarbonyl. In still another alternative of this embodiment, Z1 is phenyl optionally substituted with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy, or alkoxycarbonyl. In yet another alternative of this embodiment, Z1 is trifluoroethyl or carboxymethyl.

In one embodiment of compounds corresponding to formula (1), Z2 is a hydrogen bond acceptor. Generally, hydrogen bond acceptors are heteroatoms that have a lone pair of electrons available for hydrogen bonding. When taken with the carbon to which Z2 is attached, suitable hydrogen bond acceptors are selected from the group consisting of C(O), C(S), C(Cl), C(Br), C(F), C(OH), COCH3, COR, C(SH), CSR, and CNR1R2 wherein R, R1 and R2 are independently hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, and arylakyl, optionally substituted with halogen, hydroxy or alkoxy.

In one embodiment of compounds corresponding to formula (1), Z3 is a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or aromatic ring substituted with an amidine or a derivatized amidine group and may be optionally substituted at any substitutable position with halogen, hydroxy, haloalkyl, alkyl, carboxy, alkoxycarbonyl, or hydrocarbyloxy, or any combination thereof. A preferred halogen is fluorine. In one alternative of this embodiment, directed toward the prodrugs of the compounds of formula (1), the 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or aromatic ring comprising Z3 is substituted with a derivatized amidine which, upon hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction or elimination, or any combination thereof, yields an amidine group. In another alternative of this embodiment, Z3 is a 6-membered carbocyclic aromatic ring substituted with either an amidine group, or for embodiments directed toward the prodrug, with a derivatized amidine. In yet another embodiment, Z3 comprises a substituted phenyl, thienyl, or furanyl ring, the phenyl, thienyl or furanyl ring being substituted with an amidine or a derivatized amidine group, and optionally further substituted at any substitutable position with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy, alkoxycarbonyl, or hydrocarbyloxy. For embodiments directed toward the prodrug, the amidine group is derivatized according to any of the embodiments described more thoroughly below. In yet another alternative of this embodiment, Z3 corresponds to formula (a):
wherein

    • R304 and R306 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy, hydrocarbyloxy and alkoxycarbonyl; and
    • R305 and R307 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, methoxy, hydroxy and carboxy.

In one alternative of compounds wherein Z3 corresponds to formula (a), Z3 is selected from the group consisting of benzamidine-4-yl, 3-hydroxybenzamidine-4-yl, 3,5-dihydroxybenzamidine-4-yl, 2,5,6-trifluoro-3-hydroxybenzamidine-4-yl, 2-hydroxybenzamidine-4-yl and 3,5,6-trifluoro-2-hydroxybenzamidine-4-yl.

In one embodiment of compounds corresponding to formula (1), Z4 comprises a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or carbocyclic ring, the ring atoms of the 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or carbocyclic ring of Z4 being carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. In one alternative of this embodiment, Z4 comprises a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or carbocyclic ring, the ring atoms of Z4 being Z40, Z41, Z42, Z44 and Z45 when Z4 is a 5-membered ring and Z40, Z41, Z42, Z43, Z44 and Z45 when Z4 is a 6-membered ring, Z40, Z41, Z42, Z43, Z44 and Z45, being carbon, nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, Z40 being the ring atom through which Z4 is attached to the heterocyclic core ring, Z41 and Z45 each being in an alpha position relative to Z40, Z42 and Z44 each being in a beta position relative to Z40, Z43 being in the gamma position relative to Z40 when Z4 is a 6-membered ring, Z4 having a substituent R42 covalently attached to Z42, and a second substituent bonded to one of Z41, Z43, Z44, or Z45, the substituent being R41 when bonded to Z41, the substituent being R43 when bonded to Z43, the substituent being R44 when bonded to Z44, and the substituent being R45 when bonded to Z45; R42 is amino; and R41, R43, R44 and R45 are independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heterocyclo, halogen, or a substituted or unsubstituted heteroatom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and phosphorus, provided at least one of R41, R43, R44 or R45 is other than hydrogen. In another alternative of this embodiment, Z4 is a substituted, 6-membered, carbocyclic aromatic ring. In another alternative of this embodiment, Z4 corresponds to formula (b):
wherein

    • R42 is amino;
    • R44 is hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heterocyclo, halogen or a substituted or unsubstituted heteroatom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and phosphorus; and R41, R43 and R45 are independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur.

In one embodiment of compounds wherein Z4 corresponds to formula (b), R44 is hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroaryl, heterocyclo, halogen, acetamido, guanidino, hydroxy, nitro, amino, amidosulfonyl, acylamido, hydrocarbyloxy, substituted hydrocarbyloxy, hydrocarbylthio, substituted hydrocarbylthio, hydrocarbylsulfonyl, or substituted hydrocarbylsulfonyl. In one alternative of this embodiment, wherein Z4 corresponds to formula (b), R44 is hydroxy, alkylsulfonyl, haloalkyl, carboxamidoalkyl, or carboxamidoalkylaryl. In another alternative of this embodiment, wherein Z4 corresponds to formula (b), R44 is selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, acetamidyl, alkoxy, hydroxy, amino, alkylsulfonyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkythio, alkoxycarbonyl, carboxy, sulfonamido, carboxamido and sulfonamidyl, optionally substituted with fluorine. In still another alternative of this embodiment, R44 is selected from the group consisting of hydroxy, carboxy, carboxamido, alkoxy, alkylsulfonyl, sulfonamido, and alkoxycarbonyl. In a preferred alternative of this embodiment, R44 is sec-butylamide, carboxy, ethoxycarbonyl, isopropoxycarbonyl, butoxycarbonyl, isopropylamide or hydroxy. In yet another alternative of this embodiment, each of R41, R43 and R45 is hydrogen. In still yet another alternative of this embodiment, Z41, Z43 or Z45 is substituted with fluorine or chlorine. In another embodiment of this invention, R44 is hydroxy, alkylsulfonyl, haloalkyl, carboxamidoalkyl, or carboxamidoalkylaryl.

In one alternative of compounds wherein Z4 corresponds to formula (b), R42 is amino; R43 is hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; and R41, R44 and R45 are independently hydrogen, halogen or alkoxy.

In another alternative of compounds wherein Z4 corresponds to formula (b), R42 is amino; R45is hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; and R41, R43 and R44 are independently hydrogen, halogen or alkoxy.

In yet another alternative of compounds wherein Z4 corresponds to formula (b), R42 is amino; R41 is hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; and R43, R44 and R45 are independently hydrogen, halogen or alkoxy.

In an alternative embodiment of compounds of formula (1), Z4 corresponds to formula (c):
wherein

    • Z40, Z41, Z42, Z44, and Z45 are independently carbon, nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, and R41, R42, R44, and R45 are as defined in connection with the 6-membered carbocylic aromatic ring.

In another aspect of the invention, the compounds of formula (1) may be represented by formula (2):
wherein X1, X2, X3 X4, X5, X6, Z1, Z2, Z3, and Z4 are as described for compounds having structural formula (1) and X9 is a direct bond or (CH2)m wherein m is 1 or 2. In one alternative of this embodiment, X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, and Z2 are selected to provide a piperidinone, dihydropyrimidinone, tetrahydropyrimidinone, dehydropiperidinedione, dihydropyridazinone, dihydroisoxazinone, tetrahydrotriazinedione, tetrahydrotriazinone, piperidine, and piperazine heterocyclic ring and Z1, Z2, Z3, and Z4 are as described for formula (1) and X9 is a bond. In another alternative of this embodiment, X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6 and Z2 are selected to provide a heterocyclic ring selected from tetrahydrotriazinone, piperidinone, dihydropyrimidinone, tetrahydropyrimidinone, piperidine, and piperazine. In yet another alternative of this embodiment, X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6 and Z2 are selected to provide a heterocyclic ring selected from tetrahydrotriazinone, piperidinone, dihydropyrimidinone, and tetrahydropyrimidinone. In a preferred alternative of this embodiment, the heterocyclic ring defined by X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6 and Z2 is tetrahydrotriazinone.

In a preferred embodiment of compounds corresponding to formula (2), X9 is a bond; Z1 is selected from the group consisting of cyclopropyl, methyl, ethyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, and sec-butyl optionally substituted at any substitutable position with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy, or alkoxycarbonyl; Z3 corresponds to formula (a) and is optionally substituted at any substitutable position with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy, or hydrocarbyloxy; Z4 corresponds to formula (b) wherein R42 is amino and R44 is selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, acetamidyl, alkoxy, hydroxy, amino, alkylsulfonyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkythio, alkoxycarbonyl, carboxy, sulfonamido, carboxamido and sulfonamidyl, optionally substituted with fluorine; and X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6 and Z2 are as defined above for compounds having formula (1).

In a preferred embodiment, compounds corresponding to formula (2) may be represented by formula (2-a):
wherein

    • X1, X4, X5 and X6 are independently carbon or nitrogen;
    • Z1 is selected from the group consisting of cyclopropyl, isopropyl, methyl, ethyl, cyclobutyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, sec-butyl, and phenyl optionally substituted with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy, or alkoxycarbonyl;
    • R440 is C1-C6 alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, carboxy, or carboxyalkyl, wherein said alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, carboxy, or carboxyalkyl is optionally further substituted by fluorine; and
    • R310 and R311 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, hydroxy, alkoxy, and carboxy.

In another preferred embodiment, compounds corresponding to formula (2) may be represented by formula (2-b):
wherein

    • X1, X4, X5 and X6 are independently carbon or nitrogen;
    • Z1 is selected from the group consisting of cyclopropyl, isopropyl, methyl, ethyl, cyclobutyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, sec-butyl, and phenyl optionally substituted with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy, or alkoxycarbonyl;
    • R440 is C1-C6 alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, carboxy, or carboxyalkyl, wherein said alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, carboxy, or carboxyalkyl is optionally further substituted by fluorine; and
    • R310 and R311 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, hydroxy, alkoxy, and carboxy.

In a preferred alternative of compounds corresponding to formula (2), the compounds possess a tetrahydrotriazinone heterocyclic ring having formula (2-c):
wherein:

    • Z1, Z2, and Z3 are as defined for compounds having either of formula (1) and formula (2) above.

In one alternative of this embodiment (i.e., compounds having a tetrahydrotriazinone heterocyclic ring core), Z1 is optionally substituted C2 to C8 alkyl, optionally substituted C3 to C6 cycloalkyl and optionally substituted phenyl. Preferred Z1 substituents are optionally substituted cyclopropyl, isopropyl, cyclobutyl, methyl, ethyl and phenyl. In another alternative of this embodiment, Z4 is a substituted, 6-membered, heterocyclic or carbocyclic aromatic ring.

Another aspect of the invention embraces compounds which correspond to formula (1) having the following fused ring formula (3):
wherein

    • Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, L3, X1, X2, X3, X4, and X5 are as defined for compounds having formula (1) or (2) above;
    • X6 is carbon or nitrogen;
    • X7 and X8 are independently carbon, nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur;
    • R70 and R80 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, amino, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, aryl, wherein aryl is phenyl optionally substituted by hydroxy, amino, C1-C8 alkyl, or halogen provided that R70 is not present when X7 is a bond and R80 is not present when X8 is a bond; or R70 and R80, along with the ring atoms to which each is attached, form a 5- or 6-membered saturated ring; and
    • n is 0 to 2.

In a preferred embodiment of compounds of formula (3), L3 is CH2CONHCH2. In one alternative of this embodiment, (i.e., when L3 is CH2CONHCH2), X7 and X8 are carbon. In another alternative of this embodiment, Z3 corresponds to formula (a) and Z4 corresponds to formula (b).

In another aspect of this invention, compounds corresponding to any of formulas (1), (2), or (3) possess a hydroxy or carboxy substituent at any one of Z1, Z2 or Z3.

In another aspect of this invention for compounds corresponding to any of formulas (1), (2), or (3), Z3 is —R300C(═NR301)NR302R303, wherein R300 is a 6-membered carbocyclic aromatic ring, R301, R302, R303 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, optionally substituted hydrocarbyl, and an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur, provided at least one of R301, R302, R303 is other than hydrogen. In yet another alternative of this embodiment, Z3 is —R300C(═NR301)NR302R303, wherein R300 is a 6-membered carbocyclic aromatic ring, and at least two of R301, R302, R303 are ring atoms of a heterocyclic ring. In an alternative of this embodiment, Z3 is —R300C(═NR301)NR302R303, wherein R300 is a 6-membered carbocyclic aromatic ring, and at least one of R301, R302, R303 are ring atoms of a heterocyclic ring fused to R300.

In yet another aspect of this invention for compounds corresponding to any of formulas (1), (2), or (3), Z3 is a benzamidine derivatized with one or more groups selected from carbonyl, thiocarbonyl, imino, enamino, phosphorus, and sulfur, where the benzamidine derivative hydrolyzes under physiological conditions to form benzamidine. In a further embodiment, Z3 is a benzamidine derivatized with one or more groups selected from optionally substituted hydrocarbyl, provided that the carbon atom directly bonded to the amidine is sp3 hybridized and aryl, where the benzamidine derivative is oxidized under physiological conditions to form benzamidine. In yet another embodiment, Z3 is a benzamidine derivatized with one or more heteroatoms selected from oxygen, nitrogen in its most reduced state, and sulfur in its most reduced state, where the benzamidine derivative is reduced under physiological conditions to form benzamidine. In still another embodiment, Z3 is a benzamidine derivatized with one or more substituents selected from a hydrocarbyl substituted at the beta carbon with carbonyl, sulfonyl, sulfinyl, cyano, nitro and an alkyl, aryl, or heterocyclic group substituted with oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur at the carbon directly bonded to the amidine group, where the benzamidine derivative undergoes elimination at physiological conditions to form benzamidine.

In a further embodiment for compounds corresponding to any of formulas (1), (2), or (3), Z3 corresponds to formula (d):
wherein:

    • R301, R302, and R303 are independently selected from the group consisting of:
      • (i) hydrogen, —C(═O)Ra, —C(═O)ORa, —S(═O)ORa, —S(═O)SRa, —S(═O)2ORa, —S(═O)2SRa and alkenyl, wherein Ra is selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, and heterocylo, provided, however, that the carbon atom of R301, R302, and R303 directly bonded to the amidine is sp2 hybridized when R301, R302, and R303 is alkenyl,
      • (ii) hydrogen, optionally substituted hydrocarbyl and aryl, provided, however, the carbon atom of R301, R302, and R303 directly bonded to the amidine is sp3 hybridized when R301, R302, and R303 is optionally substituted hydrocarbyl,
      • (iii) hydrogen, —ORb, —SRb, —NRb, or —N(Rb)2, wherein each Rb is independently optionally substituted hydrocarbyl, and heterocylo, and
      • (iv) hydrogen, substituted hydrocarbyl wherein the carbon bonded to the amidine group is substituted with —ORc, —SRc, —NRc, or —N(Rc)2, wherein each Rc is independently —C(O)Rd, —C(O)NRd, —C(O)ORd, —C(O)N(Rd)2 and each Rd is independently hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl or heterocyclo, and substituted alkyl with the carbon atom beta to the point of attachment to the amidine group being an unsaturated electron withdrawing group, provided, however, at least one of R301, R302, and R303 is other than hydrogen;
    • R304 is selected from the group consisting of halogen, hydrogen, hydroxyl, alkyl, sulfhydryl, alkoxy, and alkylthio;
    • R305 is selected from the group consisting of oxygen, sulfur, halogen, hydrogen, hydroxyl, alkyl, sulfhydryl, alkoxy, and alkylthio;
    • R306 is selected from the group consisting of halogen, hydrogen, hydroxyl, alkyl, sulfhydryl, alkoxy, and alkylthio; and
    • R307 is selected from the group consisting of oxygen, sulfur, halogen, hydrogen, hydroxyl, alkyl, sulfhydryl, alkoxy, and alkylthio.

In one embodiment, the benzamidine derivative is hydrolyzed under physiological conditions to form benzamidine when Z3 is a benzamidine derivative having formula (d) and R301, R302, and R303 are independently selected from hydrogen, —C(═O)Ra, —C(═O)ORa, —S(═O)ORa, —S(═O)SRa, —S(═O)2ORa, —S(═O)2SRa and alkenyl, wherein Ra is selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, and heterocylo, provided, however, that the carbon atom of R301, R302, and R303 directly bonded to the amidine is sp2 hybridized when R301, R302, and R303 is alkenyl.

In a further embodiment, the benzamidine derivative is oxidized under physiological conditions to form benzamidine when Z3 is a benzamidine derivative having formula (d) and R301, R302, and R303 are independently selected from hydrogen, optionally substituted hydrocarbyl and aryl, provided, however, the carbon atom of R301, R302, and R303 directly bonded to the amidine is sp3 hybridized when R301, R302, and R303 is optionally substituted hydrocarbyl.

In still another embodiment, the benzamidine derivative is reduced under physiological conditions to form benzamidine when Z3 is a benzamidine derivative having formula (d) and R301, R302, and R303 are independently selected from hydrogen, —ORb, —SRb, —NRb, or —N(Rb)2, wherein each Rb is independently optionally substituted hydrocarbyl, and heterocylo.

In an alternative embodiment, the benzamidine derivative undergoes elimination at physiological conditions to form benzamidine when Z3 is a benzamidine derivative having formula (d) and R301, R302, and R303 are independently selected from hydrogen, substituted hydrocarbyl wherein the carbon bonded to the amidine group is substituted with —ORc, —SRc, —NRc, or —N(Rc)2, wherein each Rc is independently —C(O)Rd, —C(O)NRd, —C(O)ORd, —C(O)N(Rd)2 and each Rd is independently hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl or heterocyclo, and substituted alkyl with the carbon atom beta to the point of attachment to the amidine group being an unsaturated electron withdrawing group.

Another aspect of the invention embraces intermediate compounds having either of two formulae. Compounds corresponding to one of the formulae may be represented by formula (4):
wherein

    • X1, X2, X5, and X6 are members of a heterocyclic ring;
    • X1, X2 and X3 are independently carbon or nitrogen;
    • X5 and X6 are independently selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, carbon, C(F) and C(Br);
    • provided no more than 4 of X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 are sp2 hybridized;
    • Z1 is hydrocarbyl, or substituted hydrocarbyl;
    • Z2 is a hydrogen bond acceptor covalently or datively bonded to X2;
    • T3 is selected from the group consisting of hydroxy, alkoxy, substituted alkoxy, and substituted amino; and
    • T4 is selected from the group consisting of —Cl, —Br, —I, —S(CH3), and —OSO2(CF3).

Intermediate compounds represented by the other formula correspond to formula (5):
wherein

    • X1, X2, X5, and X6 are members of a heterocyclic ring;
    • X1, X2 and X3 are independently carbon or nitrogen;
    • X5 and X6 are independently selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, carbon, C(F) and C(Br);

provided no more than 4 of X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 are sp2 hybridized;

    • Z1 is hydrocarbyl, or substituted hydrocarbyl;
    • Z2 is a hydrogen bond acceptor covalently or datively bonded to X2; and
    • Z4 comprises hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl or a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or carbocyclic ring, the ring atoms of the 5 or 6 membered heterocyclic or carboxylic ring of Z4 being carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur.

Among the preferred embodiments, therefore, are compounds corresponding to any one of formulas (1), (2), or (3) wherein X9 is a direct bond, Z4 is a substituted, 6-membered, carbocyclic aromatic ring, Z3 is benzene substituted with an amidine or a derivatized amidine group which, upon hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction or elimination under physiological conditions yields an amidine group, and Z1 is selected from the group consisting of cyclopropyl, isopropyl, methyl, cyclobutyl, trifluoroethyl, carboxymethyl and phenyl. In an alternative of this embodiment, Z4 is phenyl substituted with two substituents, R42 and R44 wherein R42 and R44 are as described for any of formulas (1), (2), or (3).

Following the processes described in the Schemes, Examples or elsewhere herein, compounds corresponding to each of formulae A, B, C, and D and having any of the combinations of substituents identified in Table 1 may be prepared.

wherein X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 are selected to provide the following heterocyclic rings: piperidinone, dihydropyrimidinone, tetrahydropyrimidinone, dehydropiperidinedione, dihydropyridazinone, dihydroisoxazinone, tetrahydrotriazinedione, tetrahydrotriazinone, piperidine, and piperazine and, for structure (C), one of Z41 and Z45 is sulfur while the other is carbon and, for structure (D), one of Z41 and Z45 is nitrogen while the other is carbon. As employed herein, unless otherwise indicated, “core” refers to the 6-membered ring to which Z1, Z3 and Z4, through their respective linkages, are attached.

TABLE 1 Core Z1 R44 Piperidinone substituted hydroxy alkyl Piperidinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl alkyl Piperidinone substituted trifluoromethyl alkyl Piperidinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl alkyl Piperidinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- alkyl yl Piperidinone substituted isobutyramido alkyl Piperidinone substituted isobutoxy alkyl Piperidinone substituted carboethoxy alkyl Piperidinone substituted carboxyl alkyl Piperidinone substituted amino alkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted hydroxy alkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl alkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted trifluoromethyl alkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl alkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- alkyl yl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted isobutyramido alkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted isobutoxy alkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted carboethoxy alkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted carboxyl alkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted amino alkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted hydroxy alkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl alkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted trifluoromethyl alkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl alkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- alkyl yl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted isobutyramido alkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted isobutoxy alkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted carboethoxy alkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted carboxyl alkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted amino alkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted hydroxy alkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted isobutylsulfonyl alkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted trifluoromethyl alkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted carboxamidobenzyl alkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- alkyl yl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted isobutyramido alkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted isobutoxy alkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted carboethoxy alkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted carboxyl alkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted amino alkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted hydroxy alkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl alkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted trifluoromethyl alkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl alkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- alkyl yl Dihydropyridazinone substituted isobutyramido alkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted isobutoxy alkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted carboethoxy alkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted carboxyl alkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted amino alkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted hydroxy alkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl alkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted trifluoromethyl alkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl alkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- alkyl yl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted isobutyramido alkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted isobutoxy alkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted carboethoxy alkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted carboxyl alkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted amino alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted hydroxy alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted isobutylsulfonyl alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted trifluoromethyl alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted carboxamidobenzyl alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- alkyl yl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted isobutyramido alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted isobutoxy alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted carboethoxy alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted carboxyl alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted amino alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted hydroxy alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted trifluoromethyl alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- alkyl yl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted isobutyramido alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted isobutoxy alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted carboethoxy alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted carboxyl alkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted amino alkyl Piperidine substituted hydroxy alkyl Piperidine substituted isobutylsulfonyl alkyl Piperidine substituted trifluoromethyl alkyl Piperidine substituted carboxamidobenzyl alkyl Piperidine substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- alkyl yl Piperidine substituted isobutyramido alkyl Piperidine substituted isobutoxy alkyl Piperidine substituted carboethoxy alkyl Piperidine substituted carboxyl alkyl Piperidine substituted amino alkyl Piperazine substituted hydroxy alkyl Piperazine substituted isobutylsulfonyl alkyl Piperazine substituted trifluoromethyl alkyl Piperazine substituted carboxamidobenzyl alkyl Piperazine substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- alkyl yl Piperazine substituted isobutyramido alkyl Piperazine substituted isobutoxy alkyl Piperazine substituted carboethoxy alkyl Piperazine substituted carboxyl alkyl Piperazine substituted amino alkyl Piperidinone alkyl hydroxy Piperidinone alkyl isobutylsulfonyl Piperidinone alkyl trifluoromethyl Piperidinone alkyl carboxamidobenzyl Piperidinone alkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Piperidinone alkyl isobutyramido Piperidinone alkyl isobutoxy Piperidinone alkyl carboethoxy Piperidinone alkyl carboxyl Piperidinone alkyl amino Dihydropyrimidinone alkyl hydroxy Dihydropyrimidinone alkyl isobutylsulfonyl Dihydropyrimidinone alkyl trifluoromethyl Dihydropyrimidinone alkyl carboxamidobenzyl Dihydropyrimidinone alkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Dihydropyrimidinone alkyl isobutyramido Dihydropyrimidinone alkyl isobutoxy Dihydropyrimidinone alkyl carboethoxy Dihydropyrimidinone alkyl carboxyl Dihydropyrimidinone alkyl amino Tetrahydropyrimidinone alkyl hydroxy Tetrahydropyrimidinone alkyl isobutylsulfonyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone alkyl trifluoromethyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone alkyl carboxamidobenzyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone alkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Tetrahydropyrimidinone alkyl isobutyramido Tetrahydropyrimidinone alkyl isobutoxy Tetrahydropyrimidinone alkyl carboethoxy Tetrahydropyrimidinone alkyl carboxyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone alkyl amino Dehydropiperidinedione alkyl hydroxy Dehydropiperidinedione alkyl isobutylsulfonyl Dehydropiperidinedione alkyl trifluoromethyl Dehydropiperidinedione alkyl carboxamidobenzyl Dehydropiperidinedione alkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Dehydropiperidinedione alkyl isobutyramido Dehydropiperidinedione alkyl isobutoxy Dehydropiperidinedione alkyl carboethoxy Dehydropiperidinedione alkyl carboxyl Dehydropiperidinedione alkyl amino Dihydropyridazinone alkyl hydroxy Dihydropyridazinone alkyl isobutylsulfonyl Dihydropyridazinone alkyl trifluoromethyl Dihydropyridazinone alkyl carboxamidobenzyl Dihydropyridazinone alkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Dihydropyridazinone alkyl isobutyramido Dihydropyridazinone alkyl isobutoxy Dihydropyridazinone alkyl carboethoxy Dihydropyridazinone alkyl carboxyl Dihydropyridazinone alkyl amino Dihydroisoxazinone alkyl hydroxy Dihydroisoxazinone alkyl isobutylsulfonyl Dihydroisoxazinone alkyl trifluoromethyl Dihydroisoxazinone alkyl carboxamidobenzyl Dihydroisoxazinone alkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Dihydroisoxazinone alkyl isobutyramido Dihydroisoxazinone alkyl isobutoxy Dihydroisoxazinone alkyl carboethoxy Dihydroisoxazinone alkyl carboxyl Dihydroisoxazinone alkyl amino Tetrahydrotriazinedione alkyl hydroxy Tetrahydrotriazinedione alkyl isobutylsulfonyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione alkyl trifluoromethyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione alkyl carboxamidobenzyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione alkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Tetrahydrotriazinedione alkyl isobutyramido Tetrahydrotriazinedione alkyl isobutoxy Tetrahydrotriazinedione alkyl carboethoxy Tetrahydrotriazinedione alkyl carboxyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione alkyl amino Tetrahydrotriazinone alkyl hydroxy Tetrahydrotriazinone alkyl isobutylsulfonyl Tetrahydrotriazinone alkyl trifluoromethyl Tetrahydrotriazinone alkyl carboxamidobenzyl Tetrahydrotriazinone alkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Tetrahydrotriazinone alkyl isobutyramido Tetrahydrotriazinone alkyl isobutoxy Tetrahydrotriazinone alkyl carboethoxy Tetrahydrotriazinone alkyl carboxyl Tetrahydrotriazinone alkyl amino Piperidine alkyl hydroxy Piperidine alkyl isobutylsulfonyl Piperidine alkyl trifluoromethyl Piperidine alkyl carboxamidobenzyl Piperidine alkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Piperidine alkyl isobutyramido Piperidine alkyl isobutoxy Piperidine alkyl carboethoxy Piperidine alkyl carboxyl Piperidine alkyl amino Piperazine alkyl hydroxy Piperazine alkyl isobutylsulfonyl Piperazine alkyl trifluoromethyl Piperazine alkyl carboxamidobenzyl Piperazine alkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Piperazine alkyl isobutyramido Piperazine alkyl isobutoxy Piperazine alkyl carboethoxy Piperazine alkyl carboxyl Piperazine alkyl amino Piperidinone substituted hydroxy phenyl Piperidinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl phenyl Piperidinone substituted trifluoromethyl phenyl Piperidinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl phenyl Piperidinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- phenyl yl Piperidinone substituted isobutyramido phenyl Piperidinone substituted isobutoxy phenyl Piperidinone substituted carboethoxy phenyl Piperidinone substituted carboxyl phenyl Piperidinone substituted amino phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted hydroxy phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted trifluoromethyl phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- phenyl yl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted isobutyramido phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted isobutoxy phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted carboethoxy phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted carboxyl phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted amino phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted hydroxy phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted trifluoromethyl phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- phenyl yl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted isobutyramido phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted isobutoxy phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted carboethoxy phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted carboxyl phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted amino phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted hydroxy phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted isobutylsulfonyl phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted trifluoromethyl phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted carboxamidobenzyl phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- phenyl yl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted isobutyramido phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted isobutoxy phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted carboethoxy phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted carboxyl phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted amino phenyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted hydroxy phenyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl phenyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted trifluoromethyl phenyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl phenyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- phenyl yl Dihydropyridazinone substituted isobutyramido phenyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted isobutoxy phenyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted carboethoxy phenyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted carboxyl phenyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted amino phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted hydroxy phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted trifluoromethyl phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- phenyl yl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted isobutyramido phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted isobutoxy phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted carboethoxy phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted carboxyl phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted amino phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted hydroxy phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted isobutylsulfonyl phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted trifluoromethyl phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted carboxamidobenzyl phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- phenyl yl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted isobutyramido phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted isobutoxy phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted carboethoxy phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted carboxyl phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted amino phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted hydroxy phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted trifluoromethyl phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- phenyl yl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted isobutyramido phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted isobutoxy phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted carboethoxy phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted carboxyl phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted amino phenyl Piperidine substituted hydroxy phenyl Piperidine substituted isobutylsulfonyl phenyl Piperidine substituted trifluoromethyl phenyl Piperidine substituted carboxamidobenzyl phenyl Piperidine substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- phenyl yl Piperidine substituted isobutyramido phenyl Piperidine substituted isobutoxy phenyl Piperidine substituted carboethoxy phenyl Piperidine substituted carboxyl phenyl Piperidine substituted amino phenyl Piperazine substituted hydroxy phenyl Piperazine substituted isobutylsulfonyl phenyl Piperazine substituted trifluoromethyl phenyl Piperazine substituted carboxamidobenzyl phenyl Piperazine substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- phenyl yl Piperazine substituted isobutyramido phenyl Piperazine substituted isobutoxy phenyl Piperazine substituted carboethoxy phenyl Piperazine substituted carboxyl phenyl Piperazine substituted amino phenyl Piperidinone phenyl hydroxy Piperidinone phenyl isobutylsulfonyl Piperidinone phenyl trifluoromethyl Piperidinone phenyl carboxamidobenzyl Piperidinone phenyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Piperidinone phenyl isobutyramido Piperidinone phenyl isobutoxy Piperidinone phenyl carboethoxy Piperidinone phenyl carboxyl Piperidinone phenyl amino Dihydropyrimidinone phenyl hydroxy Dihydropyrimidinone phenyl isobutylsulfonyl Dihydropyrimidinone phenyl trifluoromethyl Dihydropyrimidinone phenyl carboxamidobenzyl Dihydropyrimidinone phenyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Dihydropyrimidinone phenyl isobutyramido Dihydropyrimidinone phenyl isobutoxy Dihydropyrimidinone phenyl carboethoxy Dihydropyrimidinone phenyl carboxyl Dihydropyrimidinone phenyl amino Tetrahydropyrimidinone phenyl hydroxy Tetrahydropyrimidinone phenyl isobutylsulfonyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone phenyl trifluoromethyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone phenyl carboxamidobenzyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone phenyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Tetrahydropyrimidinone phenyl isobutyramido Tetrahydropyrimidinone phenyl isobutoxy Tetrahydropyrimidinone phenyl carboethoxy Tetrahydropyrimidinone phenyl carboxyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone phenyl amino Dehydropiperidinedione phenyl hydroxy Dehydropiperidinedione phenyl isobutylsulfonyl Dehydropiperidinedione phenyl trifluoromethyl Dehydropiperidinedione phenyl carboxamidobenzyl Dehydropiperidinedione phenyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Dehydropiperidinedione phenyl isobutyramido Dehydropiperidinedione phenyl isobutoxy Dehydropiperidinedione phenyl carboethoxy Dehydropiperidinedione phenyl carboxyl Dehydropiperidinedione phenyl amino Dihydropyridazinone phenyl hydroxy Dihydropyridazinone phenyl isobutylsulfonyl Dihydropyridazinone phenyl trifluoromethyl Dihydropyridazinone phenyl carboxamidobenzyl Dihydropyridazinone phenyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Dihydropyridazinone phenyl isobutyramido Dihydropyridazinone phenyl isobutoxy Dihydropyridazinone phenyl carboethoxy Dihydropyridazinone phenyl carboxyl Dihydropyridazinone phenyl amino Dihydroisoxazinone phenyl hydroxy Dihydroisoxazinone phenyl isobutylsulfonyl Dihydroisoxazinone phenyl trifluoromethyl Dihydroisoxazinone phenyl carboxamidobenzyl Dihydroisoxazinone phenyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Dihydroisoxazinone phenyl isobutyramido Dihydroisoxazinone phenyl isobutoxy Dihydroisoxazinone phenyl carboethoxy Dihydroisoxazinone phenyl carboxyl Dihydroisoxazinone phenyl amino Tetrahydrotriazinedione phenyl hydroxy Tetrahydrotriazinedione phenyl isobutylsulfonyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione phenyl trifluoromethyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione phenyl carboxamidobenzyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione phenyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Tetrahydrotriazinedione phenyl isobutyramido Tetrahydrotriazinedione phenyl isobutoxy Tetrahydrotriazinedione phenyl carboethoxy Tetrahydrotriazinedione phenyl carboxyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione phenyl amino Tetrahydrotriazinone phenyl hydroxy Tetrahydrotriazinone phenyl isobutylsulfonyl Tetrahydrotriazinone phenyl trifluoromethyl Tetrahydrotriazinone phenyl carboxamidobenzyl Tetrahydrotriazinone phenyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Tetrahydrotriazinone phenyl isobutyramido Tetrahydrotriazinone phenyl isobutoxy Tetrahydrotriazinone phenyl carboethoxy Tetrahydrotriazinone phenyl carboxyl Tetrahydrotriazinone phenyl amino Piperidine phenyl hydroxy Piperidine phenyl isobutylsulfonyl Piperidine phenyl trifluoromethyl Piperidine phenyl carboxamidobenzyl Piperidine phenyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Piperidine phenyl isobutyramido Piperidine phenyl isobutoxy Piperidine phenyl carboethoxy Piperidine phenyl carboxyl Piperidine phenyl amino Piperazine phenyl hydroxy Piperazine phenyl isobutylsulfonyl Piperazine phenyl trifluoromethyl Piperazine phenyl carboxamidobenzyl Piperazine phenyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Piperazine phenyl isobutyramido Piperazine phenyl isobutoxy Piperazine phenyl carboethoxy Piperazine phenyl carboxyl Piperazine phenyl amino Piperidinone cycloalkyl hydroxy Piperidinone cycloalkyl isobutylsulfonyl Piperidinone cycloalkyl trifluoromethyl Piperidinone cycloalkyl carboxamidobenzyl Piperidinone cycloalkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Piperidinone cycloalkyl isobutyramido Piperidinone cycloalkyl isobutoxy Piperidinone cycloalkyl carboethoxy Piperidinone cycloalkyl carboxyl Piperidinone cycloalkyl amino Dihydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl hydroxy Dihydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl isobutylsulfonyl Dihydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl trifluoromethyl Dihydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl carboxamidobenzyl Dihydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Dihydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl isobutyramido Dihydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl isobutoxy Dihydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl carboethoxy Dihydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl carboxyl Dihydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl amino Tetrahydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl hydroxy Tetrahydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl isobutylsulfonyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl trifluoromethyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl carboxamidobenzyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Tetrahydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl isobutyramido Tetrahydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl isobutoxy Tetrahydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl carboethoxy Tetrahydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl carboxyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone cycloalkyl amino Dehydropiperidinedione cycloalkyl hydroxy Dehydropiperidinedione cycloalkyl isobutylsulfonyl Dehydropiperidinedione cycloalkyl trifluoromethyl Dehydropiperidinedione cycloalkyl carboxamidobenzyl Dehydropiperidinedione cycloalkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Dehydropiperidinedione cycloalkyl isobutyramido Dehydropiperidinedione cycloalkyl isobutoxy Dehydropiperidinedione cycloalkyl carboethoxy Dehydropiperidinedione cycloalkyl carboxyl Dehydropiperidinedione cycloalkyl amino Dihydropyridazinone cycloalkyl hydroxy Dihydropyridazinone cycloalkyl isobutylsulfonyl Dihydropyridazinone cycloalkyl trifluoromethyl Dihydropyridazinone cycloalkyl carboxamidobenzyl Dihydropyridazinone cycloalkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Dihydropyridazinone cycloalkyl isobutyramido Dihydropyridazinone cycloalkyl isobutoxy Dihydropyridazinone cycloalkyl carboethoxy Dihydropyridazinone cycloalkyl carboxyl Dihydropyridazinone cycloalkyl amino Dihydroisoxazinone cycloalkyl hydroxy Dihydroisoxazinone cycloalkyl isobutylsulfonyl Dihydroisoxazinone cycloalkyl trifluoromethyl Dihydroisoxazinone cycloalkyl carboxamidobenzyl Dihydroisoxazinone cycloalkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Dihydroisoxazinone cycloalkyl isobutyramido Dihydroisoxazinone cycloalkyl isobutoxy Dihydroisoxazinone cycloalkyl carboethoxy Dihydroisoxazinone cycloalkyl carboxyl Dihydroisoxazinone cycloalkyl amino Tetrahydrotriazinedione cycloalkyl hydroxy Tetrahydrotriazinedione cycloalkyl isobutylsulfonyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione cycloalkyl trifluoromethyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione cycloalkyl carboxamidobenzyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione cycloalkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Tetrahydrotriazinedione cycloalkyl isobutyramido Tetrahydrotriazinedione cycloalkyl isobutoxy Tetrahydrotriazinedione cycloalkyl carboethoxy Tetrahydrotriazinedione cycloalkyl carboxyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione cycloalkyl amino Tetrahydrotriazinone cycloalkyl hydroxy Tetrahydrotriazinone cycloalkyl isobutylsulfonyl Tetrahydrotriazinone cycloalkyl trifluoromethyl Tetrahydrotriazinone cycloalkyl carboxamidobenzyl Tetrahydrotriazinone cycloalkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Tetrahydrotriazinone cycloalkyl isobutyramido Tetrahydrotriazinone cycloalkyl isobutoxy Tetrahydrotriazinone cycloalkyl carboethoxy Tetrahydrotriazinone cycloalkyl carboxyl Tetrahydrotriazinone cycloalkyl amino Piperidine cycloalkyl hydroxy Piperidine cycloalkyl isobutylsulfonyl Piperidine cycloalkyl trifluoromethyl Piperidine cycloalkyl carboxamidobenzyl Piperidine cycloalkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Piperidine cycloalkyl isobutyramido Piperidine cycloalkyl isobutoxy Piperidine cycloalkyl carboethoxy Piperidine cycloalkyl carboxyl Piperidine cycloalkyl amino Piperazine cycloalkyl hydroxy Piperazine cycloalkyl isobutylsulfonyl Piperazine cycloalkyl trifluoromethyl Piperazine cycloalkyl carboxamidobenzyl Piperazine cycloalkyl carboxamidobutyl-2- yl Piperazine cycloalkyl isobutyramido Piperazine cycloalkyl isobutoxy Piperazine cycloalkyl carboethoxy Piperazine cycloalkyl carboxyl Piperazine cycloalkyl amino Piperidinone substituted hydroxy cycloalkyl Piperidinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl cycloalkyl Piperidinone substituted trifluoromethyl cycloalkyl Piperidinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl cycloalkyl Piperidinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- cycloalkyl yl Piperidinone substituted isobutyramido cycloalkyl Piperidinone substituted isobutoxy cycloalkyl Piperidinone substituted carboethoxy cycloalkyl Piperidinone substituted carboxyl cycloalkyl Piperidinone substituted amino cycloalkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted hydroxy cycloalkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl cycloalkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted trifluoromethyl cycloalkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl cycloalkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- cycloalkyl yl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted isobutyramido cycloalkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted isobutoxy cycloalkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted carboethoxy cycloalkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted carboxyl cycloalkyl Dihydropyrimidinone substituted amino cycloalkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted hydroxy cycloalkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl cycloalkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted trifluoromethyl cycloalkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl cycloalkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- cycloalkyl yl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted isobutyramido cycloalkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted isobutoxy cycloalkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted carboethoxy cycloalkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted carboxyl cycloalkyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone substituted amino cycloalkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted hydroxy cycloalkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted isobutylsulfonyl cycloalkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted trifluoromethyl cycloalkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted carboxamidobenzyl cycloalkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- cycloalkyl yl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted isobutyramido cycloalkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted isobutoxy cycloalkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted carboethoxy cycloalkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted carboxyl cycloalkyl Dehydropiperidinedione substituted amino cycloalkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted hydroxy cycloalkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl cycloalkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted trifluoromethyl cycloalkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl cycloalkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- cycloalkyl yl Dihydropyridazinone substituted isobutyramido cycloalkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted isobutoxy cycloalkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted carboethoxy cycloalkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted carboxyl cycloalkyl Dihydropyridazinone substituted amino cycloalkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted hydroxy cycloalkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl cycloalkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted trifluoromethyl cycloalkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl cycloalkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- cycloalkyl yl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted isobutyramido cycloalkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted isobutoxy cycloalkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted carboethoxy cycloalkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted carboxyl cycloalkyl Dihydroisoxazinone substituted amino cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted hydroxy cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted isobutylsulfonyl cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted trifluoromethyl cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted carboxamidobenzyl cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- cycloalkyl yl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted isobutyramido cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted isobutoxy cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted carboethoxy cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted carboxyl cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione substituted amino cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted hydroxy cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted isobutylsulfonyl cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted trifluoromethyl cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted carboxamidobenzyl cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- cycloalkyl yl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted isobutyramido cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted isobutoxy cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted carboethoxy cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted carboxyl cycloalkyl Tetrahydrotriazinone substituted amino cycloalkyl Piperidine substituted hydroxy cycloalkyl Piperidine substituted isobutylsulfonyl cycloalkyl Piperidine substituted trifluoromethyl cycloalkyl Piperidine substituted carboxamidobenzyl cycloalkyl Piperidine substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- cycloalkyl yl Piperidine substituted isobutyramido cycloalkyl Piperidine substituted isobutoxy cycloalkyl Piperidine substituted carboethoxy cycloalkyl Piperidine substituted carboxyl cycloalkyl Piperidine substituted amino cycloalkyl Piperazine substituted hydroxy cycloalkyl Piperazine substituted isobutylsulfonyl cycloalkyl Piperazine substituted trifluoromethyl cycloalkyl Piperazine substituted carboxamidobenzyl cycloalkyl Piperazine substituted carboxamidobutyl-2- cycloalkyl yl Piperazine substituted isobutyramido cycloalkyl Piperazine substituted isobutoxy cycloalkyl Piperazine substituted carboethoxy cycloalkyl Piperazine substituted carboxyl cycloalkyl Piperazine substituted amino cycloalkyl

In a preferred embodiment, the compounds correspond to any of Formulae A, B, C, or D and the core, Z1 and R44 are as identified in Table 2.

TABLE 2 Core Z1 R44 Piperidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, hydroxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutylsulfonyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobenzyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobutyl- cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, 2-yl or phenyl Piperidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutyramido cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboethoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, amino cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, hydroxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutylsulfonyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobenzyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobutyl- cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, 2-yl or phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutyramido cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboethoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, amino cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, hydroxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutylsulfonyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobenzyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobutyl- cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, 2-yl or phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutyramido cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboethoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydropyrimidinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, amino cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, hydroxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutylsulfonyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobenzyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobutyl- cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, 2-yl or phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutyramido cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboethoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dehydropiperidinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, amino cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyridazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, hydroxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyridazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutylsulfonyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyridazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyridazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobenzyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyridazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobutyl- cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, 2-yl or phenyl Dihydropyridazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutyramido cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyridazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyridazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboethoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyridazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydropyridazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, amino cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, hydroxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutylsulfonyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobenzyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobutyl- cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, 2-yl or phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutyramido cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboethoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Dihydroisoxazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, amino cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, hydroxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutylsulfonyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobenzyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobutyl- cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, 2-yl or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutyramido cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboethoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinedione methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, amino cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, hydroxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutylsulfonyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobenzyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobutyl- cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, 2-yl or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutyramido cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboethoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Tetrahydrotriazinone methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, amino cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperidine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, hydroxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperidine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutylsulfonyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperidine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperidine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobenzyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperidine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobutyl- cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, 2-yl or phenyl Piperidine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutyramido cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperidine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperidine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboethoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperidine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperidine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, amino cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperazine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, hydroxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperazine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutylsulfonyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperazine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, trifluoromethyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperazine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobenzyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperazine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxamidobutyl- cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, 2-yl or phenyl Piperazine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutyramido cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperazine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, isobutoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperazine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboethoxy cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperazine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, carboxyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl Piperazine methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, amino cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, or phenyl

For convenience, each of the core heterocyclic rings and R44 moieties identified in Tables 1 and 2 are set forth below.

Heterocyclic Core Ring Structures

R44 Moieties

In another preferred embodiment, the compounds corresponding to either of formulas (1) and (2) are selected from the group of compounds illustrated in Table 3 below wherein for any given compound, Z1 is isopropyl, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, trifluoroethyl, or carboxymethyl.

TABLE 3 Com- pound No. Compound 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Any prodrug compound of the present invention having one or more prodrug moieties as part of the molecule, can be converted under physiological conditions to the biologically active drug by a number of chemical and biological mechanisms. In general terms, as detailed above, these prodrug conversion mechanisms are hydrolysis, reduction, oxidation, and elimination. For illustrative purposes, the following paragraphs detail prodrugs in which the prodrug moiety is covalently bonded to the amidine group on Z3.

In one embodiment, conversion of the prodrug to the biologically active drug can be accomplished by hydrolysis of the prodrug moiety provided the prodrug moiety is chemically or enzymatically hydrolyzable with water. The reaction with water typically results in removal of the prodrug moiety and liberation of the biologically active drug. By way of example, a hydrolyzable prodrug derivative at the amidine group may be a carbonyl derivative such as N-acyl. Hydrolysis results in freeing the amidine group of the drug by removal of the acyl as carbon acid. Other suitable hydrolyzable prodrug derivatives include carbonyl, thiocarbonyl, imine, enamine, and oxygenated sulfur.

Yet another aspect of the invention provides conversion of the prodrug to the biologically active drug by reduction of the prodrug moiety. Typically in this embodiment, the prodrug moiety is reducible under physiological conditions in the presence of a reducing enzymatic process. The reduction preferably results in removal of the prodrug moiety and liberation of the biologically active drug. An example of a reducible prodrug derivative at the amidine group is an oxygen containing group in which an oxygen is directly attached to the amidine. Reduction results in freeing the amidine group of the drug by removal of oxygen as water or an alcohol. Generally speaking, other suitable reducible prodrug derivatives include a nitrogen containing group, and a sulfur containing group, provided both nitrogen and sulfur are each preferably in their most reduced state.

In another aspect of the invention, conversion of the prodrug to the biologically active drug can also be accomplished by oxidation of the prodrug moiety. Typically in this embodiment, the prodrug moiety is oxidizable under physiological conditions in the presence of an oxidative enzymatic process. The oxidation preferably results in removal of the prodrug moiety and liberation of the biologically active drug. An example of an oxidizable prodrug derivative at the amidine group is a hydrocarbyl containing unsaturation in the carbon beta to the carbon directly connected to the amidine group. Oxidation results in forming an oxygenated intermediate that breaks down, thereby freeing the amidine group of the drug with concurrent hydrolysis of the oxygenated hydrocarbyl residue. Other suitable oxidizable prodrug derivatives of the amidine include saturated hydrocarbyl, unsaturated substituted hydrocarbyl, aryl, and aralkyl.

A further aspect of the invention encompasses conversion of the prodrug to the biologically active drug by elimination of the prodrug moiety. Generally speaking, in this embodiment the prodrug moiety is removed under physiological conditions with a chemical or biological reaction. The elimination results in removal of the prodrug moiety and liberation of the biologically active drug. By way of example, an eliminateable prodrug derivative at the amidine group is a hydrocarbyl containing an unsaturated electron withdrawing group bonded to the carbon beta to the carbon directly connected to the amidine. More specifically, for illustration purposes and exemplification, the hydrocarbyl group could have a cyano group beta to the carbon directly bonded to the amidino group. Elimination results in the freeing of the amidine group of the drug with concurrent removal of the unsaturated hydrocarbyl residue derived from the prodrug moiety. Other suitable eliminateable prodrug derivatives of the amidine include a hydrocarbyl substituted at the beta carbon with carbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, amidocarbonyl, nitro, or sulfonyl or an alkyl group substituted with oxygen, nitrogen or sulfur at the carbon directly bonded to the amidine group.

Any prodrug compound of the present invention may undergo any combination of the above detailed mechanisms to convert the prodrug to the biologically active compound. For example, a particular compound may undergo hydrolysis, oxidation, elimination, and reduction to convert the prodrug to the biologically active compound. Equally, a particular compound may undergo only one of these mechanisms to convert the prodrug to the biologically active compound.

As a further embodiment, compounds of the present invention or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof, comprise a treatment and prophylaxis for thrombotic events resulting from coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease and other coagulation cascade related disorders in a subject, comprising administering to the subject having such disorder a therapeutically-effective amount of compounds of the present invention or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof.

In another aspect of the invention, the compounds may also be used whenever inhibition of blood coagulation is required such as to prevent coagulation of stored whole blood and to prevent coagulation in other biological samples for testing or storage. Thus coagulation inhibitors of the present inhibition can be added to or contacted with stored whole blood and any medium containing or suspected of containing plasma coagulation factors and in which it is desired that blood coagulation be inhibited, e.g. when contacting the mammal's blood with material selected from the group consisting of vascular grafts, stents, orthopedic prothesis, cardiac prosthesis, and extracorporeal circulation systems.

Compounds of the invention are capable of inhibiting activity of serine proteases related to the coagulation cascade, and thus could be used in the manufacture of a medicament, a method for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of diseases mediated by coagulation cascade serine proteases, such as inhibiting the formation of blood platelet aggregates, inhibiting the formation of fibrin, inhibiting thrombus formation, and inhibiting embolus formation in a mammal, in blood, in blood products, and in mammalian organs. The compounds also can be used for treating or preventing unstable angina, refractory angina, myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attacks, atrial fibrillation, thrombotic stroke, embolic stroke, deep vein thrombosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, ocular build up of fibrin, and reocclusion or restenosis of recanalized vessels in a mammal. The compounds also can be used to study the mechanism of action of coagulation cascade serine proteases to enable the design of better inhibitors and development of better assay methods. The compounds would be also useful in prevention of cerebral vascular accident (CVA) or stroke.

Also included in the family of compounds are the pharmaceutically-acceptable salts thereof. The term “pharmaceutically-acceptable salt” embraces salts commonly used to form alkali metal salts and to form addition salts of free acids or free bases. The nature of the salt is not critical, provided that it is pharmaceutically acceptable. Suitable pharmaceutically-acceptable acid addition salts of compounds of formulas (1), (2), or (3) may be prepared from an inorganic acid or from an organic acid. Examples of such inorganic acids are hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydroiodic, nitric, carbonic, sulfuric and phosphoric acid. Appropriate organic acids may be selected from aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic, araliphatic, heterocyclic, carboxylic and sulfonic classes of organic acids, examples of which are formic, acetic, propionic, succinic, glycolic, gluconic, lactic, malic, tartaric, citric, ascorbic, glucoronic, maleic, fumaric, pyruvic, aspartic, glutamic, benzoic, anthranilic, mesylic, salicylic, p-hydroxybenzoic, phenylacetic, mandelic, embonic (pamoic), methanesulfonic, ethylsulfonic, benzenesulfonic, sulfanilic, stearic, cyclohexylaminosulfonic, algenic, galacturonic acid. Suitable pharmaceutically-acceptable base addition salts of compounds of formulas (1), (2), or (3) include metallic salts made from aluminum, calcium, lithium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and zinc or organic salts made from N,N′-dibenzylethyleneldiamine, choline, chloroprocaine, diethanolamine, ethylenediamine, meglumine (N-methylglucamine) and procain. All of these salts may be prepared by conventional means from the corresponding compound by reacting, for example, the appropriate acid or base with the compound of the present invention.

The present invention also comprises a pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically-effective amount of the compound in association with at least one pharmaceutically-acceptable carrier, adjuvant or diluent. Pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention can comprise the active compounds in association with one or more non-toxic, pharmaceutically-acceptable carriers and/or diluents and/or adjuvants (collectively referred to herein as “carrier” materials) and, if desired, other active ingredients. The active compounds of the present invention may be administered by any suitable route, preferably in the form of a pharmaceutical composition adapted to such a route, and in a dose effective for the treatment intended.

The active compounds and composition may, for example, be administered orally, intravascularly, intraperitoneally, subcutaneously, intramuscularly, oculary, or topically. For treating ocular build up of fibrin, the compounds may be administered intraocularly or topically as well as orally or parenterally.

The compounds can be administered in the form of a depot injection or implant preparation which may be formulated in such a manner as to permit a sustained release of the active ingredient. The active ingredient can be compressed into pellets or small cylinders and implanted subcutaneously or intramusculary as depot injections or implants. Implants may employ inert materials such as biodegradable polymers or synthetic silicones, for example, Silastic, silicone rubber or other silicon containing polymers.

The compounds can also be administered in the form of liposome delivery systems, such as small unilamellar vesicles, large unilamellar vesicles and multilamellar vesicles. Liposomes can be formed from a variety of phospholipids, such as cholesterol, stearylamine or phosphatidylcholines.

The compounds may also be delivered by the use of monoclonal antibodies as individual carriers to which the compound molecules are coupled. The compounds may also be coupled with soluble polymers as targetable drug carriers. Such polymers can include polyvinylpyrrolidone, pyran copolymer, polyhydroxy-propyl-methacrylamide-phenol, polyhydroxyethyl-aspartamide-phenol, or ployethyleneoxide-polylysine substituted with palmitoyl residues. Furthermore, the compounds may be coupled to a class of biodegradable polymers useful in achieving controlled release of a drug, for example, polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid, copolymers of polylactic and polyglycolic acid, polyepsilon caprolactone, polyhydroxy butyric acid, polyorthoesters, polyacetals, polydihydropyrans, polycyanoacrylates and cross linked or amphitpathic block copolymers of hydrogels.

For oral administration, the pharmaceutical composition may be in the form of, for example, tablets, capsules (each of which includes sustained release or timed release formulations), pills, powders, granules, elixers, tinctures, suspensions, liquids including syrups, and emulsions. The pharmaceutical composition is preferably made in the form of a dosage unit containing a particular amount of the active ingredient. Examples of such dosage units are tablets or capsules. The active ingredient may also be administered by injection as a composition wherein, for example, saline, dextrose or water may be used as a suitable carrier.

The amount of therapeutically active compounds which are administered and the dosage regimen for treating a disease condition with the compounds and/or compositions of this invention depends on a variety of factors, including the age, weight, sex and medical condition of the subject, the severity of the disease, the route and frequency of administration, and the particular compound employed, and thus may vary widely.

The pharmaceutical compositions may contain active ingredients in the range of about 0.1 to 2000 mg, and preferably in the range of about 0.5 to 500 mg. A daily dose of about 0.01 to 100 mg/kg body weight, and preferably between about 0.5 and about 20 mg/kg body weight, may be appropriate. The daily dose can be administered in one to four doses per day.

The compounds may be formulated in topical ointment or cream, or as a suppository, containing the active ingredients in a total amount of, for example, 0.075 to 30% w/w, preferably 0.2 to 20% w/w and most preferably 0.4 to 15% w/w. When formulated in an ointment, the active ingredients may be employed with either paraffinic or a water-miscible ointment base.

Alternatively, the active ingredients may be formulated in a cream with an oil-in-water cream base. If desired, the aqueous phase of the cream base may include, for example at least 30% w/w of a polyhydric alcohol such as propylene glycol, butane-1,3-diol, mannitol, sorbitol, glycerol, polyethylene glycol and mixtures thereof. The topical formulation may desirably include a compound which enhances absorption or penetration of the active ingredient through the skin or other affected areas. Examples of such dermal penetration enhancers include dimethylsulfoxide and related analogs. The compounds of this invention can also be administered by a transdermal device. Preferably topical administration will be accomplished using a patch either of the reservoir and porous membrane type or of a solid matrix variety. In either case, the active agent is delivered continuously from the reservoir or microcapsules through a membrane into the active agent permeable adhesive, which is in contact with the skin or mucosa of the recipient. If the active agent is absorbed through the skin, a controlled and predetermined flow of the active agent is administered to the recipient. In the case of microcapsules, the encapsulating agent may also function as the membrane.

The oily phase of the emulsions of this invention may be constituted from known ingredients in a known manner. While the phase may comprise merely an emulsifier, it may comprise a mixture of at least one emulsifier with a fat or an oil or with both a fat and an oil. Preferably, a hydrophilic emulsifier is included together with a lipophilic emulsifier which acts as a stabilizer. It is also preferred to include both an oil and a fat. Together, the emulsifier(s) with or without stabilizer(s) make-up the so-called emulsifying wax, and the wax together with the oil and fat make up the so-called emulsifying ointment base which forms the oily dispersed phase of the cream formulations. Emulsifiers and emulsion stabilizers suitable for use in the formulation of the present invention include Tween 60, Span 80, cetostearyl alcohol, myristyl alcohol, glyceryl monostearate, and sodium lauryl sulfate, among others.

The choice of suitable oils or fats for the formulation is based on achieving the desired cosmetic properties, since the solubility of the active compound in most oils likely to be used in pharmaceutical emulsion formulations is very low. Thus, the cream should preferably be a non-greasy, non-staining and washable product with suitable consistency to avoid leakage from tubes or other containers. Straight or branched chain, mono- or dibasic alkyl esters such as diisoadipate, isocetyl stearate, propylene glycol diester of coconut fatty acids, isopropyl myristate, decyl oleate, isopropyl palmitate, butyl stearate, 2-ethylhexyl palmitate or a blend of branched chain esters may be used. These may be used alone or in combination depending on the properties required. Alternatively, high melting point lipids such as white soft paraffin and/or liquid paraffin or other mineral oils can be used.

For therapeutic purposes, the active compounds of the present invention are ordinarily combined with one or more adjuvants appropriate to the indicated route of administration. If administered per os, the compounds may be admixed with lactose, sucrose, starch powder, cellulose esters of alkanoic acids, cellulose alkyl esters, talc, stearic acid, magnesium stearate, magnesium oxide, sodium and calcium salts of phosphoric and sulfuric acids, gelatin, acacia gum, sodium alginate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and/or polyvinyl alcohol, and then tableted or encapsulated for convenient administration. Such capsules or tablets may contain a controlled-release formulation as may be provided in a dispersion of active compound in hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose. Formulations for parenteral administration may be in the form of aqueous or non-aqueous isotonic sterile injection solutions or suspensions. These solutions and suspensions may be prepared from sterile powders or granules having one or more of the carriers or diluents mentioned for use in the formulations for oral administration. The compounds may be dissolved in water, polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, ethanol, corn oil, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, benzyl alcohol, sodium chloride, and/or various buffers. Other adjuvants and modes of administration are well and widely known in the pharmaceutical art.

In practicing the methods of the present invention for the treatment and prevention of a variety of thrombotic conditions resulting from coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease, the compounds and pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention are administered alone or in combination with one another, or in combination with other therapeutics or in vivo diagnostic agents. The coagulation cascade inhibitors of the present invention can also be co-administered with suitable anti-platelet aggregation agents, including, but not limited to ticlopidine, clopidrogel, or aspirin, fibrinogen receptor antagonists (e.g., to treat or prevent unstable angina or to prevent reocculsion after angioplasty and restenosis), anti-coagulants such as warfarin or heparins, thrombolytic agents such as plasminogen activators or streptokinase to achieve synergistic effects in the treatment of various pathologies, lipid lowering agents including antihypercholesterolemics (e.g., HMG CoA reductase inhibitors such as mevastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, and fluvastatin, HMG CoA synthatase inhibitors, etc.), anti-diabetic drugs, or other cardiovascular agents (loop diuretics, thiazide type diuretics, nitrates, aldosterone antagonistics (i.e., spironolactone and eplerenone), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, beta-blockers, antiarrythmics, anti-hypertension agents, and calcium channel blockers) to treat or prevent atheriosclerosis. For example, patients suffering from coronary artery disease, and patients subjected to angioplasty procedures, would benefit from coadministration of fibrinogen receptor antagonists and coagulation cascade inhibitors of the present invention. Also, coagulation cascade inhibitors could enhance the efficiency of tissue plasminogen activator-mediated thrombolytic reperfusion.

Typical doses of coagulation cascade inhibitors of the present invention with other suitable anti-platelet agents, anticoagulation agents, cardiovascular therapeutic agents, or thrombolytic agents may be the same as those doses of coagulation cascade inhibitors administered without coadministration of additional anti-platelet agents, anticoagulation agents, cardiovascular therapeutic agents, or thrombolytic agents, or may be substantially less than those doses of coagulation cascade inhibitors administered without coadministration of additional anti-platelet agents, anticoagulation agents, cardiovascular therapeutic agents, or thrombolytic agents, depending on a patient's therapeutic needs.

Compounds of the present invention can exist in tautomeric, geometric or stereoisomeric forms. The present invention contemplates all such compounds, including cis- and trans-geometric isomers, E- and Z-geometric isomers, R- and S-enantiomers, diastereomers, d-isomers, l-isomers, the racemic mixtures thereof and other mixtures thereof, as falling within the scope of the invention. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts of such tautomeric, geometric or stereoisomeric forms are also included within the invention.

The terms “cis” and “trans”, as used herein, denote a form of geometric isomerism in which two carbon atoms connected by a double bond will each have a hydrogen atom on the same side of the double bond (“sis”) or on opposite sides of the double bond (“trans”).

Some of the compounds described contain alkenyl groups, and are meant to include both cis and trans or “E” and “Z” geometric forms.

Some of the compounds described contain one or more stereocenters and are meant to include R, S, and mixtures of R and S forms for each stereocenter present.

The present novel methods preferably employ compounds which selectively inhibit human TF-VIIa over the inhibition of both human Thrombin II and human factor Xa. Preferably, the compounds have a human TF-VIIa IC50 of less than 0.5 uM and also have a selectivity ratio of TF-VIIa inhibition over both human Thrombin II and human factor Xa inhibition of at least 10, and more preferably at least 100. Even more preferably, the compounds have a human TF-VIIa IC50 of less than 0.1 uM and also have a selectivity ratio of TF-VIIa inhibition over both human Thrombin II and human factor Xa inhibition of at least 300, more preferably at least 1000, and most preferably at least 10,000.

All mentioned references are incorporated by reference as if here written.

Although this invention has been described with respect to specific embodiments, the details of these embodiments are not to be construed as limitations. Without further elaboration, it is believed that one skilled in the art can, using the preceding descriptions, utilize the present invention to its fullest extent. Compounds containing multiple variations of the structural modifications illustrated in the Schemes are also contemplated. Those skilled in the art will readily understand that known variations of the conditions and processes of the following preparative procedures can be used to prepare these compounds.

GENERAL SYNTHETIC PROCEDURES AND SPECIFIC EXAMPLES

The compounds of the present invention can be synthesized, for example, according to the following procedures and Schemes given below.

Abbreviations used in the schemes and tables include: “AA” represents amino acids, “AcCN” represents acetonitrile, “AcOH” represents acetic acid, “BINAP” represents 2,2′-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1′-binaphthyl, “BnOH” represents benzyl alcohol, “BnCHO” represents 2-phenylethanal, “BnSO2Cl” represents benzylsulfonyl chloride, “Boc” represents tert-butyloxycarbonyl, “BOP” represents benzotriazol-1-yl-oxy-tris-(dimethylamino), “bu” represents butyl, “dba” represents dibenzylidene-acetone, “DCC” represents 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, “DCM” represents dichloromethane or methylene chloride, “DIBAH” or “DIBAL” represents diisobutylaluminum hydride, “DMF” represents dimethylformamide, “DMSO” represents dimethylsulfoxide, “DPPA” represents diphenylphosphoryl azide”, “EDC” represents 1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride, “Ex. No.” represents Example Number, “Fmoc” represents 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl, “HOBt” represents hydroxybenzoltriazole”, “LDA” represents lithium diisopropylamide, “MW” represents molecular weight, “NMM” represents N-methylmorpholine, “Ph” represents phenyl or aryl, “PHTH” represents a phthaloyl group, “pnZ” represents 4-nitrobenzyloxy-carbonyl, “PTC” represents a phase transfer catalyst, “py” represents pyridine, “RNH2” represents a primary organic amine, “SEM” represents 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy-methyl chloride, “p-TsOH” represents paratoluenesulfonic acid, “TBAF” represents tetrabutylammonium fluoride, “TBTU” represents 2-(1H-benzotriozole-1-yl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyl uronium tetrafluoroborate, “TEA” represents triethylamine, “TFA” represents trifluoroacetic acid, “THF” represents tetrahydrofuran, “TMS” represents trimethylsilyl, “TMSCN” represents trimethylsilyl cyanide, and “Cbz” or “Z” represents benzyloxycarbonyl.

A specific synthetic process, useful in the preparation of many of the heterocyclic compounds of the present invention, is the arylation or heteroarylation of an intermediate compound characterized by having a suitable leaving group on a sp2 hybridized carbon of a heterocyclic ring or a cyclodalkenyl ring. In the product of the reaction, the leaving group is replaced by an aryl group or a heteroaryl group. Suitable leaving groups for the reaction include chloro, bromo, iodo, methylthio, and triflates. The heterocyclic ring or the cycloalkenyl ring with the leaving group will preferably have an acetic acid group or a derivative thereof bonded to a ring atom alpha to the bromo and a substituted or unsubstituted amino group bonded to a ring atom that is both beta to the carbon having the acetic acid group and gamma to the bromo substituted ring carbon. The aryl group that is reacted at the sp2 hybridized carbon is generally an aryl boronic acid or an ester of the aryl boronic acid; similarly, heteroaryl boronic acids or esters of these boronic acids can be used in the same manner as aryl boronates. The aryl and heteroaryl boronates may be substituted or unsubstituted. The aryl or heteroaryl becomes bonded to the sp2 hybridized carbon at the point at which the boron was attached to the aryl or heteroaryl ring. Aryl and heteroaryl organoSn compounds can also be used instead of the corresponding boronates.

Suitable reaction conditions for carrying out this transformation include:

    • 1. Pd[P(phenyl)3]4, 2M Na2CO3, 60-75° C., dimethoxyethane (DME), H2O, N2;
    • 2. Pd[P(phenyl)3]4, Cs2CO3, dioxane, 100° C.;
    • 3. Pd[P(phenyl)3]4, Cu(I)-2-thiophenecarboxylate, 70-75° C., anhydrous THF, argon;
    • 4. Z4-Sn(n-butyl)3], Pd[P(phenyl)3]4, LiCl, anhydrous dioxane, 85° C., argon or N2.
      The organo palladium (Pd[P(phenyl)3]4) compound is used catalytically in a ratio of 1 to 40 mole %. The carbonate base is normally used in an excess of 1.2 to 2 molar equivalents. Suitable solvents include dimethoxyethane (DME), dioxane, 1-propanol, and tetrahydrofuran. The temperature of the reaction is normally in the range of from about 50 to 100° C. Cu(I)-2-thiophenecarboxylate (Cu(I)-TC) is normally used in a mole % of 110-150.

Schemes 2, 4, 5 and 6 show specific applications of this specific synthetic process. Procedures for preparing the intermediate heterocyclic or cycloalkenyl ring. compounds having a suitable leaving group on sp2 hybridized carbon and useful as suitable intermediates in this specific synthetic process are given in the schemes and examples listed above.

As used in the schemes and examples, L3, Z1, Z3, Z4, and R44, along with any other variable depicted, encompass each group described for each particular variable for each embodiment of compounds having any of the formulas detailed herein. Further, Z5 and Z6 are independently hydrogen or halogen, R4a and R4b are hydrogen, and L6 is a bond.

Claims

1. A compound having the structure: wherein

X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 are each ring atoms defining a 6-membered heterocyclic ring;
X1, X3, and X4 are independently carbon or nitrogen;
X2, X5, and X6 are independently carbon, nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur where X5 and X6 are optionally substituted with a halogen;
provided no more than 4 of X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 are sp2 hybridized;
L1, L3 and L4 are linkages through which Z1, Z3, and Z4, respectively, are covalently bonded to different ring atoms of the 6-membered heterocyclic ring defined by X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6, wherein Z1 is covalently bonded to X1, Z3 is covalently bonded to X3, and Z4 is covalently bonded to X4, each of L1, L3 and L4 independently being a covalent bond or comprising one or more atoms through which Z1, Z3, and Z4 are covalently bonded to X1, X3 and X4, respectively;
Z1 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl;
Z2 is hydrogen, an electron pair, or a hydrogen bond acceptor covalently or datively bonded to X2;
Z3 comprises a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or aromatic ring substituted with an amidine or a derivatized amidine group, the ring atoms of the 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or aromatic ring of Z3 being carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, or oxygen, wherein the 5- or 6-membered ring is optionally substituted at any position with halogen, hydroxy, haloalkyl, alkyl, carboxy, alkoxycarbonyl, or hydrocarbyloxy; and
Z4 comprises a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or carbocyclic ring, the ring atoms of the 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or carbocyclic ring of Z4 being carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur.

2. The compound of claim 1 wherein Z2 is a hydrogen bond acceptor covalently or datively bonded to X2;

Z3 comprises a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or aromatic ring substituted with an amidine or derivatized amidine group, the ring atoms of the 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or aromatic ring of Z3 being carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, or oxygen, wherein the 5- or 6-membered ring is optionally substituted at any position with halogen, hydroxy, haloalkyl, or alkyl; and
X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, L1, L3, L4, Z1, and Z4 are as defined in claim 1.

3. The compound of claim 1 wherein X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 are independently selected from carbon and nitrogen provided at least one of X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 is nitrogen.

4. The compound of claims 1 or 2 wherein X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, and Z2 are selected to provide a heterocyclic ring selected from the group consisting of piperidinone, dihydropyrimidinone, tetrahydropyrimidinone, dehydropiperidinedione, dihydropyridazinone, dihydroisoxazinone, tetrahydrotriazinedione, tetrahydrotriazinone, piperidine, and piperazine.

5. The compound of claims 1 or 2 wherein L1 is covalently bonded directly to X6 to form a fused ring.

6. The compound of claims 1 or 2 wherein L1 is X9NH, wherein X9 is covalently bonded to Z1, and X9 is a bond or (CH2)m, wherein m is 1 to 5.

7. The compound of claim 6 wherein X9 is a bond.

8. The compound of claims 1 or 2 wherein L3 is selected from the group consisting of a glycine derivative, an alanine derivative, an amino derivative, and a sulfonyl derivative.

9. The compound of claim 8 wherein L3 is CH2CONHCH2.

10. The compound of claim 1 wherein L4 is selected from the group consisting of a bond, methylene, ethylene, or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and phosphorus.

11. The compound of claim 10 wherein L4 is a bond.

12. The compound of claim 1 wherein Z1 is selected from the group consisting of cyclopropyl, isopropyl, methyl, ethyl, cyclobutyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, sec-butyl, and phenyl optionally substituted at any substitutable position with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy or alkoxycarbonyl.

13. The compound of claims 1 or 2 wherein the 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or aromatic ring comprising Z3 is substituted with a derivatized amidine which, upon hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction or elimination yields an amidine group.

14. The compound of claim 1 wherein Z3 comprises a substituted phenyl, thienyl, or furanyl ring, the phenyl, thienyl or furanyl ring being substituted with an amidine or a derivatized amidine group, and optionally further substituted at any substitutable position with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy, alkoxycarbonyl, or hydrocarbyloxy;

15. The compound of claim 14 wherein Z3 is wherein

R304 and R306 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy, hydrocarbyloxy and alkoxycarbonyl; and
R305 and R307 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, methoxy, hydroxy and carboxy.

16. The compound of claim 2 wherein the 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or aromatic ring comprising Z3 is optionally substituted at any position with fluorine, methyl or hydroxy.

17. The compound of claim 1 wherein Z4 comprises a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or carbocyclic ring, the ring atoms of Z4 being Z40, Z41, Z42, Z44 and Z45 when Z4 is a 5-membered ring and Z40, Z41, Z42, Z43, Z44 and Z45 when Z4 is a 6-membered ring, Z40, Z41, Z42, Z43, Z44 and Z45, being carbon, nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, Z40 being the ring atom through which Z4 is attached to the heterocyclic core ring, Z41 and Z45 each being in an alpha position relative to Z40, Z42 and Z44 each being in a beta position relative to Z40, Z43 being in the gamma position relative to Z40 when Z4 is a 6-membered ring, Z4 having a substituent R42 covalently attached to Z42, and a second substituent bonded to one of Z41, Z43, Z44, or Z45, the substituent being R41 when bonded to Z41, the substituent being R43 when bonded to Z43, the substituent being R44 when bonded to Z44, and the substituent being R45 when bonded to Z45;

R42 is amino; and
R41, R43, R44 and R45 are independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heterocyclo, halogen, or a substituted or unsubstituted heteroatom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and phosphorus, provided at least one of R41, R43, R44 or R45 is other than hydrogen.

18. The compound of claim 17 wherein R44 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heteroaryl, heterocyclo, halogen, acetamido, guanidino, hydroxy, nitro, amino, amidosulfonyl, acylamido, hydrocarbyloxy, substituted hydrocarbyloxy, hydrocarbylthio, substituted hydrocarbylthio, hydrocarbylsulfonyl, and substituted hydrocarbylsulfonyl.

19. The compound of claim 1 wherein the compound has the structure: wherein

X9 is a bond or (CH2)m wherein m is 1 or 2; and
X1, X2, X3 X4, X5, X6, Z1, Z2, Z3, and Z4 are as defined in claim 1.

20. The compound of claim 19 wherein X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 are independently selected from carbon and nitrogen, and at least one of X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 is nitrogen.

21. The compound of claims 1 or 19 wherein X2 is carbon and Z2 is hydrogen, fluorine, oxygen, or sulfur.

22. The compound of claims 1 or 19 wherein X2 is nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur and Z2 is hydrogen, an electron pair, or a hydrogen bond acceptor.

23. The compound of claims 1 or 19 wherein X2 is nitrogen and Z2 is hydrogen, oxygen, amino, or acyl.

24. The compound of claims 1 or 19 wherein X3 is nitrogen.

25. The compound of claims 1 or 19 wherein X2 is carbon and X3 is nitrogen.

26. The compound of claim 19 wherein X9 is a bond.

27. The compound of claim 26 wherein Z1 is C1-C5 alkyl optionally substituted at any substitutable position with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy or alkoxycarbonyl.

28. The compound of claim 19 wherein Z1 is selected from the group consisting of cyclopropyl, isopropyl, methyl, ethyl, cyclobutyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, sec-butyl, and phenyl optionally substituted at any substitutable position with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy or alkoxycarbonyl.

29. The compound of claim 19 wherein the 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or aromatic ring comprising Z3 is substituted with a derivatized amidine which, upon hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction or elimination, or any combination thereof, yields an amidine group.

30. The compound of 19 wherein Z3 is phenyl substituted with a derivatized amidine which, upon hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction or elimination, or any combination thereof, under physiological conditions yields an amidine group.

31. The compound of claim 19 wherein Z3 comprises a substituted phenyl, thienyl, or furanyl ring, the phenyl, thienyl or furanyl ring being substituted with an amidine or a derivatized amidine group, and optionally further substituted at any substitutable position with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy, alkoxycarbonyl, or hydrocarbyloxy

32. The compound of claim 31 wherein Z3 is wherein

R304 and R306 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy, hydrocarbyloxy and alkoxycarbonyl; and
R305 and R307 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, methoxy, hydroxy and carboxy.

33. The compound of claims 1 or 19 wherein Z4 is a substituted, 6-membered, carbocyclic aromatic ring.

34. The compound of claim 19 wherein Z4 is

wherein:
R42 is amino;
R44 is hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; and
R41, R43 and R45 are independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur.

35. The compound of claim 34 wherein R41, R43 and R45 are independently hydrogen, halogen, alkoxy, or alkyl, optionally substituted with halogen or alkoxy and R42 and R44 are as defined in claim 34.

36. The compound of claim 34 wherein R44 is selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, acetamidyl, alkoxy, hydroxy, amino, alkylsulfonyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkythio, alkoxycarbonyl, carboxy, sulfonamido, carboxamido and sulfonamidyl, optionally substituted with fluorine.

37. The compound of claim 36 wherein R44 is selected from the group consisting of hydroxy, carboxy, carboxamido, alkoxy, alkylsulfonyl, sulfonamido, or alkoxycarbonyl.

38. The compound of claim 37 wherein R44 is sec-butylamide, carboxy, ethoxycarbonyl, isopropoxycarbonyl, butoxycarbonyl, isopropylamide or hydroxy.

39. The compound of claim 34 wherein R44 is selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, acetamido, alkoxy, hydroxy, amino, alkylsulfonyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkylthio, carboalkoxy, carboxy, carboxamidoalkyl, and carboxamidoalkylaryl.

40. The compound of claim 39 wherein each of R41, R43 and R45 is hydrogen.

41. The compound of claim 36 wherein Z41, Z43 or Z45 is substituted with fluorine or chlorine.

42. The compound of claim 19 wherein Z4 is wherein

R42 is amino;
R43 is hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; and
R41, R44 and R45 are independently hydrogen, halogen or alkoxy.

43. The compound of claim 19 wherein Z4 is wherein

R42 is amino;
R45 is hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; and
R41, R43 and R44 are independently hydrogen, halogen or alkoxy.

44. The compound of claim 19 wherein Z4 is wherein

R42 is amino;
R41 is hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; and
R43, R44 and R45 are independently hydrogen, halogen or alkoxy.

45. The compound of claim 19 wherein Z4 has the following structure: wherein

Z40, Z41, Z42, Z44, and Z45 are independently selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur;
R42 is amino;
R44 is hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; and
R41 and R45 are independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur.

46. The compound of claim 45 wherein R41 and R45 are independently hydrogen, halogen, alkoxy, or alkyl, optionally substituted with halogen or alkoxy and R42 and R44 are as defined in claim 45.

47. The compound of claim 45 wherein R44 is selected from the group consisting of hydroxy, carboxy, carboxamido, alkoxy, alkylsulfonyl, sulfonamido, or alkoxycarbonyl.

48. The compound of claim 47 wherein R44 is sec-butylamide, carboxy, ethoxycarbonyl, isopropoxycarbonyl, butoxycarbonyl, isopropylamide or hydroxy.

49. The compound of claims 1 or 19 wherein X9 is a bond, Z1 is selected from the group consisting of cyclopropyl, isopropyl, cyclobutyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, methyl, ethyl, and phenyl, and Z3 is phenyl substituted with an amidine group.

50. The compound of claims 1 or 19 wherein X9 is a bond, Z4 is a substituted, 6-membered, carbocyclic aromatic ring, Z3 is phenyl substituted with a derivatized amidine which, upon hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction or elimination under physiological conditions yields an amidine group, and Z1 is selected from the group consisting of cyclopropyl, isopropyl, methyl, ethyl, cyclobutyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, and phenyl.

51. The compound of claims 1 or 19 wherein X9 is a bond, Z1 is selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted C1-C6 cycloalkyl, C1-C6 alkyl and phenyl, Z3 is phenyl substituted with a derivatized amidine which, upon hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction or elimination under physiological conditions yields an amidine group, and Z4 is wherein

R42 is amino;
R44 is selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen and an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; and
R41, R43 and R45 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen and an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur.

52. The compound of claim 51 wherein R44 is selected from the group consisting of hydroxy, alkylsulfonyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkylthio, carboxamidoalkyl, and carboxamidoalkylaryl.

53. The compound of claim 51 wherein each of R41, R43 and R45 is hydrogen.

54. The compound of claim 51 wherein R44 is selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, acetamidyl, alkoxy, hydroxy, amino, alkylsulfonyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkythio, alkoxycarbonyl, carboxy, sulfonamido, carboxamido and sulfonamidyl, optionally substituted with fluorine; and each of Z41, Z43 and Z45 is optionally substituted with fluorine or chlorine.

55. The compound of claim 54 wherein R44 is sec-butylamide, carboxy, ethoxycarbonyl, isopropoxycarbonyl, butoxycarbonyl, isopropylamide or hydroxy.

56. The compound of any of claims 1 or 19 wherein the 6-membered heterocyclic ring defined by X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, and Z2 is selected from the group consisting of piperidinone, dihydropyrimidinone, tetrahydropyrimidinone, tetrahydrotriazinone, piperidine, and piperazine.

57. The compound of claim 1 having the structure: wherein

X1, X4, X5 and X6 are independently carbon or nitrogen;
Z1 is selected from the group consisting of cyclopropyl, isopropyl, methyl, ethyl, cyclobutyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, sec-butyl, and phenyl optionally substituted with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy, or alkoxycarbonyl;
R440 is C1-C6 alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, carboxy, or carboxyalkyl, wherein said alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, carboxy, or carboxyalkyl is optionally further substituted by fluorine; and
R310 and R311 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, hydroxy, alkoxy, and carboxy.

58. The compound of claim 1 having the structure: wherein

X1, X4, X5 and X6 are independently carbon or nitrogen;
Z1 is selected from the group consisting of cyclopropyl, isopropyl, methyl, ethyl, cyclobutyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, sec-butyl, and phenyl optionally substituted with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy, or alkoxycarbonyl;
R440 is C1-C6 alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, carboxy, or carboxyalkyl, wherein said alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, carboxy, or carboxyalkyl is optionally further substituted by fluorine; and
R310 and R311 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, hydroxy, alkoxy, and carboxy.

59. A compound having the structure: wherein

X1, X2, X5, and X6 are members of a heterocyclic ring;
X1, X2 and X3 are independently carbon or nitrogen;
X5 and X6 are independently selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, carbon, C(F) and C(Br);
provided no more than 4 of X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 are sp2 hybridized;
T3is selected from the group consisting of hydroxy, alkoxy, substituted alkoxy, and substituted amino;
T4 is selected from the group consisting of —Cl, —Br, —I, —S(CH3), and —OSO2(CF3);
Z1 is hydrocarbyl, or substituted hydrocarbyl; and
Z2 is a hydrogen bond acceptor covalently or datively bonded to X2.

60. A compound having the structure: wherein

X1, X2, X5, and X6 are members of a heterocyclic ring;
X1, X2 and X3 are independently carbon or nitrogen;
X5 and X6 are independently selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, carbon, C(F) and C (Br);
provided no more than 4 of X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, and X6 are sp2 hybridized;
Z4 comprises hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl or a 5 or 6 membered heterocyclic or carbocyclic ring, the ring atoms of the 5 or 6 membered heterocyclic or carboxylic ring of Z4 being carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur;
Z1 is hydrocarbyl, or substituted hydrocarbyl; and
Z2 is a hydrogen bond acceptor covalently or datively bonded to X2.

61. The compound of claim 1 having the structure: wherein

Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, L3, X1, X2, X3, X4, and X5 are as defined in claim 1;
X6 is carbon or nitrogen;
X7 and X8 are independently carbon, nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur;
R70 and R80 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, amino, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, phenyl optionally substituted by hydroxy, amino, C1-C8 alkyl, or halogen provided that R70 is not present when X7 is a bond and R80 is not present when X8 is a bond; or R70 and R80, along with the ring atoms to which each is attached, form a 5- or 6-membered saturated ring; and
n is 0 to 2.

62. The compound of claim 61 having the structure: wherein

X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7, X8, Z1, Z3, Z4, R70, R80 and n are as defined in claim 61.

63. The compound of claim 62 wherein X7 and X8 are carbon.

64. The compound of claim 62 wherein Z4 is wherein:

R42 is amino;
R44 is hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; and
R41, R43 and R45 are independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur.

65. The compound of claim 62 wherein Z1 is methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, cyclopropyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, and cyclobutyl optionally substituted at any substitutable position with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy or alkoxycarbonyl.

66. The compound of claim 62 wherein Z3 is wherein

R304 and R306 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy, hydrocarbyloxy, and alkoxycarbonyl; and
R305 and R307 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, methoxy, hydroxy, and carboxy.

67. A compound having the structure: wherein

Z1 is selected from the group consisting of an optionally substituted C2 to C8 alkyl, optionally substituted C3 to C6 cycloalkyl and optionally substituted phenyl;
Z3 comprises a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or aromatic ring substituted with an amidine or a derivatized amidine group which, upon hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction or elimination yields an amidine group, the ring atoms of the 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or aromatic ring of Z3 being carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, or oxygen;
Z4 comprises a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or carbocyclic ring, the ring atoms of Z4 being Z40, Z41, Z42, Z44 and Z45 when Z4 is a 5-membered ring and Z40, Z41, Z42, Z43, Z44 and Z45 when Z4 is a 6-membered ring, Z40, Z41, Z42, Z43, Z44 and Z45, being carbon, nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, Z40 being the ring atom through which Z4 is attached to the heterocyclic core ring, Z41 and Z45each being in an alpha position relative to Z40, Z42 and Z44 each being in a beta position relative to Z40, Z43 being in the gamma position relative to Z40 when Z4 is a 6-membered ring, Z4 having a substituent R42 covalently attached to Z42, and a second substituent bonded to one of Z41, Z43, Z44, or Z45, the substituent being R41 when bonded to Z41, the substituent being R43 when bonded to Z43, the substituent being R44 when bonded to Z44, and the substituent being R45 when bonded to Z45;
R42 is amino; and
R41, R43, R44 and R45 are independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heterocyclo, halogen, or a substituted or unsubstituted heteroatom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and phosphorus, provided at least one of R41, R43, R44 or R45 is other than hydrogen.

68. The compound of claim 67 wherein Z1 is selected from the group consisting of cyclopropyl, isopropyl, methyl, ethyl, cyclobutyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, sec-butyl, and phenyl optionally substituted at any substitutable position with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy or alkoxycarbonyl.

69. The compound of claim 68 wherein Z1 is cyclopropyl or isopropyl optionally substituted at any substitutable position with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy or alkoxycarbonyl.

70. The compound of claim 67 wherein Z3 comprises a substituted phenyl, thienyl, or furanyl ring, the phenyl, thienyl or furanyl ring being substituted with an amidine or a derivatized amidine group, and optionally further substituted at any substitutable position with fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy, alkoxycarbonyl, or hydrocarbyloxy.

71. The compound of claim 70 wherein Z3 is wherein

R304 and R306 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, hydroxy, carboxy, hydrocarbyloxy and alkoxycarbonyl; and
R305 and R307 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, methoxy, hydroxy and carboxy.

72. The compound of claim 70 wherein the 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic or aromatic ring comprising Z3 is substituted with a derivatized amidine which, upon hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction or elimination, or any combination thereof, yields an amidine group.

73. The compound of claim 67 wherein Z4 has the following structure: wherein

R42 is amino;
R44 is hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; and
R41, R43 and R45 are independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur.

74. The compound of claim 73 wherein R41, R43 and R45 are independently hydrogen, halogen, alkoxy, or alkyl, optionally substituted with halogen or alkoxy and R42 and R44 are as defined in claim 73.

75. The compound of claim 73 wherein R44 is selected from the group consisting of hydroxy, carboxy, carboxamido, alkoxy, alkylsulfonyl, sulfonamido, or alkoxycarbonyl.

76. The compound of claim 75 wherein R44 is sec-butylamide, carboxy, ethoxycarbonyl, isopropoxycarbonyl, butoxycarbonyl, isopropylamide or hydroxy.

77. The compound of claim 67 wherein Z4 has the following structure:

wherein Z40, Z41, Z42, Z44, and Z45 are independently selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur;
R42 is amino;
R44 is hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; and
R41 and R45 are independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halogen or an optionally substituted heteroatom selected from the group consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur.

78. The compound of claim 77 wherein R41 and R45 are independently hydrogen, halogen, alkoxy, or alkyl, optionally substituted with halogen or alkoxy and R42 and R44 are as defined in claim 77.

79. The compound of claim 77 wherein R44 is selected from the group consisting of hydroxy, carboxy, carboxamido, alkoxy, alkylsulfonyl, sulfonamido, or alkoxycarbonyl.

80. The compound of claim 79 wherein R44 is sec-butylamide, carboxy, ethoxycarbonyl, isopropoxycarbonyl, butoxycarbonyl, isopropylamide or hydroxy.

81. A composition for substantially inhibiting thrombotic conditions in blood comprising a compound of claims 1 or 19 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

82. A method for substantially inhibiting thrombotic conditions in blood comprising adding to blood a therapeutically effective amount of the composition of claim 81.

83. A method for substantially inhibiting formation of blood platelet aggregates in blood comprising adding to blood a therapeutically effective amount of the composition of claim 81.

84. A method for substantially inhibiting thrombus formation in blood comprising adding to blood a therapeutically effective amount of the composition of claim 81.

85. A method for treating or preventing venuous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of the composition of claim 81.

86. A method for treating or preventing deep vein thrombosis in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of the composition of claim 81.

87. A method for treating or preventing cardiogenic thromboembolism in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of the composition of claim 81.

88. A method for treating or preventing thromboembolic stroke in mammals comprising administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of the composition of claim 81.

89. A method for treating or preventing thrombosis associated with cancer and cancer chemotherapy in mammals comprising administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of the composition of claim 81.

90. A method for treating or preventing unstable angina in mammals comprising administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of the composition of claim 81.

91. A method for substantially inhibiting thrombus formation in blood comprising adding to blood a therapeutically effective amount of the composition of claim 81 with a therapeutically effective amount of fibrinogen receptor antagonist.

92. The method of any of claims 85-91 wherein the mammal is a human.

Patent History
Publication number: 20050267123
Type: Application
Filed: Jun 23, 2005
Publication Date: Dec 1, 2005
Applicant: Pharmacia Corporation (St. Louis, MO)
Inventors: Michael South (St. Louis, MO), Ronald Webber (St. Charles, MO), Horng-Chih Huang (Chesterfield, MO), Mihaly Toth (St. Louis, MO), Alan Moormann (Weldon Springs, MO), Jeffery Snyder (Manchester, MO), Jeffrey Scholten (Chesterfield, MO), Danny Garland (Ballwin, MO), Melvin Rueppel (St. Louis, MO), William Neumann (St. Louis, MO), Scott Long (Ballwin, MO), Wei Huang (Wildwood, MO), John Trujillo (St. Peters, MO), John Parlow (Arnold, MO), Darin Jones (Ballwin, MO), Brenda Case (St. Louis, MO), Michael Hayes (St. Louis, MO)
Application Number: 11/159,877
Classifications
Current U.S. Class: 514/252.140; 514/269.000; 544/295.000; 544/316.000