Identification of a gene causing the most common form of Bardet-Biedl syndrome and uses thereof
The present invention relates to the identification of a gene, mutated at the most common locus now designated BBS1, that is involved in the genetic disease Bardet Biedl Syndrome (BBS), which is characterized by such diverse symptoms as obesity, diabetes, hypogonadism, mental retardation, renal cancer and other renal abnormalities, retinopathy and polydactyly or limb deformities. The human BBS1 protein disclosed herein is composed of 17 exons and spans approximately 23 kb. Methods of use for the gene, for example in diagnosis and therapy of BBS and in drug screening, also are described.
This application is related to, and claims a benefit of priority under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) and/or 35 U.S.C. § 120 from, copending U.S. Ser. No. 60/384,212, filed May 30, 2002, the entire contents of which are hereby expressly incorporated by reference for all purposes.
The government may own rights in the present invention pursuant to NIH grant number P50-HL-55006 and R01-EY-11298.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to the fields of genetics and molecular biology. More particular the invention relates to the identification of a gene that is involved in Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS), designated here as BBS1. Defects in this gene are associated with a variety of clinical symptoms including diabetes, hypogonadism, renal cancer and other renal defects, retinopathy, limb deformity or polydactyly, mental retardation and obesity. The invention further provides methods of screening for therapeutic compositions.
2. Description of Related Art
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by obesity, pigmentary retinopathy, polydactyly, renal malformations, mental retardation, and hypogenitalism (Bardet, 1920; Biedl, 1922; Solis-Cohen and Weiss, 1924; Green et al., 1989). Patients with BBS are also at increased risk for diabetes mellitus, hypertension and congenital heart disease (Green et al., 1989; Harnett et al., 1988; Elbedour et al., 1994). A high frequency of renal abnormalities is also associated with this disorder. The mental retardation is often mild. Obesity begins early in infancy, and complications of obesity including diabetes mellitus and hypertension occur later in life. The associated retinal degeneration is usually severe and most patients become blind prior to 20 years of age. A recent report also provides evidence of an increased incidence of renal cell carcinoma (kidney cancer) as well as kidney malformations in BBS subjects.
The incidence of BBS varies between populations. A relatively high incidence of BBS is found in the mixed Arab populations of Kuwait and the Bedouin tribes throughout the Middle East, most likely due to the high rate of consanguinity in these populations. A relatively high frequency of BBS has also been reported in New Foundland.
BBS has been shown to display a remarkable degree of non-allelic genetic heterogeneity. The disorder was first shown to be genetically heterogenous based on mapping studies performed in large inbred Bedouin kindreds from Israel. The large number of traditional consanguineous marriages within these groups make it possible to identify inbred kindreds with multiple affected individuals that are large enough for independent linkage analysis.
Once thought to be a homogeneous autosomal recessive disorder, BBS is now known to map to at least six loci: 11q13 (BBS1), 16q21 (BBS2), 3p13-p12 (BBS3), 15q22.3-q23 (BBS4), 2q31 (BBS5), and 20p12 (BBS6) (Kwitck-Black et al., 1993; Leppert et al., 1994; Sheffield et al., 1994; Carmi et al., 1995; Young et al., 1999; Slavotinek et al., 2000; Katsanis et al., 2000). There has been considerable interest in identifying the genes that cause BBS because some of the components of the phenotype are common. The first BBS gene (MKKS) was identified independently by two groups that hypothesized that mutations in the gene causing McKusick-Kaufman syndome (MKS) could also cause BBS. MKS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by post-axial polydactyly, as well as genital and cardiac anomalies. Mutations in the MKKS gene, a putative chaperonin gene, appear to account for approximately 10% of BBS cases. The mechanism by which mutations in the MKKS gene cause BBS has not been determined.
BBS6 was shown to be caused by mutations in the MKKS gene (Slavotinek et al., 2000; Katsanis et al., 2000), mutations which also cause McKusick-Kaufman syndrome (hydrometrocolpos, post-axial polydactyly, and congenital heart defects) (Robinow and Shaw, 1979; Stone et al., 2000). In addition, the inventors recently used positional cloning to identify the genes causing BBS2 (Nishimura et al., 2001) and BBS4 (Mykytyn et al., 2001, and U.S. Ser. No. 60/281,487 filed Apr. 3, 2001). The BBS6 protein has similarity to a T. acidophilum chaperonin (Stone et al., 2000), whereas BBS2 and BBS4 have no significant similarity to chaperonins, nor other known protein families. Recently, it has been suggested that three mutant alleles (two at one locus, and a third at a second locus) may be required for manifestation of BBS (triallelic inheritance) (Katsanis et al., 2001). A seventh BBS locus has been postulated based on the fact that a few small BBS pedigrees do not appear to map to any of the known loci.
Interest in the identification of genes causing BBS stem from the pleiotrophic nature of the disorder, and the fact that identification of BBS genes may provide important insight into biochemical and developmental pathways involved in common complex disorders including obesity and diabetes mellitus.SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Thus, in one aspect of the invention, there is provided an isolated and purified nucleic acid encoding a human BSS1 polypeptide. The amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:2 is exemplary, as are the nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:1. In addition, variants of the sequence included one or more of the changes selected from the group consisting of 1655G>T, 1179T>G, 432+1G>A, 851delA, (−3)—37del, 339T→G, 342delG, 599—604del, 1040delT, 1130—1134del, 1318C→T, 1514—1515del, and 1553T→C. The nucleic acid may further comprise a promoter, for example, an inducible promoter, a constitutive promoter, or a tissue specific promoter. It may also comprise a selectable marker, a poly-adenylation signal and/or an origin of replication.
The nucleic acid may be part of a replicable vector, for example a viral vector such as a retroviral vector, an adenoviral vector, an adeno-associated viral vector, a herpes viral vector, a polyoma viral vector, a vaccinia viral vector or a lentiviral vector. The viral vector may be located within a viral particle. The vector also may be a non-viral vector.
In another embodiment, there is provided an oligonucleotide of 10 to about 50 bases comprising at least 10 consecutive bases of SEQ ID NO:1 or the complement thereof. The oligonucleotide may be 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 or 50 bases in length, and may have 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 or 50 consecutive bases of SEQ ID NO: 1.
In still another embodiment, there is provided an isolated and purified human BBS1 polypeptide, for example, comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:2. The BBS1 polypeptide also may be fused to a non-BBS1 polypeptide.
In yet another embodiment, there is provided a method of expressing a BBS1 polypeptide comprising transforming a host cell with an expression construct encoding a BBS1 polypeptide and culturing said host cell under conditions supporting expression of said BBS1 polypeptide. The host cell maybe a prokaryotic or a eukaryotic cell. The method may further comprise purifying said BBS1 polypeptide. The expression construct may comprise an inducible promoter, and the method may further comprise providing to said host cell and inducer of said promoter.
In still yet another embodiment, there is provided a peptide of 8 about to 50 residues comprising at least 5 consecutive residues of SEQ ID NO:2. The peptide may be 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 or 50 residues in length, and may comprise 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 , 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 or 50 consecutive residues of SEQ ID NO:2. The peptide may be bound to a carrier molecule, for example, by a linker. Also provided are a monoclonal antibody and a polyclonal antiserum that binds immunologically to a polypeptide comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:2. The antibodies may be bound to a support.
In still further embodiments, there are provided a method of diagnosing Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS), a method of diagnosing an individual genetically predisposed to obesity, diabetes mellitus, retinopathy, kidney cancer (renal carcinoma) and other renal abnormalities, hypogonadism, mental retardation, polydactyly or limb defects, comprising identifying a mutation in a BBS1 polypeptide or nucleic acid. The method may comprise identifying a mutation in a BBS1 polypeptide, for example, using immunologic analysis with a BBS1-binding monoclonal antibody or polyclonal antiserum (e.g., ELISA, RIA, or Western blot).
Alternatively, the method may comprise identifying a mutation in a BBS1 nucleic acid, either mRNA, genomic DNA or cDNA. The method may comprise amplification of said nucleic acid, hybridization of said nucleic acid to a labeled nucleic acid probe, and/or sequencing of a BBS1 nucleic acid. Again, the method may identify a mutation selected from the group consisting of 1655G>T, 1179T>G, 432+1G>A, 851delA, (−3)—37del, 339T→G, 342delG, 599—604del, 1040delT, 1130—1134del, 1318C→T, 1514—1515del, and 1553T→C.
In still other embodiments, there are provided:
- a method of screening for a modulator of BBS1 expression comprising (a) providing a cell expressing a BBS1 polypeptide; (b) contacting said cell with a candidate modulator; (c) measuring BBS1 expression; and (d) comparing said BBS1 expression in the presence of said candidate modulator with the expression of BBS1 in the absence of said candidate modulator; wherein a difference in the expression of BBS1 in the presence of said candidate modulator, as compared with the expression of BBS1 in the absence of said candidate modulator, identifies said candidate modulator as a modulator of BBS1 expression; and
- a method of screening for a modulator of BBS1 expression comprising (a) providing a cell that comprises an expression construct encoding an indicator polypeptide under the control of a BBS1 polypeptide; (b) contacting said cell with a candidate modulator; (c) measuring expression of said indicator polypeptide;
- and (d) comparing said expression of said indicator polypeptide in the presence of said candidate modulator with the expression of said indicator polypeptide in the absence of said candidate modulator; wherein a difference in the expression of said indicator polypeptide in the presence of said candidate modulator, as compared with the expression of said indicator polypeptide in the absence of said candidate modulator, identifies said candidate modulator as a modulator of BBS1 expression; and
- a method of producing a modulator of BBS1 expression comprising (a) providing a cell expressing a BBS1 polypeptide; (b) contacting said cell with a candidate modulator; (c) measuring BBS1 expression; (d) comparing said BBS1 expression in the presence of said candidate modulator with the expression of BBS1 in the absence of said candidate modulator; wherein a difference in the expression of
BBS1 in the presence of said candidate modulator, as compared with the expression of BBS1 in the absence of said candidate modulator, identifies said candidate modulator as a modulator of BBS1 expression; and (e) producing the modulator; and
- a modulator of BBS1 expression produced according to the method comprising (a) providing a cell expressing a BBS1 polypeptide; (b) contacting said cell with a candidate modulator; (c) measuring BBS1 expression; (d) comparing said BBS1 expression in the presence of said candidate modulator with the expression of BBS1 in the absence of said candidate modulator; wherein a difference in the expression of BBS1 in the presence of said candidate modulator, as compared with the expression of BBS1 in the absence of said candidate modulator, identifies said candidate modulator as a modulator of BBS1 expression; and (e) producing the modulator.
Other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description. It should be understood, however, that the detailed description and the specific examples, while indicating preferred embodiments of the invention, are given by way of illustration only, since various changes and modifications within the spirit and scope of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from this detailed description.BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The following drawings form part of the present specification and are included to further demonstrate certain aspects of the present invention. The invention may be better understood by reference to one or more of these drawings in combination with the detailed description of specfific embodiments presented herein.
Bardet Biedl Syndrome (BBS) is a debilitating genetic disorder that is prevalent in consanguineous populations. In order to identify the gene causing BBS1, the inventors used genetic fine mapping to define the candidate interval in extended Puerto Rican and Turkish families. The BBS1 locus was initially mapped to a 26 cM interval on chromosome 11 (Leppert et al., 1994). In the present invention, the inventors used haplotype analysis of several extended families to define a candidate interval between markers D11S913 and AFMa190yd5. This recombinant interval is distal to, and does not overlap, the intervals reported by Katsanis et al. (1999) and Young et al. (1999). Because the narrowest recombinant interval determined from the data was defined by a single ancestral recombinant event, a broader interval was cautiously considered that encompassed the published interval as the conservative candidate region.
BBS1 was identified by sequencing contigs across this interval using both the public and Celera sequence databases. BLAST analyses against dbEST were used to identify candidate transcripts. Numerous positional candidate genes were excluded based on the lack of coding sequence mutations identified by direct DNA sequencing of BBS probands.
One gene, corresponding to the UniGene cluster Hs.54890, was selected for further examination as it had weak similarity to the BBS2 protein sequence. A comparison of the assembled cDNA sequence to the public and Celera databases revealed a gene of interest designated as BBS1. This gene was sequenced in the probands from extended families of Puerto Rican ancestry, and of Turkish ancestry with evidence of linkage to the BBS1 locus.
Additionally, the inventors evaluated 50 unrelated North American BBS probands for the presence of the four mutations identified in the extended families using single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Sequencing of probands from inbred families also provided the advantage of looking for homozygous sequence variations compared to control sequence. Homogyzous changes are more readily recognized compared to heterozygous mutations by direct sequencing. Seventeen individuals were identified who had at least one copy of the M390R mutation. Sequencing revealed homozygous mutations in 12 of these individuals homozygous for this variation (allele frequency=0.29). This sequence variation was not detected in 192 control chromosomes from North America (p<0.001).
Identification of the gene causing BBS1 was supported by several lines of evidence. Homozygous BBS1 mutations in three consanguineous pedigrees that link to the BBS1 locus, and compound heterozygous mutations were found in three additional unrelated families. In addition, a common mutation was found in a number of unrelated BBS probands from families too small for linkage analysis. The frequency of BBS1 mutations found in the current study indicates that alterations of this gene are the most common cause of BBS. This gene was found in the interval defined in the families used in the current study, but telomeric to the interval reported independently by two other groups (Katsanis et al., 1999; Young et al., 1999). The pattern of expression of BBS1 was demonstrated to be very similar to the three previously identified BBS genes (Slavotinek et al., 2000; Nishimura et al., 2001; Mykytyn et al., 2001). BBS1 is ubiquitously expressed with highest expression in the kidney.
Together, the evidence strongly supports the conclusion that BBS1 is involved in the BBS1 phenotype.I. BBS1 PROTEIN
The protein sequence for human BBS1 is provided in SEQ ID NO:2. In addition to the entire BBS1 molecule, the present invention also relates to fragments of the polypeptides that may or may not retain various of the functions described below. Fragments, including the N-terminus of the molecule may be generated by genetic engineering of translation stop sites within the coding region (discussed below). Alternatively, treatment of the BBS1 with proteolytic enzymes, known as proteases, can produces a variety of N-terminal, C-terminal and internal fragments. Peptides range from 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 residues, such as those made synthetically, up to 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, 650, 700 and more residues, which are conveniently produced by recombinant means or by proteolytic digestion of full length BBS1. Examples of fragments may include contiguous residues of SEQ ID NO:2 of 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 200, 300, 400 or more amino acids in length. These fragments may be purified according to known methods, such as precipitation (e.g., ammonium sulfate), HPLC, ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography (including immunoaffinity chromatography) or various size separations (sedimentation, gel electrophoresis, gel filtration).
A. Variants of BBS1
Amino acid sequence variants of the BBS1 polypeptide can be substitutional, insertional or deletion variants. Deletion variants lack one or more residues of the native protein which are not essential for function or immunogenic activity, and are exemplified by the variants lacking a transmembrane sequence described above. Another common type of deletion variant is one lacking secretory signal sequences or signal sequences directing a protein to bind to a particular part of a cell. Insertional mutants typically involve the addition of material at a non-terminal point in the polypeptide. This may include the insertion of an immunoreactive epitope or simply a single residue. Terminal additions, called fusion proteins, are discussed below.
Substitutional variants typically contain the exchange of one amino acid for another at one or more sites within the protein, and may be designed to modulate one or more properties of the polypeptide, such as stability against proteolytic cleavage, without the loss of other functions or properties. Substitutions of this kind preferably are conservative, that is, one amino acid is replaced with one of similar shape and charge. Conservative substitutions are well known in the art and include, for example, the changes of: alanine to serine; arginine to lysine; asparagine to glutamine or histidine; aspartate to glutamate; cysteine to serine; glutamine to asparagine; glutamate to aspartate; glycine to proline; histidine to asparagine or glutamine; isoleucine to leucine or valine; leucine to valine or isoleucine; lysine to arginine; methionine to leucine or isoleucine; phenylalanine to tyrosine, leucine or methionine; serine to threonine; threonine to serine; tryptophan to tyrosine; tyrosine to tryptophan or phenylalanine; and valine to isoleucine or leucine.
The following is a discussion based upon changing of the amino acids of a protein to create an equivalent, or even an improved, second-generation molecule. For example, certain amino acids may be substituted for other amino acids in a protein structure without appreciable loss of interactive binding capacity with structures such as, for example, antigen-binding regions of antibodies or binding sites on substrate molecules. Since it is the interactive capacity and nature of a protein that defines that protein's biological functional activity, certain amino acid substitutions can be made in a protein sequence, and its underlying DNA coding sequence, and nevertheless obtain a protein with like properties. It is thus contemplated by the inventors that various changes may be made in the DNA sequences of genes without appreciable loss of their biological utility or activity, as discussed below. Table 1 shows the codons that encode particular amino acids.
In making such changes, the hydropathic index of amino acids may be considered. The importance of the hydropathic amino acid index in conferring interactive biologic function on a protein is generally understood in the art (Kyte and Doolittle, 1982). It is accepted that the relative hydropathic character of the amino acid contributes to the secondary structure of the resultant protein, which in turn defines the interaction of the protein with other molecules, for example, enzymes, substrates, receptors, DNA, antibodies, antigens, and the like.
Each amino acid has been assigned a hydropathic index on the basis of their hydrophobicity and charge characteristics (Kyte and Doolittle, 1982), these are: isoleucine (+4.5); valine (+4.2); leucine (+3.8); phenylalanine (+2.8); cysteine/cystine (+2.5); methionine (+1.9); alanine (+1.8); glycine (-0.4); threonine (−0.7); serine (−0.8); tryptophan (−0.9); tyrosine (−1.3); proline (−1.6); histidine (−3.2); glutamate (−3.5); glutamine (−3.5); aspartate (−3.5); asparagine (−3.5); lysine (−3.9); and arginine (−4.5).
It is known in the art that certain amino acids may be substituted by other amino acids having a similar hydropathic index or score and still result in a protein with similar biological activity, i.e., still obtain a biological functionally equivalent protein. In making such changes, the substitution of amino acids whose hydropathic indices are within +2 is preferred, those which are within ±1 are particularly preferred, and those within +0.5 are even more particularly preferred.
It is also understood in the art that the substitution of like amino acids can be made effectively on the basis of hydrophilicity. U.S. Pat. No. 4,554,101, incorporated herein by reference, states that the greatest local average hydrophilicity of a protein, as governed by the hydrophilicity of its adjacent amino acids, correlates with a biological property of the protein. As detailed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,554,101, the following hydrophilicity values have been assigned to amino acid residues: arginine (+3.0); lysine (+3.0); aspartate (+3.0±1); glutamate (+3.0±1); serine (+0.3); asparagine (+0.2); glutamine (+0.2); glycine (0); threonine (−0.4); proline (−0.5±1); alanine (−0.5); histidine (−0.5); cysteine (−1.0); methionine (−1.3); valine (−1.5); leucine (−1.8); isoleucine (−1.8); tyrosine (−2.3); phenylalanine (−2.5); tryptophan (−3.4).
It is understood that an amino acid can be substituted for another having a similar hydrophilicity value and still obtain a biologically equivalent and immunologically equivalent protein. In such changes, the substitution of amino acids whose hydrophilicity values are within +2 is preferred, those that are within ±1 are particularly preferred, and those within ±0.5 are even more particularly preferred.
As outlined above, amino acid substitutions are generally based on the relative similarity of the amino acid side-chain substituents, for example, their hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, charge, size, and the like. Exemplary substitutions that take various of the foregoing characteristics into consideration are well known to those of skill in the art and include: arginine and lysine; glutamate and aspartate; serine and threonine; glutamine and asparagine; and valine, leucine and isoleucine.
Another embodiment for the preparation of polypeptides according to the invention is the use of peptide mimetics. Mimetics are peptide-containing molecules that mimic elements of protein secondary structure (Johnson et al., 1993). The underlying rationale behind the use of peptide mimetics is that the peptide backbone of proteins exists chiefly to orient amino acid side chains in such a way as to facilitate molecular interactions, such as those of antibody and antigen. A peptide mimetic is expected to permit molecular interactions similar to the natural molecule. These principles may be used, in conjunction with the principles outline above, to engineer second generation molecules having many of the natural properties of BBS1, but with altered and even improved characteristics.
B. Domain Switching
As described in the examples, the present inventors have identified human BBS1. An interesting series of mutants can be created by substituting homologous regions of various proteins. This is known, in certain contexts, as “domain switching.”
Domain switching involves the generation of chimeric molecules using different but, in this case, related polypeptides such as BBS1, BBS2, BBS3, BBS4, BBS5, and BBS6 plypeptides. By comparing various BBS proteins, one can make predictions as to the functionally significant regions of these molecules. It is possible, then, to switch related domains of these molecules in an effort to determine the criticality of these regions to BBS1 function. These molecules may have additional value in that these “chimeras” can be distinguished from natural molecules, while possibly providing the same function.
C. Fusion Proteins
A specialized kind of insertional variant is the fusion protein. This molecule generally has all or a substantial portion of the native molecule, linked at the N- or C-terminus, to all or a portion of a second polypeptide. For example, fusions typically employ leader sequences from other species to permit the recombinant expression of a protein in a heterologous host. Another useful fusion includes the addition of a immunologically active domain, such as an antibody epitope, to facilitate purification of the fusion protein. Inclusion of a cleavage site at or near the fusion junction will facilitate removal of the extraneous polypeptide after purification. Other useful fusions include linking of functional domains, such as active sites from enzymes, glycosylation domains, cellular targeting signals or transmembrane regions.
D. Purification of Proteins
It will be desirable to purify BBS1 or variants thereof. Protein purification techniques are well known to those of skill in the art. These techniques involve, at one level, the crude fractionation of the cellular milieu to polypeptide and non-polypeptide fractions. Having separated the polypeptide from other proteins, the polypeptide of interest may be further purified using chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques to achieve partial or complete purification (or purification to homogeneity). Analytical methods particularly suited to the preparation of a pure peptide are ion-exchange chromatography, exclusion chromatography; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; isoelectric focusing. A particularly efficient method of purifying peptides is fast protein liquid chromatography or even HPLC.
Certain aspects of the present invention concern the purification, and in particular embodiments, the substantial purification, of an encoded protein or peptide. The term “purified protein or peptide” as used herein, is intended to refer to a composition, isolatable from other components, wherein the protein or peptide is purified to any degree relative to its naturally-obtainable state. A purified protein or peptide therefore also refers to a protein or peptide, free from the environment in which it may naturally occur.
Generally, “purified” will refer to a protein or peptide composition that has been subjected to fractionation to remove various other components, and which composition substantially retains its expressed biological activity. Where the term “substantially purified” is used, this designation will refer to a composition in which the protein or peptide forms the major component of the composition, such as constituting about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 80%, about 90%, about 95% or more of the proteins in the composition.
Various methods for quantifying the degree of purification of the protein or peptide will be known to those of skill in the art in light of the present disclosure. These include, for example, determining the specific activity of an active fraction, or assessing the amount of polypeptides within a fraction by SDS/PAGE analysis. A preferred method for assessing the purity of a fraction is to calculate the specific activity of the fraction, to compare it to the specific activity of the initial extract, and to thus calculate the degree of purity, herein assessed by a “-fold purification number.” The actual units used to represent the amount of activity will, of course, be dependent upon the particular assay technique chosen to follow the purification and whether or not the expressed protein or peptide exhibits a detectable activity.
Various techniques suitable for use in protein purification will be well known to those of skill in the art. These include, for example, precipitation with ammonium sulphate, PEG, antibodies and the like or by heat denaturation, followed by centrifugation; chromatography steps such as ion exchange, gel filtration, reverse phase, hydroxylapatite and affinity chromatography; isoelectric focusing; gel electrophoresis; and combinations of such and other techniques. As is generally known in the art, it is believed that the order of conducting the various purification steps may be changed, or that certain steps may be omitted, and still result in a suitable method for the preparation of a substantially purified protein or peptide.
There is no general requirement that the protein or peptide always be provided in their most purified state. Indeed, it is contemplated that less substantially purified products will have utility in certain embodiments. Partial purification may be accomplished by using fewer purification steps in combination, or by utilizing different forms of the same general purification scheme. For example, it is appreciated that a cation-exchange column chromatography performed utilizing an HPLC apparatus will generally result in a greater “-fold” purification than the same technique utilizing a low pressure chromatography system. Methods exhibiting a lower degree of relative purification may have advantages in total recovery of protein product, or in maintaining the activity of an expressed protein.
It is known that the migration of a polypeptide can vary, sometimes significantly, with different conditions of SDS/PAGE (Capaldi et al., 1977). It will therefore be appreciated that under differing electrophoresis conditions, the apparent molecular weights of purified or partially purified expression products may vary.
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is characterized by a very rapid separation with extraordinary resolution of peaks. This is achieved by the use of very fine particles and high pressure to maintain an adequate flow rate. Separation can be accomplished in a matter of minutes, or at most an hour. Moreover, only a very small volume of the sample is needed because the particles are so small and close-packed that the void volume is a very small fraction of the bed volume. Also, the concentration of the sample need not be very great because the bands are so narrow that there is very little dilution of the sample.
Gel chromatography, or molecular sieve chromatography, is a special type of partition chromatography that is based on molecular size. The theory behind gel chromatography is that the column, which is prepared with tiny particles of an inert substance that contain small pores, separates larger molecules from smaller molecules as they pass through or around the pores, depending on their size. As long as the material of which the particles are made does not adsorb the molecules, the sole factor determining rate of flow is the size. Hence, molecules are eluted from the column in decreasing size, so long as the shape is relatively constant. Gel chromatography is unsurpassed for separating molecules of different size because separation is independent of all other factors such as pH, ionic strength, temperature, etc. There also is virtually no adsorption, less zone spreading and the elution volume is related in a simple matter to molecular weight.
Affinity Chromatography is a chromatographic procedure that relies on the specific affinity between a substance to be isolated and a molecule that it can specifically bind to. This is a receptor-ligand type interaction. The column material is synthesized by covalently coupling one of the binding partners to an insoluble matrix. The column material is then able to specifically adsorb the substance from the solution. Elution occurs by changing the conditions to those in which binding will not occur (alter pH, ionic strength, temperature, etc.).
A particular type of affinity chromatography useful in the purification of carbohydrate containing compounds is lectin affinity chromatography. Lectins are a class of substances that bind to a variety of polysaccharides and glycoproteins. Lectins are usually coupled to agarose by cyanogen bromide. Conconavalin A coupled to Sepharose was the first material of this sort to be used and has been widely used in the isolation of polysaccharides and glycoproteins other lectins that have been include lentil lectin, wheat germ agglutinin which has been useful in the purification of N-acetyl glucosaminyl residues and Helix pomatia lectin. Lectins themselves are purified using affinity chromatography with carbohydrate ligands. Lactose has been used to purify lectins from castor bean and peanuts; maltose has been useful in extracting lectins from lentils and jack bean; N-acetyl-D galactosamine is used for purifying lectins from soybean; N-acetyl glucosaminyl binds to lectins from wheat germ; D-galactosamine has been used in obtaining lectins from clams and L-fucose will bind to lectins from lotus.
The matrix should be a substance that itself does not adsorb molecules to any significant extent and that has a broad range of chemical, physical and thermal stability. The ligand should be coupled in such a way as to not affect its binding properties. The ligand should also provide relatively tight binding. And it should be possible to elute the substance without destroying the sample or the ligand. One of the most common forms of affinity chromatography is immunoaffinity chromatography. The generation of antibodies that would be suitable for use in accord with the present invention is discussed below.
E. Synthetic Peptides
The present invention also describes smaller BBS1-related peptides for use in various embodiments of the present invention. Because of their relatively small size, the peptides of the invention can also be synthesized in solution or on a solid support in accordance with conventional techniques. Various automatic synthesizers are commercially available and can be used in accordance with known protocols. See, for example, Stewart and Young, (1984); Tam et al., (1983); Merrifield, (1986); and Barany and Merrifield (1979), each incorporated herein by reference. Short peptide sequences, or libraries of overlapping peptides, usually from about 6 up to about 35 to 50 amino acids, which correspond to the selected regions described herein, can be readily synthesized and then screened in screening assays designed to identify reactive peptides. Alternatively, recombinant DNA technology may be employed wherein a nucleotide sequence which encodes a peptide of the invention is inserted into an expression vector, transformed or transfected into an appropriate host cell and cultivated under conditions suitable for expression.
F. Antigen Compositions
The present invention also provides for the use of BBS1 proteins or peptides as antigens for the immunization of animals relating to the production of antibodies. It is envisioned that BBS1 or portions thereof, will be coupled, bonded, bound, conjugated or chemically-linked to one or more agents via linkers, polylinkers or derivatized amino acids. This may be performed such that a bispecific or multivalent composition or vaccine is produced. It is further envisioned that the methods used in the preparation of these compositions will be familiar to those of skill in the art and should be suitable for administration to animals, i.e., pharmaceutically acceptable. Preferred agents are the carriers are keyhole limpet hemocyannin (KLH) or bovine serum albumin (BSA).
G. Antibody Production In certain embodiments, the present invention provides antibodies that bind with high specificity to the BBS1 polypeptides provided herein. Thus, antibodies that bind to the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO:2 are provided. In addition to antibodies generated against the full length proteins, antibodies may also be generated in response to smaller constructs comprising epitopic core regions, including wild-type and mutant epitopes.
As used herein, the term “antibody” is intended to refer broadly to any immunologic binding agent such as IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD and IgE. Generally, IgG and/or IgM are preferred because they are the most common antibodies in the physiological situation and because they are most easily made in a laboratory setting.
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are recognized to have certain advantages, e.g., reproducibility and large-scale production, and their use is generally preferred. The invention thus provides monoclonal antibodies of the human, murine, monkey, rat, hamster, rabbit and even chicken origin. Due to the ease of preparation and ready availability of reagents, murine monoclonal antibodies will often be preferred.
However, “humanized” antibodies are also contemplated, as are chimeric antibodies from mouse, rat, or other species, bearing human constant and/or variable region domains, bispecific antibodies, recombinant and engineered antibodies and fragments thereof. Methods for the development of antibodies that are “custom-tailored” to the patient's dental disease are likewise known and such custom-tailored antibodies are also contemplated.
The term “antibody” is used to refer to any antibody-like molecule that has an antigen binding region, and includes antibody fragments such as Fab′, Fab, F(ab′)2, single domain antibodies (DABs), Fv, scFv (single chain Fv), and the like. The techniques for preparing and using various antibody-based constructs and fragments are well known in the art. Means for preparing and characterizing antibodies are also well known in the art (See, e.g., Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1988; incorporated herein by reference).
The methods for generating monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) generally begin along the same lines as those for preparing polyclonal antibodies. Briefly, a polyclonal antibody is prepared by immunizing an animal with an immunogenic BBS1 composition in accordance with the present invention and collecting antisera from that immunized animal.
A wide range of animal species can be used for the production of antisera. Typically the animal used for production of antisera is a rabbit, a mouse, a rat, a hamster, a guinea pig or a goat. Because of the relatively large blood volume of rabbits, a rabbit is a preferred choice for production of polyclonal antibodies.
As is well known in the art, a given composition may vary in its immunogenicity. It is often necessary therefore to boost the host immune system, as may be achieved by coupling a peptide or polypeptide immunogen to a carrier. Exemplary and preferred carriers are keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Other albumins such as ovalbumin, mouse serum albumin or rabbit serum albumin can also be used as carriers. Means for conjugating a polypeptide to a carrier protein are well known in the art and include glutaraldehyde, m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester, carbodiimide and bis-biazotized benzidine.
As is also well known in the art, the immunogenicity of a particular immunogen composition can be enhanced by the use of non-specific stimulators of the immune response, known as adjuvants. Suitable adjuvants include all acceptable immunostimulatory compounds, such as cytokines, toxins or synthetic compositions.
Adjuvants that may be used include IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-12, γ-interferon, GMCSP, BCG, aluminum hydroxide, MDP compounds, such as thur-MDP and nor-MDP, CGP (MTP-PE), lipid A, and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). RIBI, which contains three components extracted from bacteria, MPL, trehalose dimycolate (TDM) and cell wall skeleton (CWS) in a 2% squalene/Tween 80 emulsion is also contemplated. MHC antigens may even be used. Exemplary, often preferred adjuvants include complete Freund's adjuvant (a non-specific stimulator of the immune response containing killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis), incomplete Freund's adjuvants and aluminum hydroxide adjuvant.
In addition to adjuvants, it may be desirable to coadminister biologic response modifiers (BRM), which have been shown to upregulate T cell immunity or downregulate suppressor cell activity. Such BRMs include, but are not limited to, Cimetidine (CIM; 1200 mg/d) (Smith/Kline, PA); low-dose Cyclophosphamide (CYP; 300 mg/m2) (Johnson/Mead, NJ), cytokines such as γ-interferon, IL-2, or IL-12 or genes encoding proteins involved in immune helper functions, such as B-7.
The amount of immunogen composition used in the production of polyclonal antibodies varies upon the nature of the immunogen as well as the animal used for immunization. A variety of routes can be used to administer the immunogen (subcutaneous, intramuscular, intradermal, intravenous and intraperitoneal). The production of polyclonal antibodies may be monitored by sampling blood of the immunized animal at various points following immunization.
A second, booster injection, may also be given. The process of boosting and titering is repeated until a suitable titer is achieved. When a desired level of immunogenicity is obtained, the immunized animal can be bled and the serum isolated and stored, and/or the animal can be used to generate MAbs.
For production of rabbit polyclonal antibodies, the animal can be bled through an ear vein or alternatively by cardiac puncture. The removed blood is allowed to coagulate and then centrifuged to separate serum components from whole cells and blood clots. The serum may be used as is for various applications or else the desired antibody fraction may be purified by well-known methods, such as affinity chromatography using another antibody, a peptide bound to a solid matrix, or by using, e.g., protein A or protein G chromatography.
MAbs may be readily prepared through use of well-known techniques, such as those exemplified in U.S. Pat. No. 4,196,265, incorporated herein by reference. Typically, this technique involves immunizing a suitable animal with a selected immunogen composition, e.g., a purified or partially purified BBS1 protein, polypeptide, peptide or domain, be it a wild-type or mutant composition. The immunizing composition is administered in a manner effective to stimulate antibody producing cells.
The methods for generating monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) generally begin along the same lines as those for preparing polyclonal antibodies. Rodents such as mice and rats are preferred animals, however, the use of rabbit, sheep or frog cells is also possible. The use of rats may provide certain advantages (Goding, 1986, pp. 60-61), but mice are preferred, with the BALB/c mouse being most preferred as this is most routinely used and generally gives a higher percentage of stable fusions.
The animals are injected with antigen, generally as described above. The antigen may be coupled to carrier molecules such as keyhole limpet hemocyanin if necessary. The antigen would typically be mixed with adjuvant, such as Freund's complete or incomplete adjuvant. Booster injections with the same antigen would occur at approximately two-week intervals.
Following immunization, somatic cells with the potential for producing antibodies, specifically B lymphocytes (B cells), are selected for use in the MAb generating protocol. These cells may be obtained from biopsied spleens, tonsils or lymph nodes, or from a peripheral blood sample. Spleen cells and peripheral blood cells are preferred, the former because they are a rich source of antibody-producing cells that are in the dividing plasmablast stage, and the latter because peripheral blood is easily accessible.
Often, a panel of animals will have been immunized and the spleen of an animal with the highest antibody titer will be removed and the spleen lymphocytes obtained by homogenizing the spleen with a syringe. Typically, a spleen from an immunized mouse contains approximately 5×107 to 2×108 lymphocytes.
The antibody-producing B lymphocytes from the immunized animal are then fused with cells of an immortal myeloma cell, generally one of the same species as the animal that was immunized. Myeloma cell lines suited for use in hybridoma-producing fusion procedures preferably are non-antibody-producing, have high fusion efficiency, and enzyme deficiencies that render then incapable of growing in certain selective media which support the growth of only the desired fused cells (hybridomas).
Any one of a number of myeloma cells may be used, as are known to those of skill in the art (Goding, pp. 65-66, 1986; Campbell, 1984). For example, where the immunized animal is a mouse, one may use P3-X63/Ag8, X63-Ag8.653, NS1/1.Ag 4 1, Sp210-Ag14, FO, NSO/U, MPC-11, MPC11-X45-GTG 1.7 and S194/5XX0 Bul; for rats, one may use R210.RCY3, Y3-Ag 1.2.3, IR983F and 4B210; and U-2,66, GM1500-GRG2, LICR-LON-HMy2 and UC729-6 are all useful in connection with human cell fusions.
One preferred murine myeloma cell is the NS-1 myeloma cell line (also termed P3-NS-1-Ag4-1), which is readily available from the NIGMS Human Genetic Mutant Cell Repository by requesting cell line repository number GM3573. Another mouse myeloma cell line that may be used is the 8-azaguanine-resistant mouse murine myeloma SP2/0 non-producer cell line.
Methods for generating hybrids of antibody-producing spleen or lymph node cells and myeloma cells usually comprise mixing somatic cells with myeloma cells in a 2:1 proportion, though the proportion may vary from about 20:1 to about 1: 1, respectively, in the presence of an agent or agents (chemical or electrical) that promote the fusion of cell membranes. Fusion methods using Sendai virus have been described by Kohler and Milstein (1975; 1976), and those using polyethylene glycol (PEG), such as 37% (v/v) PEG, by Gefter et al. (1977). The use of electrically induced fusion methods is also appropriate (Goding pp. 71-74, 1986).
Fusion procedures usually produce viable hybrids at low frequencies, about 1×10−6 to 1×10−8. However, this does not pose a problem, as the viable, fused hybrids are differentiated from the parental, unfused cells (particularly the unfused myeloma cells that would normally continue to divide indefinitely) by culturing in a selective medium. The selective medium is generally one that contains an agent that blocks the de novo synthesis of nucleotides in the tissue culture media. Exemplary and preferred agents are aminopterin, methotrexate, and azaserine. Aminopterin and methotrexate block de novo synthesis of both purines and pyrimidines, whereas azaserine blocks only purine synthesis. Where aminopterin or methotrexate is used, the media is supplemented with hypoxanthine and thymidine as a source of nucleotides (HAT medium). Where azaserine is used, the media is supplemented with hypoxanthine.
The preferred selection medium is HAT. Only cells capable of operating nucleotide salvage pathways are able to survive in HAT medium. The myeloma cells are defective in key enzymes of the salvage pathway, e.g., hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT), and they cannot survive. The B cells can operate this pathway, but they have a limited life span in culture and generally die within about two weeks. Therefore, the only cells that can survive in the selective media are those hybrids formed from myeloma and B cells.
This culturing provides a population of hybridomas from which specific hybridomas are selected. Typically, selection of hybridomas is performed by culturing the cells by single-clone dilution in microtiter plates, followed by testing the individual clonal supernatants (after about two to three weeks) for the desired reactivity. The assay should be sensitive, simple and rapid, such as radioimmunoassays, enzyme immunoassays, cytotoxicity assays, plaque assays, dot immunobinding assays, and the like.
The selected hybridomas would then be serially diluted and cloned into individual antibody-producing cell lines, which clones can then be propagated indefinitely to provide MAbs. The cell lines may be exploited for MAb production in two basic ways. First, a sample of the hybridoma can be injected (often into the peritoneal cavity) into a histocompatible animal of the type that was used to provide the somatic and myeloma cells for the original fusion (e.g., a syngeneic mouse). Optionally, the animals are primed with a hydrocarbon, especially oils such as pristane (tetramethylpentadecane) prior to injection. The injected animal develops tumors secreting the specific monoclonal antibody produced by the fused cell hybrid. The body fluids of the animal, such as serum or ascites fluid, can then be tapped to provide MAbs in high concentration. Second, the individual cell lines could be cultured in vitro, where the MAbs are naturally secreted into the culture medium from which they can be readily obtained in high concentrations.
MAbs produced by either means may be further purified, if desired, using filtration, centrifugation and various chromatographic methods such as HPLC or affinity chromatography. Fragments of the monoclonal antibodies of the invention can be obtained from the monoclonal antibodies so produced by methods which include digestion with enzymes, such as pepsin or papain, and/or by cleavage of disulfide bonds by chemical reduction. Alternatively, monoclonal antibody fragments encompassed by the present invention can be synthesized using an automated peptide synthesizer.
It is also contemplated that a molecular cloning approach may be used to generate monoclonals. For this, combinatorial immunoglobulin phagemid libraries are prepared from RNA isolated from the spleen of the immunized animal, and phagemids expressing appropriate antibodies are selected by panning using cells expressing the antigen and control cells. The advantages of this approach over conventional hybridoma techniques are that approximately 104 times as many antibodies can be produced and screened in a single round, and that new specificities are generated by H and L chain combination which further increases the chance of finding appropriate antibodies.
Alternatively, monoclonal antibody fragments encompassed by the present invention can be synthesized using an automated peptide synthesizer, or by expression of full-length gene or of gene fragments in E. coli.
H. Antibody Conjugates
The present invention further provides antibodies against BBS1, generally of the monoclonal type, that are linked to one or more other agents to form an antibody conjugate. Any antibody of sufficient selectivity, specificity and affinity may be employed as the basis for an antibody conjugate. Such properties may be evaluated using conventional immunological screening methodology known to those of skill in the art.
Certain examples of antibody conjugates are those conjugates in which the antibody is linked to a detectable label. “Detectable labels” are compounds or elements that can be detected due to their specific functional properties, or chemical characteristics, the use of which allows the antibody to which they are attached to be detected, and further quantified if desired. Another such example is the formation of a conjugate comprising an antibody linked to a cytotoxic or anti-cellular agent, as may be termed “immunotoxins” (described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,686,072, 5,578,706, 4,792,447, 5,045,451, 4,664,911 and 5,767,072, each incorporated herein-by reference).
Antibody conjugates are thus preferred for use as diagnostic agents. Antibody diagnostics generally fall within two classes, those for use in in vitro diagnostics, such as in a variety of immunoassays, and those for use in vivo diagnostic protocols, generally known as “antibody-directed imaging.” Again, antibody-directed imaging is less preferred for use with this invention.
Many appropriate imaging agents are known in the art, as are methods for their attachment to antibodies (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,021,236 and 4,472,509, both incorporated herein by reference). Certain attachment methods involve the use of a metal chelate complex employing, for example, an organic chelating agent such a DTPA attached to the antibody (U.S. Pat. No. 4,472,509). Monoclonal antibodies may also be reacted with an enzyme in the presence of a coupling agent such as glutaraldehyde or periodate. Conjugates with fluorescein markers are prepared in the presence of these coupling agents or by reaction with an isothiocyanate.
In the case of paramagnetic ions, one might mention by way of example ions such as chromium (III), manganese (II), iron (III), iron (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II), copper (II), neodymium (III), samarium (III), ytterbium (III), gadolinium (III), vanadium (II), terbium (III), dysprosium (III), holmium (III) and erbium (II), with gadolinium being particularly preferred. Ions useful in other contexts, such as X-ray imaging, include but are not limited to lanthanum (III), gold (III), lead (II), and especially bismuth (III).
In the case of radioactive isotopes for therapeutic and/or diagnostic application, one might mention astatine211, 14 carbon, 51chromium, 36chlorine, 57cobalt, 58cobalt, copper67, 152Eu, gallium67, 3hydrogen, iodine123, iodine 125, iodine131, indium111, 59iron, 32phosphorus, rhenium186, rhenium188, 75selenium, 35sulphur, technicium99m, and yttrium90. 125I is often being preferred for use in certain embodiments, and technicium99m and indium111 are also often preferred due to their low energy and suitability for long range detection.
Radioactively labeled monoclonal antibodies of the present invention may be produced according to well-known methods in the art. For instance, monoclonal antibodies can be iodinated by contact with sodium or potassium iodide and a chemical oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite, or an enzymatic oxidizing agent, such as lactoperoxidase. Monoclonal antibodies according to the invention may be labeled with technetium-99m by ligand exchange process, for example, by reducing pertechnate with stannous solution, chelating the reduced technetium onto a Sephadex column and applying the antibody to this column or by direct labeling techniques, e.g., by incubating pertechnate, a reducing agent such as SNCl2, a buffer solution such as sodium-potassium phthalate solution, and the antibody. Intermediary functional groups which are often used to bind radioisotopes which exist as metallic ions to antibody are diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ethylene diaminetetracetic acid (EDTA). Also contemplated for use are fluorescent labels, including rhodamine, fluorescein isothiocyanate and renographin.
The much preferred antibody conjugates of the present invention are those intended primarily for use in vitro, where the antibody is linked to a secondary binding ligand or to an enzyme (an enzyme tag) that will generate a colored product upon contact with a chromogenic substrate. Examples of suitable enzymes include urease, alkaline phosphatase, (horseradish) hydrogen peroxidase and glucose oxidase. Preferred secondary binding ligands are biotin and avidin or streptavidin compounds. The use of such labels is well known to those of skill in the art in light and is described, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,817,837; 3,850,752; 3,939,350; 3,996,345; 4,277,437; 4,275,149 and 4,366,241; each incorporated herein by reference.II. BBS1 NUCLEIC ACIDS
Important aspects of the present invention concern isolated DNA segments and recombinant vectors encoding BBS1 proteins, polypeptides or peptides, and the creation and use of recombinant host cells through the application of DNA technology, that express a wild-type, polymorphic or mutant BBS1, using the sequence of SEQ ID NO:1, and biologically functional equivalents thereof.
The present invention concerns DNA segments, isolatable from mammalian cells, such as mouse, rat or human cells, that are free from total genomic DNA and that are capable of expressing a protein, polypeptide or peptide. As used herein, the term “DNA segment” refers to a DNA molecule that has been isolated free of total genomic DNA of a particular species. Therefore, a DNA segment encoding BBS1 refers to a DNA segment that contains wild-type, polymorphic or mutant BBS1 coding sequences yet is isolated away from, or purified free from, total mammalian genomic DNA. Included within the term “DNA segment” , are DNA segments and smaller fragments of such segments, and also recombinant vectors, including, for example, plasmids, cosmids, phage, viruses, and the like.
Similarly, a DNA segment comprising an isolated or purified BBS1 gene refers to a DNA segment encoding BBS1 protein, polypeptide or peptide coding sequences and, in certain aspects, regulatory sequences, isolated substantially away from other naturally-occurring genes or protein encoding sequences. In this respect, the term “gene” is used for simplicity to refer to a functional protein, polypeptide or peptide encoding unit. As will be understood by those in the art, this functional term includes both genomic sequences, cDNA sequences and engineered segments that express, or may be adapted to express, proteins, polypeptides, domains, peptides, fusion proteins and mutants of BBS1 encoded sequences.
“Isolated substantially away from other coding sequences” means that the gene of interest, in this case the BBS1 gene, forms the significant part of the coding region of the DNA segment, and that the DNA segment does not contain large portions of naturally-occurring coding DNA, such as large chromosomal fragments or other functional genes or cDNA coding regions. Of course, this refers to the DNA segment as originally isolated, and does not exclude genes or coding regions later added to the segment by the hand of man.
In particular embodiments, the invention concerns isolated DNA segments and recombinant vectors incorporating DNA sequences that encode a BBS1 protein, polypeptide or peptide that includes within its amino acid sequence a contiguous amino acid sequence in accordance with, or essentially as set forth in, SEQ ID NO:2, corresponding to the BBS1 designated “human BBS1.”
The term “a sequence essentially as set forth in SEQ ID NO:2” means that the sequence substantially corresponds to a portion of SEQ ID NO:2 and has relatively few amino acids that are not identical to, or a biologically functional equivalent of, the amino acids of SEQ ID NO:2.
The term “biologically functional equivalent” is well understood in the art and is further defined in detail herein. Accordingly, sequences that have about 70%, about 71%, about 72%, about 73%, about 74%, about 75%, about 76%, about 77%, about 78%, about 79%, about 80%, about 81%, about 82%, about 83%, about 84%, about 85%, about 86%, about 87%, about 88%, about 89%, about 90%, about 91%, about 92%, about 93%, about 94%, about 95%, about 96%, about 97%, about 98%, or about 99%, and any range derivable therein, such as, for example, about 70% to about 80%, and more preferrably about 81% and about 90%; or even more preferably, between about 91% and about 99%; of amino acids that are identical or functionally equivalent to the amino acids of SEQ ID NO:2 will be sequences that are “essentially as set forth in SEQ ID NO:2,” provided the biological activity of the protein is maintained. In particular embodiments, the biological activity of a BBS1 protein, polypeptide or peptide, or a biologically fimctional equivalent, comprises binding to one or more proteases, particularly serine proteases. In specific embodiments, the biological activity of a BBS1 protein, polypeptide or peptide, or a biologically functional equivalent, comprises inhibition of the activity of one or more proteases, particularly serine proteases, through binding. A preferred protease activity that may be inhibited by a BBS1 protein, polypeptide or peptide, or a biologically functional equivalent, is inhibition of the ability or rate of protealytic cleavage catalyzed by the protease.
In certain other embodiments, the invention concerns isolated DNA segments and recombinant vectors that include within their sequence a nucleic acid sequence essentially as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1. The term “essentially as set forth in SEQ ID NO:1” is used in the same sense as described above and means that the nucleic acid sequence substantially corresponds to a portion of SEQ ID NO:1 and has relatively few codons that are not identical, or functionally equivalent, to the codons of SEQ ID NO: 1.
The term “functionally equivalent codon” is used herein to refer to codons that encode the same amino acid, such as the six codons for arginine and serine, and also refers to codons that encode biologically equivalent amino acids. For optimization of expression of BBS1 in human cells, the codons are shown in Table 1 in preference of use from left to right. Thus, the most preferred codon for alanine is thus “GCC” , and the least is “GCG” (see Table 1 below). Codon usage for various organisms and organelles can be found at the website www.kazusa.or.jp/codon/, incorporated herein by reference, allowing one of skill in the art to optimize codon usage for expression in various organisms using the disclosures herein. Thus, it is contemplated that codon usage may be optimized for other animals, as well as other organisms such as a prokaryote (e.g., an eubacteria, an archaea), an eukaryote (e.g., a protist, a plant, a fungi, an animal), a virus and the like, as well as organelles that contain nucleic acids, such as mitochondria or chloroplasts, based on the preferred codon usage as would be known to those of ordinary skill in the art.
It will also be understood that amino acid and nucleic acid sequences may include additional residues, such as additional N- or C-terminal amino acids or 5′ or 3′ sequences, and yet still be essentially as set forth in one of the sequences disclosed herein, so long as the sequence meets the criteria set forth above, including the maintenance of biological protein, polypeptide or peptide activity where an amino acid sequence expression is concerned. The addition of terminal sequences particularly applies to nucleic acid sequences that may, for example, include various non-coding sequences flanking either of the 5′ or 3′ portions of the coding region or may include various internal sequences, i.e., introns, which are known to occur within genes.
Excepting intronic or flanking regions, and allowing for the degeneracy of the genetic code, sequences that have about 70%, about 71%, about 72%, about 73%, about 74%, about 75%, about 76%, about 77%, about 78%, about 79%, about 80%, about 81%, about 82%, about 83%, about 84%, about 85%, about 86%, about 87%, about 88%, about 89%, about 90%, about 91%, about 92%, about 93%, about 94%, about 95%, about 96%, about 97%, about 98%, or about 99%, and any range derivable therein, such as, for example, about 70% to about 80%, and more preferrably about 81% and about 90%; or even more preferably, between about 91% and about 99%; of nucleotides that are identical to the nucleotides of SEQ ID NO: 1 will be sequences that are “essentially as set forth in SEQ ID NO:1.”
B. Nucleic Acid Hybidization
The nucleic acid sequences disclosed herein also have a variety of uses, such as for example, utility as probes or primers in nucleic acid hybridization embodiments.
Naturally, the present invention also encompasses DNA segments that are complementary, or essentially complementary, to the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1. Nucleic acid sequences that are “complementary” are those that are capable of base-pairing according to the standard Watson-Crick complementarity rules. As used herein, the term “complementary sequences” means nucleic acid sequences that are substantially complementary, as may be assessed by the same nucleotide comparison set forth above, or as defined as being capable of hybridizing to the nucleic acid segment of SEQ ID NO: 1 under stringent conditions such as those described herein.
As used herein, “hybridization” , “hybridizes” or “capable of hybridizing” is understood to mean the forming of a double or triple stranded molecule or a molecule with partial double or triple stranded nature. The term “hybridization” , “hybridize(s)” or “capable of hybridizing” encompasses the terms “stringent condition(s)” or “high stringency” and the terms “low stringency” or “low stringency condition(s).”
As used herein “stringent condition(s)” or “high stringency” are those conditions that allow hybridization between or within one or more nucleic acid strand(s) containing complementary sequence(s), but precludes hybridization of random sequences. Stringent conditions tolerate little, if any, mismatch between a nucleic acid and a target strand. Such conditions are well known to those of ordinary skill in the art, and are preferred for applications requiring high selectivity. Non-limiting applications include isolating a nucleic acid, such as a gene or a nucleic acid segment thereof, or detecting at least one specific mRNA transcript or a nucleic acid segment thereof, and the like.
Stringent conditions may comprise low salt and/or high temperature conditions, such as provided by about 0.02 M to about 0.15 M NaCl at temperatures of about 50° C to about 70° C. It is understood that the temperature and ionic strength of a desired stringency are determined in part by the length of the particular nucleic acid(s), the length and nucleobase content of the target sequence(s), the charge composition of the nucleic acid(s), and to the presence or concentration of formamide, tetramethylammonium chloride or other solvent(s) in a hybridization mixture.
It is also understood that these ranges, compositions and conditions for hybridization are mentioned by way of non-limiting examples only, and that the desired stringency for a particular hybridization reaction is often determined empirically by comparison to one or more positive or negative controls. Depending on the application envisioned it is preferred to employ varying conditions of hybridization to achieve varying degrees of selectivity of a nucleic acid towards a target sequence. In a non-limiting example, identification or isolation of a related target nucleic acid that does not hybridize to a nucleic acid under stringent conditions may be achieved by hybridization at low temperature and/or high ionic strength. For example, a medium stringency condition could be provided by about 0.1 to 0.25 M NaCl at temperatures of about 37° C. to about 55° C. Under these conditions, hybridization may occur even though the sequences of probe and target strand are not perfectly complementary, but are mismatched at one or more positions. In another example, a low stringency condition could be provided by about 0.15 M to about 0.9 M salt, at temperatures ranging from about 20° C. to about 55° C. Of course, it is within the skill of one in the art to further modify the low or high stringency conditions to suite a particular application. For example, in other embodiments, hybridization may be achieved under conditions of, 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.3), 75 mM KCl, 3 mM MgCl2, 1.0 mM dithiothreitol, at temperatures between approximately 20° C. to about 37° C. Other hybridization conditions utilized could include approximately 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.3), 50 mM KCl, 1.5 mM MgCl2, at temperatures ranging from approximately 40° C. to about 72° C.
Accordingly, the nucleotide sequences of the disclosure may be used for their ability to selectively form duplex molecules with complementary stretches of genes or RNAs or to provide primers for amplification of DNA or RNA from tissues. Depending on the application envisioned, it is preferred to employ varying conditions of hybridization to achieve varying degrees of selectivity of probe towards target sequence.
The nucleic acid segments of the present invention, regardless of the length of the coding sequence itself, may be combined with other DNA sequences, such as promoters, enhancers, polyadenylation signals, additional restriction enzyme sites, multiple cloning sites, other coding segments, and the like, such that their overall length may vary considerably. It is therefore contemplated that a nucleic acid fragment of almost any length may be employed, with the total length preferably being limited by the ease of preparation and use in the intended recombinant DNA protocol.
For example, nucleic acid fragments may be prepared that include a contiguous stretch of nucleotides identical to or complementary to SEQ ID NO: 1, such as, for example, about 8, about 10 to about 14, or about 15 to about 20 nucleotides, and that are chromosome sized pieces, up to about 1,000,000, about 750,000, about 500,000, about 250,000, about 100,000, about 50,000, about 20,000, or about 10,000, or about 5,000 base pairs in length, with segments of about 3,000 being preferred in certain cases, as well as DNA segments with total lengths of about 1,000, about 500, about 200, about 100 and about 50 base pairs in length (including all intermediate lengths of these lengths listed above, i.e., any range derivable therein and any integer derivable therein such a range) are also contemplated to be useful.
For example, it will be readily understood that “intermediate lengths” , in these contexts, means any length between the quoted ranges, such as 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 25 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110, 115, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, including all integers through the 200-500; 500-1,000; 1,000-2,000; 2,000-3,000; 3,000-5,000; 5,000-10,000 ranges, up to and including sequences of about 12,001, 12,002, 13,001, 13,002, 15,000, 20,000 and the like.
Various nucleic acid segments may be designed based on a particular nucleic acid sequence, and may be of any length. By assigning numeric values to a sequence, for example, the first residue is 1, the second residue is 2, etc., an algorithm defining all nucleic acid segments can be created:
n to n+y
where n is an integer from 1 to the last number of the sequence and y is the length of the nucleic acid (SEQ ID NO:l) segment minus one, where n+y does not exceed the last number of the sequence. Thus, for a 10-mer, the nucleic acid segments correspond to bases 1 to 10, 2 to 11, 3 to 12 . . . and/or so on. For a 15-mer, the nucleic acid segments correspond to bases 1 to 15, 2 to 16, 3 to 17 . . . and/or so on. For a 20-mer, the nucleic segments correspond to bases 1 to 20, 2 to 21, 3 to 22 . . . and/or so on. In certain embodiments, the nucleic acid segment may be a probe or primer. As used herein, a “probe” generally refers to a nucleic acid used in a detection method or composition. As used herein, a “primer” generally refers to a nucleic acid used in an extension or amplification method or composition.
The use of a hybridization probe of between 17 and 100 nucleotides in length, or in some aspect of the invention even up to 1-2 kb or more in length, allows the formation of a duplex molecule that is both stable and selective. Molecules having complementary sequences over stretches greater than 20 bases in length are generally preferred, in order to increase stability and selectivity of the hybrid, and thereby improve the quality and degree of particular hybrid molecules obtained. One will generally prefer to design nucleic acid molecules having stretches of 20 to 30 nucleotides, or even longer where desired. Such fragments may be readily prepared by, for example, directly synthesizing the fragment by chemical means or by introducing selected sequences into recombinant vectors for recombinant production.
In general, it is envisioned that the hybridization probes described herein will be useful both as reagents in solution hybridization, as in PCR™, for detection of expression of corresponding genes, as well as in embodiments employing a solid phase. In embodiments involving a solid phase, the test DNA (or RNA) is adsorbed or otherwise affixed to a selected matrix or surface. This fixed, single-stranded nucleic acid is then subjected to hybridization with selected probes under desired conditions. The selected conditions will depend on the particular circumstances based on the particular criteria required (depending, for example, on the “G+C” content, type of target nucleic acid, source of nucleic acid, size of hybridization probe, etc.). Following washing of the hybridized surface to remove non-specifically bound probe molecules, hybridization is detected, or even quantified, by means of the label.
C. Nucleic Acid Amplification
Nucleic acid used as a template for amplification is isolated from cells contained in the biological sample, according to standard methodologies (Sambrook et al., 2000). The nucleic acid may be genomic DNA or fractionated or whole cell RNA. Where RNA is used, it may be desired to convert the RNA to a complementary DNA. In one embodiment, the RNA is whole cell RNA and is used directly as the template for amplification.
Pairs of primers that selectively hybridize to nucleic acids corresponding to BBS1 genes are contacted with the isolated nucleic acid under conditions that permit selective hybridization. The term “primer,” as defined herein, is meant to encompass any nucleic acid that is capable of priming the synthesis of a nascent nucleic acid in a template-dependent process. Typically, primers are oligonucleotides from ten to twenty or thirty base pairs in length, but longer sequences can be employed. Primers may be provided in double-stranded or single-stranded form, although the single-stranded form is preferred.
Once hybridized, the nucleic acid:primer complex is contacted with one or more enzymes that facilitate template-dependent nucleic acid synthesis. Multiple rounds of amplification, also referred to as “cycles,” are conducted until a sufficient amount of amplification product is produced.
Next, the amplification product is detected. In certain applications, the detection may be performed by visual means. Alternatively, the detection may involve indirect identification of the product via chemiluminescence, radioactive scintigraphy of incorporated radiolabel or fluorescent label or even via a system using electrical or thermal impulse signals (Affymax technology).
A number of template dependent processes are available to amplify the marker sequences present in a given template sample. One of the best known amplification methods is the polymerase chain reaction (referred to as PCR™) which is described in detail in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,683,195, 4,683,202 and 4,800,159, each incorporated herein by reference in entirety.
Briefly, in PCR™, two primer sequences are prepared that are complementary to regions on opposite complementary strands of the marker sequence. An excess of deoxynucleoside triphosphates are added to a reaction mixture along with a DNA polymerase, e.g., Taq polymerase. If the marker sequence is present in a sample, the primers will bind to the marker and the polymerase will cause the primers to be extended along the marker sequence by adding on nucleotides. By raising and lowering the temperature of the reaction mixture, the extended primers will dissociate from the marker to form reaction products, excess primers will bind to the marker and to the reaction products and the process is repeated.
A reverse transcriptase PCR amplification procedure may be performed in order to quantify the amount of mRNA amplified. Methods of reverse transcribing RNA into cDNA are well known and described in Sambrook et al, 2000. Alternative methods for reverse transcription utilize thermostable, RNA-dependent DNA polymerases. These methods are described in WO 90/07641, filed Dec. 21, 1990, incorporated herein by reference. Polymerase chain reaction methodologies are well known in the art.
Another method for amplification is the ligase chain reaction (“LCR”), disclosed in EPA No. 320 308, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In LCR, two complementary probe pairs are prepared, and in the presence of the target sequence, each pair will bind to opposite complementary strands of the target such that they abut. In the presence of a ligase, the two probe pairs will link to form a single unit. By temperature cycling, as in PCR™, bound ligated units dissociate from the target and then serve as “target sequences” for ligation of excess probe pairs. U.S. Pat. No. 4,883,750 describes a method similar to LCR for binding probe pairs to a target sequence.
Qbeta Replicase, described in PCT Application No. PCT/US87/00880, incorporated herein by reference, may also be used as still another amplification method in the present invention. In this method, a replicative sequence of RNA that has a region complementary to that of a target is added to a sample in the presence of an RNA polymerase. The polymerase will copy the replicative sequence that can then be detected.
An isothermal amplification method, in which restriction endonucleases and ligases are used to achieve the amplification of target molecules that contain nucleotide 5′-[alpha-thio]-triphosphates in one strand of a restriction site may also be useful in the amplification of nucleic acids in the present invention.
Strand Displacement Amplification (SDA) is another method of carrying out isothermal amplification of nucleic acids which involves multiple rounds of strand displacement and synthesis, i.e., nick translation. A similar method, called Repair Chain Reaction (RCR), involves annealing several probes throughout a region targeted for amplification, followed by a repair reaction in which only two of the four bases are present. The other two bases can be added as biotinylated derivatives for easy detection. A similar approach is used in SDA. Target specific sequences can also be detected using a cyclic probe reaction (CPR). In CPR, a probe having 3′ and 5′ sequences of non-specific DNA and a middle sequence of specific RNA is hybridized to DNA that is present in a sample. Upon hybridization, the reaction is treated with RNase H, and the products of the probe identified as distinctive products that are released after digestion. The original template is annealed to another cycling probe and the reaction is repeated.
Still another amplification methods described in GB Application No. 2 202 328, and in PCT Application No. PCT/US89/01025, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, may be used in accordance with the present invention. In the former application, “modified” primers are used in a PCR-like, template- and enzyme-dependent synthesis. The primers may be modified by labeling with a capture moiety (e.g., biotin) and/or a detector moiety (e.g., enzyme). In the latter application, an excess of labeled probes are added to a sample. In the presence of the target sequence, the probe binds and is cleaved catalytically. After cleavage, the target sequence is released intact to be bound by excess probe. Cleavage of the labeled probe signals the presence of the target sequence.
Other nucleic acid amplification procedures include transcription-based amplification systems (TAS), including nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) and 3SR (Gingeras et al., PCT Application WO 88/10315, incorporated herein by reference). In NASBA, the nucleic acids can be prepared for amplification by standard phenol/chloroform extraction, heat denaturation of a clinical sample, treatment with lysis buffer and minispin columns for isolation of DNA and RNA or guanidinium chloride extraction of RNA. These amplification techniques involve annealing a primer which has target specific sequences. Following polymerization, DNA/RNA hybrids are digested with RNase H while double stranded DNA molecules are heat denatured again. In either case the single stranded DNA is made fully double stranded by addition of second target specific primer, followed by polymerization. The double-stranded DNA molecules are then multiply transcribed by an RNA polymerase such as T7 or SP6. In an isothermal cyclic reaction, the RNA's are reverse transcribed into single stranded DNA, which is then converted to double stranded DNA, and then transcribed once again with an RNA polymerase such as T7 or SP6. The resulting products, whether truncated or complete, indicate target specific sequences.
Davey et al., EP 329 822 (incorporated herein by reference in its entirety) disclose a nucleic acid amplification process involving cyclically synthesizing single-stranded RNA (“ssRNA”), ssDNA, and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), which may be used in accordance with the present invention. The ssRNA is a template for a first primer oligonucleotide, which is elongated by reverse transcriptase (RNA-dependent DNA polymerase). The RNA is then removed from the resulting DNA:RNA duplex by the action of ribonuclease H (RNase H, an RNase specific for RNA in duplex with either DNA or RNA). The resultant ssDNA is a template for a second primer, which also includes the sequences of an RNA polymerase promoter (exemplified by T7 RNA polymerase) 5′ to its homology to the template. This primer is then extended by DNA polymerase (exemplified by the large “Klenow” fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase 1), resulting in a double-stranded DNA (“dsDNA”) molecule, having a sequence identical to that of the original RNA between the primers and having additionally, at one end, a promoter sequence. This promoter sequence can be used by the appropriate RNA polymerase to make many RNA copies of the DNA. These copies can then re-enter the cycle leading to very swift amplification. With proper choice of enzymes, this amplification can be done isothermally without addition of enzymes at each cycle. Because of the cyclical nature of this process, the starting sequence can be chosen to be in the form of either DNA or RNA.
Miller et al., PCT Application WO 89/06700 (incorporated herein by reference in its entirety) disclose a nucleic acid sequence amplification scheme based on the hybridization of a promoter/primer sequence to a target single-stranded DNA (“ssDNA”) followed by transcription of many RNA copies of the sequence. This scheme is not cyclic, i.e., new templates are not produced from the resultant RNA transcripts. Other amplification methods include “RACE” and “one-sided PCR” (Frohman, 1990, incorporated herein by reference).
Methods based on ligation of two (or more) oligonucleotides in the presence of nucleic acid having the sequence of the resulting “di-oligonucleotide”, thereby amplifying the di-oligonucleotide, may also be used in the amplification step of the present invention.
D. Nucleic Acid Detection
In certain embodiments, it will be advantageous to employ nucleic acid sequences of the present invention in combination with an appropriate means, such as a label, for determining hybridization. A wide variety of appropriate indicator means are known in the art, including fluorescent, radioactive, enzymatic or other ligands, such as avidin/biotin, which are capable of being detected. In preferred embodiments, one may desire to employ a fluorescent label or an enzyme tag such as urease, alkaline phosphatase or peroxidase, instead of radioactive or other environmentally undesirable reagents. In the case of enzyme tags, colorimetric indicator substrates are known that can be employed to provide a detection means visible to the human eye or spectrophotometrically, to identify specific hybridization with complementary nucleic acid-containing samples.
In embodiments wherein nucleic acids are amplified, it may be desirable to separate the amplification product from the template and the excess primer for the purpose of determining whether specific amplification has occurred. In one embodiment, amplification products are separated by agarose, agarose-acrylamide or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using standard methods (Sambrook et al., 2000).
Alternatively, chromatographic techniques may be employed to effect separation. There are many kinds of chromatography which may be used in the present invention: adsorption, partition, ion-exchange and molecular sieve, and many specialized techniques for using them including column, paper, thin-layer and gas chromatography.
Amplification products must be visualized in order to confirm amplification of the marker sequences. One typical visualization method involves staining of a gel with ethidium bromide and visualization under UV light. Alternatively, if the amplification products are integrally labeled with radio- or fluorometrically-labeled nucleotides, the amplification products can then be exposed to x-ray film or visualized under the appropriate stimulating spectra, following separation.
In one embodiment, visualization is achieved indirectly. Following separation of amplification products, a labeled, nucleic acid probe is brought into contact with the amplified marker sequence. The probe preferably is conjugated to a chromophore but may be radiolabeled. In another embodiment, the probe is conjugated to a binding partner, such as an antibody or biotin, and the other member of the binding pair carries a detectable moiety.
In one embodiment, detection is by Southern blotting and hybridization with a labeled probe. The techniques involved in Southern blotting are well known to those of skill in the art and can be found in many standard books on molecular protocols (See Sambrook et al., 2000). Briefly, amplification products are separated by gel electrophoresis. The gel is then contacted with a membrane, such as nitrocellulose, permitting transfer of the nucleic acid and non-covalent binding. Subsequently, the membrane is incubated with a chromophore-conjugated probe that is capable of hybridizing with a target amplification product. Detection is by exposure of the membrane to x-ray film or ion-emitting detection devices.
One example of the foregoing is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,279,721, incorporated by reference herein, which discloses an apparatus and method for the automated electrophoresis and transfer of nucleic acids. The apparatus permits electrophoresis and blotting without external manipulation of the gel and is ideally suited to carrying out methods according to the present invention.
Other methods for genetic screening to accurately detect mutations in genomic DNA, cDNA or RNA samples may be employed, depending on the specific situation.
Historically, a number of different methods have been used to detect point mutations, including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (“DGGE”), restriction enzyme polymorphism analysis, chemical and enzymatic cleavage methods, and others. The more common procedures currently in use include direct sequencing of target regions amplified by PCR™ (see above) and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (“SSCP”).
Another method of screening for point mutations is based on RNase cleavage of base pair mismatches in RNA/DNA and RNA/RNA heteroduplexes. As used herein, the term “mismatch” is defined as a region of one or more unpaired or mispaired nucleotides in a double-stranded RNA/RNA, RNA/DNA or DNA/DNA molecule. This definition thus includes mismatches due to insertion/deletion mutations, as well as single and multiple base point mutations.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,946,773 describes an RNase A mismatch cleavage assay that involves annealing single-stranded DNA or RNA test samples to an RNA probe, and subsequent treatment of the nucleic acid duplexes with RNase A. After the RNase cleavage reaction, the RNase is inactivated by proteolytic digestion and organic extraction, and the cleavage products are denatured by heating and analyzed by electrophoresis on denaturing polyacrylamide gels. For the detection of mismatches, the single-stranded products of the RNase A treatment, electrophoretically separated according to size, are compared to similarly treated control duplexes. Samples containing smaller fragments (cleavage products) not seen in the control duplex are scored as positive.
Currently available RNase mismatch cleavage assays, including those performed according to U.S. Pat. No. 4,946,773, require the use of radiolabeled RNA probes. Myers and Maniatis in U.S. Pat. No. 4,946,773 describe the detection of base pair mismatches using RNase A. Other investigators have described the use of an E. coli enzyme, RNase I, in mismatch assays. Because it has broader cleavage specificity than RNase A, RNase I would be a desirable enzyme to employ in the detection of base pair mismatches if components can be found to decrease the extent of non-specific cleavage and increase the frequency of cleavage of mismatches. The use of RNase I for mismatch detection is described in literature from Promega Biotech. Promega markets a kit containing RNase I that is shown in their literature to cleave three out of four known mismatches, provided the enzyme level is sufficiently high.
The RNase protection assay was first used to detect and map the ends of specific mRNA targets in solution. The assay relies on being able to easily generate high specific activity radiolabeled RNA probes complementary to the mRNA of interest by in vitro transcription. Originally, the templates for in vitro transcription were recombinant plasmids containing bacteriophage promoters. The probes are mixed with total cellular RNA samples to permit hybridization to their complementary targets, then the mixture is treated with RNase to degrade excess unhybridized probe. Also, as originally intended, the RNase used is specific for single-stranded RNA, so that hybridized double-stranded probe is protected from degradation. After inactivation and removal of the RNase, the protected probe (which is proportional in amount to the amount of target mRNA that was present) is recovered and analyzed on a polyacrylamide gel.
The RNase Protection assay was adapted for detection of single base mutations. In this type of RNase A mismatch cleavage assay, radiolabeled RNA probes transcribed in vitro from wild-type sequences, are hybridized to complementary target regions derived from test samples. The test target generally comprises DNA (either genomic DNA or DNA amplified by cloning in plasmids or by PCR™), although RNA targets (endogenous mRNA) have occasionally been used. If single nucleotide (or greater) sequence differences occur between the hybridized probe and target, the resulting disruption in Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding at that position (“mismatch”) can be recognized and cleaved in some cases by single-strand specific ribonuclease. To date, RNase A has been used almost exclusively for cleavage of single-base mismatches, although RNase I has recently been shown as useful also for mismatch cleavage. There are recent descriptions of using the MutS protein and other DNA-repair enzymes for detection of single-base mismatches.
E. Cloning of Additional BBS1 Genes
The present invention contemplates cloning BBS1 genes or cDNAs from animal (e.g., mammalian) organisms. A technique often employed by those skilled in the art of protein production today is to obtain a so-called “recombinant” version of the protein, to express it in a recombinant cell and to obtain the protein, polypeptide or peptide from such cells. These techniques are based upon the “cloning” of a DNA molecule encoding the protein from a DNA library, i.e., on obtaining a specific DNA molecule distinct from other portions of DNA. This can be achieved by, for example, cloning a cDNA molecule, or cloning a genomic-like DNA molecule.
The first step in such cloning procedures is the screening of an appropriate DNA library. The screening protocol may utilize nucleotide segments or probes derived from SEQ ID NOS:1. Additionally, antibodies designed to bind to the expressed BBS1 proteins, polypeptides, or peptides may be used as probes to screen an appropriate mammalian DNA expression library. Alternatively, activity assays may be employed. The operation of'such screening protocols are well known to those of skill in the art and are described in detail in the scientific literature, for example, in Sambrook et al. (2000), incorporated herein by reference. Moreover, as the present invention encompasses the cloning of genomic segments as well as cDNA molecules, it is contemplated that suitable genomic cloning methods, as known to those in the art, may also be used.
As used herein “designed to hybridize” means a sequence selected for its likely ability to hybridize to a mammalian BBS1 gene, for example due to the expected high degree of homology between the human, rat, or mouse BBS1 gene and the BBS1 genes from other mammals. Also included are segments or probes altered to enhance their ability to hybridize to or bind to a mammalian BBS1 gene. Additionally, these regions of homology also include amino acid sequences of 4 or more consecutive amino acids selected and/or altered to increase conservation of the amino acid sequences in comparison to the same or similar region of residues in the same or related genes in one or more species. Such amino acid sequences may derived from amino acid sequences encoded by the BBS1 gene, and more particularly from the isolated sequences of SEQ ID NO:2.
Designing probe sequences may involve selection of regions of highly conserved nucleotide sequences between various species for a particular gene or related genes, relative to the general conservation of nucleotides of the gene or related genes in one or more species. Comparison of the amino acid sequences conserved between one or more species for a particular gene may also be used to determine a group of 4 or more consecutive amino acids that are conserved relative to the protein encoded by the gene or related genes. The nucleotide probe or primers may then be designed from the region of the gene that encodes the conserved sequence of amino acids.
One may also prepare fusion proteins, polypeptides and peptides, e.g., where the BBS1 proteinaceous material coding regions are aligned within the same expression unit with other proteins, polypeptides or peptides having desired functions, such as for purification or immunodetection purposes (e.g., proteinaceous compostions that may be purified by affinity chromatography and enzyme label coding regions, respectively).
Encompassed by the invention are DNA segments encoding relatively small peptides, such as, for example, peptides of from about 8, about 9, about 10, about 11, about 12, about 13, about 14, about 15, about 16, about 17, about 18, about 19, about 20, about 21, about 22, about 23, about 24, about 25, about 26, about 27, about 28, about 29, about 30, about 31, about 32, about 33, about 34, about 35, about 35, about 40, about 45, to about 50 amino acids in length, and more preferably, of from about 15 to about 30 amino acids in length; as set forth in SEQ ID NO:2 and also larger polypeptides up to and including proteins corresponding to the full-length sequences set forth in SEQ ID NO:2, and any range derivable therein and any integer derivable therein such a range.
In addition to the “standard” DNA and RNA nucleotide bases, modified bases are also contemplated for use in particular applications of the present invention. A table of exemplary, but not limiting, modified bases is provided herein below.
F. Mutagenesis, Peptidomimetics and Rational Drug Design
It will also be understood that this invention is not limited to the particular nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of SEQ ID NO:2. Recombinant vectors and isolated DNA segments may therefore variously include these coding regions themselves, coding regions bearing selected alterations or modifications in the basic coding region, or they may encode larger polypeptides that nevertheless include such coding regions or may encode biologically functional equivalent proteins, polypeptides or peptides that have variant amino acids sequences.
The DNA segments of the present invention encompass biologically functional equivalent BBS1 proteins, polypeptides, and peptides. Such sequences may arise as a consequence of codon redundancy and functional equivalency that are known to occur naturally within nucleic acid sequences and the proteinaceous compositions thus encoded. Alternatively, functionally equivalent proteins, polypeptides or peptides may be created via the application of recombinant DNA technology, in which changes in the protein, polypeptide or peptide structure may be engineered, based on considerations of the properties of the amino acids being exchanged. Changes may be introduced, for example, through the application of site-directed mutagenesis techniques as discussed herein below, e.g., to introduce improvements to the antigenicity of the proteinaceous composition or to test mutants in order to examine BBS1 activity at the molecular level.
Site-specific mutagenesis is a technique useful in the preparation of individual peptides, or biologically functional equivalent proteins, polypeptides or peptides, through specific mutagenesis of the underlying DNA. The technique further provides a ready ability to prepare and test sequence variants, incorporating one or more of the foregoing considerations, by introducing one or more nucleotide sequence changes into the DNA. Site-specific mutagenesis allows the production of mutants through the use of specific oligonucleotide sequences which encode the DNA sequence of the desired mutation, as well as a sufficient number of adjacent nucleotides, to provide a primer sequence of sufficient size and sequence complexity to form a stable duplex on both sides of the deletion junction being traversed. Typically, a primer of about 17 to 25 nucleotides in length is preferred, with about 5 to 10 residues on both sides of the junction of the sequence being altered.
In general, the technique of site-specific mutagenesis is well known in the art. As will be appreciated, the technique typically employs a bacteriophage vector that exists in both a single stranded and double stranded form. Typical vectors useful in site-directed mutagenesis include vectors such as the M13 phage. These phage vectors are commercially available and their use is generally well known to those skilled in the art. Double-stranded plasmids are also routinely employed in site directed mutagenesis, which eliminates the step of transferring the gene of interest from a phage to a plasmid.
In general, site-directed mutagenesis is performed by first obtaining a single-stranded vector, or melting of two strands of a double stranded vector which includes within its sequence a DNA sequence encoding the desired proteinaceous molecule. An oligonucleotide primer bearing the desired mutated sequence is synthetically prepared. This primer is then annealed with the single-stranded DNA preparation, and subjected to DNA polymerizing enzymes such as E. coli polymerase I Klenow fragment, in order to complete the synthesis of the mutation-bearing strand. Thus, a heteroduplex is formed wherein one strand encodes the original non-mutated sequence and the second strand bears the desired mutation. This heteroduplex vector is then used to transform appropriate cells, such as E. coli cells, and clones are selected that include recombinant vectors bearing the mutated sequence arrangement.
The preparation of sequence variants of the selected gene using site-directed mutagenesis is provided as a means of producing potentially useful species and is not meant to be limiting, as there are other ways in which sequence variants of genes may be obtained. For example, recombinant vectors encoding the desired gene may be treated with mutagenic agents, such as hydroxylamine, to obtain sequence variants.
As modifications and changes may be made in the structure of the BBS1 genes, nucleic acids (e.g., nucleic acid segments) and proteinaceous molecules of the present invention, and still obtain molecules having like or otherwise desirable characteristics, such biologically functional equivalents are also encompassed within the present invention.
For example, certain amino acids may be substituted for other amino acids in a proteinaceous structure without appreciable loss of interactive binding capacity with structures such as, for example, antigen-binding regions of antibodies, binding sites on substrate molecules or receptors, or such like. Since it is the interactive capacity and nature of a proteinaceous molecule that defines that proteinaceous molecule's biological functional activity, certain amino acid sequence substitutions can be made in a proteinaceous molecule sequence (or, of course, its underlying DNA coding sequence) and nevertheless obtain a proteinaceous molecule with like (agonistic) properties. It is thus contemplated that various changes may be made in the sequence of BBS1 proteins, polypeptides or peptides, or the underlying nucleic acids, without appreciable loss of their biological utility or activity.
Equally, the same considerations may be employed to create a protein, polypeptide or peptide with countervailing, e.g., antagonistic properties. This is relevant to the present invention in which BBS1 mutants or analogues may be generated. For example, a BBS1 mutant may be generated and tested for BBS1 activity to identify those residues important for BBS1 activity. BBS1 mutants may also be synthesized to reflect a BBS1 mutant that occurs in the human population and that is linked to the development of cancer. Such mutant proteinaceous molecules are particularly contemplated for use in generating mutant-specific antibodies and such mutant DNA segments may be used as mutant-specific probes and primers.
While discussion has focused on functionally equivalent polypeptides arising from amino acid changes, it will be appreciated that these changes may be effected by alteration of the encoding DNA; taking into consideration also that the genetic code is degenerate and that two or more codons may code for the same amino acid. A table of amino acids and their codons is presented herein above for use in such embodiments, as well as for other uses, such as in the design of probes and primers and the like.
In terms of functional equivalents, it is well understood by the skilled artisan that, inherent in the definition of a “biologically functional equivalent” protein, polypeptide, peptide, gene or nucleic acid, is the concept that there is a limit to the number of changes that may be made within a defined portion of the molecule and still result in a molecule with an acceptable level of equivalent biological activity. Biologically functional equivalent peptides are thus defined herein as those peptides in which certain, not most or all, of the amino acids may be substituted.
In particular, where shorter length peptides are concerned, it is contemplated that fewer amino acids changes should be made within the given peptide. Longer domains may have an intermediate number of changes. The full length protein will have the most tolerance for a larger number of changes. Of course, a plurality of distinct proteins/polypeptide/peptides with different substitutions may easily be made and used in accordance with the invention.
It is also well understood that where certain residues are shown to be particularly important to the biological or structural properties of a protein, polypeptide or peptide, e.g., residues in binding regions or active sites, such residues may not generally be exchanged. In this manner, functional equivalents are defined herein as those peptides which maintain a substantial amount of their native biological activity.
Amino acid substitutions are generally based on the relative similarity of the amino acid side-chain substituents, for example, their hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, charge, size, and the like. An analysis of the size, shape and type of the amino acid side-chain substituents reveals that arginine, lysine and histidine are all positively charged residues; that alanine, glycine and serine are all a similar size; and that phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine all have a generally similar shape. Therefore, based upon these considerations, arginine, lysine and histidine; alanine, glycine and serine; and phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine; are defined herein as biologically functional equivalents.
To effect more quantitative changes, the hydropathic index of amino acids may be considered. Each amino acid has been assigned a hydropathic index on the basis of their hydrophobicity and charge characteristics, these are: isoleucine (+4.5); valine (+4.2); leucine (+3.8); phenylalanine (t2.8); cysteine/cystine (+2.5); methionine (+1.9); alanine (+1.8); glycine (−0.4); threonine (−0.7); serine (−0.8); tryptophan (−0.9); tyrosine (−1.3); proline (−1.6); histidine (−3.2); glutamate (−3.5); glutamine (−3.5); aspartate (−3.5); asparagine (−3.5); lysine (−3.9); and arginine (−4.5).
The importance of the hydropathic amino acid index in conferring interactive biological function on a proteinaceous molecule is generally understood in the art (Kyte & Doolittle, 1982, incorporated herein by reference). It is known that certain amino acids may be substituted for other amino acids having a similar hydropathic index or score and still retain a similar biological activity. In making changes based upon the hydropathic index, the substitution of amino acids whose hydropathic indices are within ±2 is preferred, those which are within ±1 are particularly preferred, and those within ±0.5 are even more particularly preferred.
It is also understood in the art that the substitution of like amino acids can be made effectively on the basis of hydrophilicity, particularly where the biological functional equivalent protein, polypeptide or peptide thereby created is intended for use in immunological embodiments, as in certain embodiments of the present invention. U.S. Pat. No. 4,554,101, incorporated herein by reference, states that the greatest local average hydrophilicity of a proteinaceous molecule, as governed by the hydrophilicity of its adjacent amino acids, correlates with its immunogenicity and antigenicity, i.e., with a biological property of the proteinaceous molecule.
As detailed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,554,101, the following hydrophilicity values have been assigned to amino acid residues: arginine (+3.0); lysine (+3.0); aspartate (+3.0±1); glutamate (+3.0±1); serine (+0.3); asparagine (+0.2); glutamine (+0.2); glycine (0); threonine (−0.4); proline (−0.5≡1); alanine (−0.5); histidine (−0.5); cysteine (−1.0); methionine (−1.3); valine (−1.5); leucine (−1.8); isoleucine (−1.8); tyrosine (−2.3); phenylalanine (−2.5); tryptophan (−3.4).
In making changes based upon similar hydrophilicity values, the substitution of amino acids whose hydrophilicity values are within ±2 is preferred, those which are within +1 are particularly preferred, and those within ±0.5 are even more particularly preferred.
In addition to the BBS1 peptidyl compounds described herein, it is contemplated that other sterically similar compounds may be formulated to mimic the key portions of the peptide structure. Such compounds, which may be termed peptidomimetics, may be used in the same manner as the peptides of the invention and hence are also functional equivalents.
Certain mimetics that mimic elements of proteinaceous molecules secondary structure are described in Johnson et al. (1993). The underlying rationale behind the use of peptide mimetics is that the peptide backbone of proteinaceous molecules exists chiefly to orientate amino acid side chains in such a way as to facilitate molecular interactions, such as those of antibody and antigen. A peptide mimetic is thus designed to permit molecular interactions similar to the natural molecule.
Some successful applications of the peptide mimetic concept have focused on mimetics of β-turns within proteinaceous molecules, which are known to be highly antigenic. Likely β-turn structure within a polypeptide can be predicted by computer-based algorithms, as discussed herein. Once the component amino acids of the turn are determined, mimetics can be constructed to achieve a similar spatial orientation of the essential elements of the amino acid side chains.
The generation of further structural equivalents or mimetics may be achieved by the techniques of modeling and chemical design known to those of skill in the art. The art of receptor modeling is now well known, and by such methods a chemical that binds BBS1 can be designed and then synthesized. It will be understood that all such sterically designed constructs fall within the scope of the present invention.
In addition to the 20 “standard” amino acids provided through the genetic code, modified or unusual amino acids are also contemplated for use in the present invention. A table of exemplary, but not limiting, modified or unusual amino acids is provided herein below.
In one aspect, an compound may be designed by rational drug design to function as a BBS1 in inhibition serine proteases. The goal of rational drug design is to produce structural analogs of biologically active compounds. By creating such analogs, it is possible to fashion drugs which are more active or stable than the natural molecules, which have different susceptibility to alteration or which may affect the function of various other molecules. In one approach, one would generate a three-dimensional structure for the BBS1 protein of the invention or a fragment thereof. This could be accomplished by X-ray crystallography, computer modeling or by a combination of both approaches. An alternative approach, involves the random replacement of functional groups throughout the BBS1 protein, polypeptides or peptides, and the resulting affect on function determined.
It also is possible to isolate a BBS1 protein, polypeptide or peptide specific antibody, selected by a functional assay, and then solve its crystal structure. In principle, this approach yields a pharmacore upon which subsequent drug design can be based. It is possible to bypass protein crystallography altogether by generating anti-idiotypic antibodies to a functional, pharmacologically active antibody. As a mirror image of a mirror image, the binding site of anti-idiotype would be expected to be an analog of the original antigen. The anti-idiotype could then be used to identify and isolate peptides from banks of chemically- or biologically-produced peptides. Selected peptides would then serve as the pharmacore. Anti-idiotypes may be generated using the methods described herein for producing antibodies, using an antibody as the antigen.
Thus, one may design drugs which have enhanced and improved biological activity, for example, serine protease or tumor growth or metastasis inhibition, relative to a starting BBS1 proteinaceous sequences. By virtue of the ability to recombinantly produce sufficient amounts of the BBS1 proteins, polypeptides or peptides, crystallographic studies may be preformed to determine the most likely sites for mutagenesis and chemical mimicry. In addition, knowledge of the chemical characteristics of these compounds permits computer employed predictions of structure-function relationships. Computer models of various polypeptide and peptide structures are also available in the literature or computer databases. In a non-limiting example, the Entrez database (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Entrez/) may be used by one of ordinary skill in the art to identify target sequences and regions for mutagenesis.III. DIAGNOSING BBS AND RELATED CONDITIONS
As discussed above, the present inventors have determined that alterations in the BBS1 gene are associated with BBS. Therefore, BBS1 and the corresponding gene may be employed as a diagnostic or prognostic indicator of BBS in general, and of related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, retinal degeneration, renal carcinoma, renal malformation, congenital heart defects, limb deformity and obesity. More specifically, point mutations, deletions, insertions or regulatory perturbations relating to BBS1 will be identified. The present invention contemplates further the diagnosis of disease states by detecting changes in the levels of BBS1 expression.
A. Genetic Diagnosis
One embodiment of the instant invention comprises a method for detecting variation in the expression of BBS1. This may comprise determining the level of BBS1 expressed, or determining specific alterations in the expressed product. Obviously, this sort of assay has importance in the diagnosis of related BBS, but it also is relevant to other disease states such as diabetes, retinal degeneration, renal carcinoma (cancers), renal malformation, congenital heart defects, limb deformity, hypertension and obesity.
The biological sample can be any tissue or fluid. Various embodiments include cells of the skin, muscle, fascia, brain, prostate, breast, endometrium, lung, head & neck, pancreas, small intestine, blood cells, liver, testes, ovaries, colon, rectum, skin, stomach, esophagus, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow or kidney. Other embodiments include fluid samples such as peripheral blood, lymph fluid, ascites, serous fluid, pleural effusion, sputum, cerebrospinal fluid, lacrimal fluid, stool urine or amniotic fluid.
Nucleic acids used are isolated from cells contained in the biological sample, according to standard methodologies (Sambrook et al., 2000). The nucleic acid may be genomic DNA or fractionated or whole cell RNA. Where RNA is used, it may be desired to convert the RNA to a complementary DNA (cDNA). In one embodiment, the RNA is whole cell RNA; in another, it is poly-A RNA. Normally, the nucleic acid is amplified.
Depending on the format, the specific nucleic acid of interest is identified in the sample directly using amplification or with a second, known nucleic acid following amplification. Next, the identified product is detected. In certain applications, the detection may be performed by visual means (e.g., ethidium bromide staining of a gel). Alternatively, the detection may involve indirect identification of the product via chemiluminescence, radioactive scintigraphy of radiolabel or fluorescent label or even via a system using electrical or thermal impulse signals (Affymax Technology; Bellus, 1994).
Following detection, one may compare the results seen in a given patient with a statistically significant reference group of normal patients and patients that have BBS or BBS-related pathologies. In this way, it is possible to correlate the amount or kind of BBS detected with various clinical states.
Various types of defects have been identified by the present inventors. Thus, “alterations” should be read as including deletions, insertions, point mutations and duplications. Point mutations result in stop codons, frameshift mutations or amino acid substitutions. Somatic mutations are those occurring in non-germline tissues. Germ-line tissue can occur in any tissue and are inherited. Mutations in and outside the coding region also may affect the amount of BBS1 produced, both by altering the transcription of the gene or in destabilizing or otherwise altering the processing of either the transcript (mRNA) or protein.
It is contemplated that other mutations in the BBS1 gene may be identified in accordance with the present invention by detecting a nucleotide change in particular nucleic acids (U.S. Pat. No. 4,988,617, incorporated herein by reference). A variety of different assays are contemplated in this regard, including but not limited to, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH; U.S. Pat. No. 5,633,365 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,665,549, each incorporated herein by reference), direct DNA sequencing, PFGE analysis, Southern or Northern blotting, single-stranded conformation analysis (SSCA), RNAse protection assay, allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,639,611), dot blot analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,190,856 incorporated herein by reference), RFLP (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,324,631 incorporated herein by reference) and PCR™-SSCP. Methods for detecting and quantitating gene sequences, such as mutated genes and oncogenes, in for example biological fluids are described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,496,699, incorporated herein by reference.
a. Primers and Probes
The term primer, as defined herein, is meant to encompass any nucleic acid that is capable of priming the synthesis of a nascent nucleic acid in a template-dependent process. Typically, primers are oligonucleotides from ten to twenty base pairs in length, but longer sequences can be employed. Primers may be provided in double-stranded or single-stranded form, although the single-stranded form is preferred. Probes are defined differently, although they may act as primers. Probes, while perhaps capable of priming, are designed to binding to the target DNA or RNA and need not be used in an amplification process.
In preferred embodiments, the probes or primers are labeled with radioactive species (32p, 14C, 35S, 3H, or other label), with a fluorophore (rhodamine, fluorescein) or a chemillumiscent (luciferase).
b. Template Dependent Amplification Methods
A number of template dependent processes are available to amplify the marker sequences present in a given template sample. One of the best known amplification methods is the polymerase chain reaction (referred to as PCR™) which is described in detail in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,683,195, 4,683,202 and 4,800,159, and in Innis et al., 1990, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety and as described on pages 35-38 of the specification.
c. Southern/Northern Blotting
Blotting techniques are well known to those of skill in the art. Southern blotting involves the use of DNA as a target, whereas Northern blotting involves the use of RNA as a target. Each provide different types of information, although cDNA blotting is analogous, in many aspects, to blotting or RNA species.
Briefly, a probe is used to target a DNA or RNA species that has been immobilized on a suitable matrix, often a filter of nitrocellulose. The different species should be spatially separated to facilitate analysis. This often is accomplished by gel electrophoresis of nucleic acid species followed by “blotting” on to the filter.
Subsequently, the blotted target is incubated with a probe (usually labeled) under conditions that promote denaturation and rehybridization. Because the probe is designed to base pair with the target, the probe will binding a portion of the target sequence under renaturing conditions. Unbound probe is then removed, and detection is accomplished as described above.
d. Separation Methods
It normally is desirable, at one stage or another, to separate the amplification product from the template and the excess primer for the purpose of determining whether specific amplification has occurred. In one embodiment, amplification products are separated by agarose, agarose-acrylamide or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using standard methods (See Sambrook et al., 2000).
Alternatively, chromatographic techniques may be employed to effect separation. There are many kinds of chromatography which may be used in the present invention: adsorption, partition, ion-exchange and molecular sieve, and many specialized techniques for using them including column, paper, thin-layer and gas chromatography (Freifelder, 1982).
e. Detection Methods
Products may be visualized in order to confirm amplification of the marker sequences. One typical visualization method involves staining of a gel with ethidium bromide and visualization under UV light. Alternatively, if the amplification products are integrally labeled with radio- or fluorometrically-labeled nucleotides, the amplification products can then be exposed to x-ray film or visualized under the appropriate stimulating spectra, following separation.
In one embodiment, visualization is achieved indirectly. Following separation of amplification products, a labeled nucleic acid probe is brought into contact with the amplified marker sequence. The probe preferably is conjugated to a chromophore but may be radiolabeled. In another embodiment, the probe is conjugated to a binding partner, such as an antibody or biotin, and the other member of the binding pair carries a detectable moiety.
In one embodiment, detection is by a labeled probe. The techniques involved are well known to those of skill in the art and can be found in many standard books on molecular protocols. See Sambrook et al., 2000. For example, chromophore or radiolabel probes or primers identify the target during or following amplification.
One example of the foregoing is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,279,721, incorporated by reference herein, which discloses an apparatus and method for the automated electrophoresis and transfer of nucleic acids. The apparatus permits electrophoresis and blotting without external manipulation of the gel and is ideally suited to carrying out methods according to the present invention.
In addition, the amplification products described above may be subjected to sequence analysis to identify specific kinds of variations using standard sequence analysis techniques. Within certain methods, exhaustive analysis of genes is carried out by sequence analysis using primer sets designed for optimal sequencing (Pignon et al., 1994). The present invention provides methods by which any or all of these types of analyses may be used. Using the sequences disclosed herein, oligonucleotide primers may be designed to permit the amplification of sequences throughout the BBS1 gene that may then be analyzed by direct sequencing.
f. Kit Components
All the essential materials and reagents required for detecting and sequencing BBS1 and variants thereof may be assembled together in a kit. This generally will comprise preselected primers and probes. Also included may be enzymes suitable for amplifying nucleic acids including various polymerases (RT, Taq, Sequenase™, etc.), deoxynucleotides and buffers to provide the necessary reaction mixture for amplification. Such kits also generally will comprise, in suitable means, distinct containers for each individual reagent and enzyme as well as for each primer or probe.
g. Design and Theoretical Considerations for Relative Quantitative RT-PCR™
Reverse transcription (RT) of RNA to cDNA followed by relative quantitative PCR™ (RT-PCR™) can be used to determine the relative concentrations of specific mRNA species isolated from patients. By determining that the concentration of a specific mRNA species varies, it is shown that the gene encoding the specific mRNA species is differentially expressed.
In PCR™, the number of molecules of the amplified target DNA increase by a factor approaching two with every cycle of the reaction until some reagent becomes limiting. Thereafter, the rate of amplification becomes increasingly diminished until there is no increase in the amplified target between cycles. If a graph is plotted in which the cycle number is on the X axis and the log of the concentration of the amplified target DNA is on the Y axis, a curved line of characteristic shape is formed by connecting the plotted points. Beginning with the first cycle, the slope of the line is positive and constant. This is said to be the linear portion of the curve. After a reagent becomes limiting, the slope of the line begins to decrease and eventually becomes zero. At this point the concentration of the amplified target DNA becomes asymptotic to some fixed value. This is said to be the plateau portion of the curve.
The concentration of the target DNA in the linear portion of the PCR™ amplification is directly proportional to the starting concentration of the target before the reaction began. By determining the concentration of the amplified products of the target DNA in PCR™ reactions that have completed the same number of cycles and are in their linear ranges, it is possible to determine the relative concentrations of the specific target sequence in the original DNA mixture. If the DNA mixtures are cDNAs synthesized from RNAs isolated from different tissues or cells, the relative abundances of the specific mRNA from which the target sequence was derived can be determined for the respective tissues or cells. This direct proportionality between the concentration of the PCR™ products and the relative mRNA abundances is only true in the linear range of the PCR™ reaction.
The final concentration of the target DNA in the plateau portion of the curve is determined by the availability of reagents in the reaction mix and is independent of the original concentration of target DNA. Therefore, the first condition that must be met before the relative abundances of a mRNA species can be determined by RT-PCR™ for a collection of RNA populations is that the concentrations of the amplified PCR™ products must be sampled when the PCR™ reactions are in the linear portion of their curves.
The second condition that must be met for an RT-PCR™ experiment to successfully determine the relative abundances of a particular mRNA species is that relative concentrations of the amplifiable cDNAs must be normalized to some independent standard. The goal of an RT-PCR™ experiment is to determine the abundance of a particular mRNA species relative to the average abundance of all mRNA species in the sample. In the experiments described below, mRNAs for β-actin, asparagine synthetase and lipocortin II were used as external and internal standards to which the relative abundance of other mRNAs are compared.
Most protocols for competitive PCR™ utilize internal PCR™ standards that are approximately as abundant as the target. These strategies are effective if the products of the PCR™ amplifications are sampled during their linear phases. If the products are sampled when the reactions are approaching the plateau phase, then the less abundant product becomes relatively over represented. Comparisons of relative abundances made for many different RNA samples, such as is the case when examining RNA samples for differential expression, become distorted in such a way as to make differences in relative abundances of RNAs appear less than they actually are. This is not a significant problem if the internal standard is much more abundant than the target. If the internal standard is more abundant than the target, then direct linear comparisons can be made between RNA samples.
The above discussion describes theoretical considerations for an RT-PCR™ assay for clinically derived materials. The problems inherent in clinical samples are that they are of variable quantity (making normalization problematic), and that they are of variable quality (necessitating the co-amplification of a reliable internal control, preferably of larger size than the target). Both of these problems are overcome if the RT-PCR™ is performed as a relative quantitative RT-PCR™ with an internal standard in which the internal standard is an amplifiable cDNA fragment that is larger than the target cDNA fragment and in which the abundance of the mRNA encoding the internal standard is roughly 5-100 fold higher than the mRNA encoding the target. This assay measures relative abundance, not absolute abundance of the respective mRNA species.
Other studies may be performed using a more conventional relative quantitative RT-PCR™ assay with an external standard protocol. These assays sample the PCR™ products in the linear portion of their amplification curves. The number of PCR™ cycles that are optimal for sampling must be empirically determined for each target cDNA fragment. In addition, the reverse transcriptase products of each RNA population isolated from the various tissue samples must be carefully normalized for equal concentrations of amplifiable cDNAs. This consideration is very important since the assay measures absolute mRNA abundance. Absolute mRNA abundance can be used as a measure of differential gene expression only in normalized samples. While empirical determination of the linear range of the amplification curve and normalization of cDNA preparations are tedious and time consuming processes, the resulting RT-PCR™ assays can be superior to those derived from the relative quantitative RT-PCR™ assay with an internal standard.
One reason for this advantage is that without the internal standard/competitor, all of the reagents can be converted into a single PCR™ product in the linear range of the amplification curve, thus increasing the sensitivity of the assay. Another reason is that with only one PCR™ product, display of the product on an electrophoretic gel or another display method becomes less complex, has less background and is easier to interpret.
h. Chip Technologies
Specifically contemplated by the present inventors are chip-based DNA technologies such as those described by Hacia et al., (1996) and Shoemaker et al., (1996). Briefly, these techniques involve quantitative methods for analyzing large numbers of genes rapidly and accurately. By tagging genes with oligonucleotides or using fixed probe arrays, one can employ chip technology to segregate target molecules as high density arrays and screen these molecules on the basis of hybridization. See also Pease et al., (1994); Fodor et al., (1991).
Antibodies can be used in characterizing the BBS1 content of healthy and diseased tissues, through techniques such as ELISAs and Western blotting. This may provide a prenatal screen or in counseling for those individuals seeking to have children.
The use of antibodies of the present invention, in an ELISA assay is contemplated. For example, anti-BBS1 antibodies are immobilized onto a selected surface, preferably a surface exhibiting a protein affinity such as the wells of a polystyrene microtiter plate. After washing to remove incompletely adsorbed material, it is desirable to bind or coat the assay plate wells with a non-specific protein that is known to be antigenically neutral with regard to the test antisera such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), casein or solutions of powdered milk. This allows for blocking of non-specific adsorption sites on the immobilizing surface and thus reduces the background caused by non-specific binding of antigen onto the surface.
After binding of antibody to the well, coating with a non-reactive material to reduce background, and washing to remove unbound material, the immobilizing surface is contacted with the sample to be tested in a manner conducive to immune complex (antigen/antibody) formation.
Following formation of specific immunocomplexes between the test sample and the bound antibody, and subsequent washing, the occurrence and even amount of immunocomplex formation may be determined by subjecting same to a second antibody having specificity for BBS1 that differs the first antibody. Appropriate conditions preferably include diluting the sample with diluents such as BSA, bovine gamma globulin (BGG) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS)/Tween®. These added agents also tend to assist in the reduction of nonspecific background. The layered antisera is then allowed to incubate for from about 2 to about 4 hr, at temperatures preferably on the order of about 25° to about 27° C. Following incubation, the antisera-contacted surface is washed so as to remove non-immunocomplexed material. A preferred washing procedure includes washing with a solution such as PBS/Tween® or borate buffer.
To provide a detecting means, the second antibody will preferably have an associated enzyme that will generate a color development upon incubating with an appropriate chromogenic substrate. Thus, for example, one will desire to contact and incubate the second antibody-bound surface with a urease or peroxidase-conjugated anti-human IgG for a period of time and under conditions which favor the development of immunocomplex formation (e.g., incubation for 2 hr at room temperature in a PBS-containing solution such as PBS/Tween®).
After incubation with the second enzyme-tagged antibody, and subsequent to washing to remove unbound material, the amount of label is quantified by incubation with a chromogenic substrate such as urea and bromocresol purple or 2,2′-azino-di-(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and H2O2, in the case of peroxidase as the enzyme label. Quantitation is then achieved by measuring the degree of color generation, e.g., using a visible spectrum spectrophotometer.
The preceding format may be altered by first binding the sample to the assay plate. Then, primary antibody is incubated with the assay plate, followed by detecting of bound primary antibody using a labeled second antibody with specificity for the primary antibody.
The steps of various other useful immnunodetection methods have been described in the scientific literature, such as, e.g., Nakamura et al. (1987). Immunoassays, in their most simple and direct sense, are binding assays. Certain preferred immunoassays are the various types of radioimmunoassays (RIA) and immunobead capture assay. Immunohistochemical detection using tissue sections also is particularly useful. However, it will be readily appreciated that detection is not limited to such techniques, and Western blotting, dot blotting, FACS analyses, and the like also may be used in connection with the present invention.
The antibody compositions of the present invention will find great use in immunoblot or Western blot analysis. The antibodies may be used as high-affinity primary reagents for the identification of proteins immobilized onto a solid support matrix, such as nitrocellulose, nylon or combinations thereof. In conjunction with immunoprecipitation, followed by gel electrophoresis, these may be used as a single step reagent for use in detecting antigens against which secondary reagents used in the detection of the antigen cause an adverse background. Immunologically-based detection methods for use in conjunction with Western blotting include enzymatically-, radiolabel-, or fluorescently-tagged secondary antibodies against the toxin moiety are considered to be of particular use in this regard. U.S. Patents concerning the use of such labels include U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,817,837; 3,850,752; 3,939,350; 3,996,345; 4,277,437; 4,275,149 and 4,366,241, each incorporated herein by reference. Of course, one may find additional advantages through the use of a secondary binding ligand such as a second antibody or a biotin/avidin ligand binding arrangement, as is known in the art.
IV. Methods for Screening Active Compounds
The present invention also contemplates the use of BBS1 and active fragments, and nucleic acids coding therefor, in the screening of compounds for activity in either stimulating BBS1 activity, overcoming the lack of BBS1 or blocking the effect of a mutant BBS1 molecule. These assays may make use of a variety of different formats and may depend on the kind of “activity” for which the screen is being conducted.
A. In Vitro Assays
In one embodiment, the invention is to be applied for the screening of compounds that bind to the BBS1 polypeptide or fragment thereof. The polypeptide or fragment may be either free in solution, fixed to a support, expressed in or on the surface of a cell. Either the polypeptide or the compound may be labeled, thereby permitting determining of binding.
In another embodiment, the assay may measure the inhibition of binding of BBS1 to a natural or artificial substrate or binding partner. Competitive binding assays can be performed in which one of the agents (BBS1, binding partner or compound) is labeled. Usually, the polypeptide will be the labeled species. One may measure the amount of free label versus bound label to determine binding or inhibition of binding.
Another technique for high throughput screening of compounds is described in WO 84/03564. Large numbers of small peptide test compounds are synthesized on a solid substrate, such as plastic pins or some other surface. The peptide test compounds are reacted with BBS1 and washed. Bound polypeptide is detected by various methods.
Purified BBS1 can be coated directly onto plates for use in the aforementioned drug screening techniques. However, non-neutralizing antibodies to the polypeptide can be used to immobilize the polypeptide to a solid phase. Also, fusion proteins containing a reactive region (preferably a terminal region) may be used to link the BBS1 active region to a solid phase.
Various cell lines containing wild-type or natural or engineered mutations in BBS1 gene can be used to study various functional attributes of BBS1 and how a candidate compound affects these attributes. Methods for engineering mutations are described elsewhere in this document, as are naturally-occurring mutations in BBS1 that lead to, contribute to and/or otherwise cause BBS. In such assays, the compound would be formulated appropriately, given its biochemical nature, and contacted with a target cell. Depending on the assay, culture may be required. The cell may then be examined by virtue of a number of different physiologic assays. Alternatively, molecular analysis may be performed in which the function of BBS1, or related pathways, may be explored.
B. In Vivo Assays
The present invention also encompasses the use of various animal models. Thus, any identity seen between human and other animal BBS1 provides an excellent opportunity to examine the function of BBS1 in a whole animal system where it is normally expressed. By developing or isolating mutant cells lines that fail to express normal BBS1, one can generate models in mice that will be highly predictive of BBS and related syndromes in humans and other mammals.
Treatment of animals with test compounds will involve the administration of the compound, in an appropriate form, to the animal. Administration will be by any route the could be utilized for clinical or non-clinical purposes, including but not limited to oral, nasal, buccal, rectal, vaginal or topical. Alternatively, administration may be by intratracheal instillation, bronchial instillation, intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal or intravenous injection. Specifically contemplated are systemic intravenous injection, regional administration via blood or-lymph supply and intratumoral injection.
Determining the effectiveness of a compound in vivo may involve a variety of different criteria. Such criteria include, but are not limited to, survival, reduction of tumor burden or mass, arrest or slowing of tumor progression, elimination of tumors, inhibition or prevention of metastasis, increased activity level, improvement in immune effector function and improved food intake.
C. Rational Drug Design
The goal of rational drug design is to produce structural analogs of biologically active polypeptides or compounds with which they interact (agonists, antagonists, inhibitors, binding partners, etc.). By creating such analogs, it is possible to fashion drugs which are more active or stable than the natural molecules, which have different susceptibility to alteration or which may affect the function of various other molecules. In one approach, one would generate a three-dimensional structure for BBS1 or a fragment thereof. This could be accomplished by x-ray crystallography, computer modeling or by a combination of both approaches. An alternative approach, “alanine scan,” involves the random replacement of residues throughout molecule with alanine, and the resulting affect on function determined.
It also is possible to isolate a BBS1-specific antibody, selected by a functional assay, and then solve its crystal structure. In principle, this approach yields a pharmacore upon which subsequent drug design can be based. It is possible to bypass protein crystallograph altogether by generating anti-idiotypic antibodies to a functional, pharmacologically active antibody. As a mirror image of a mirror image, the binding site of anti-idiotype would be expected to be an analog of the original antigen. The anti-idiotype could then be used to identify and isolate peptides from banks of chemically- or biologically-produced peptides. Selected peptides would then serve as the pharmacore. Anti-idiotypes may be generated using the methods described herein for producing antibodies, using an antibody as the antigen.
Thus, one may design drugs which have improved BBS1 activity or which act as stimulators, inhibitors, agonists, antagonists of BBS1 or molecules affected by BBS1 function. By virtue of the availability of cloned BBS1 gene sequences, sufficient amounts of BBS1 can be produced to perform crystallographic studies. In addition, knowledge of the polypeptide sequences permits computer employed predictions of structure-function relationships.
D. Transgenic Animals/Knockout Animals
In one embodiment of the invention, transgenic animals are produced which contain a functional transgene encoding a functional BBS1 polypeptide or variants thereof. Transgenic animals expressing BBS1 transgenes, recombinant cell lines derived from such animals and transgenic embryos may be useful in methods for screening for and identifying agents that induce or repress function of BBS1. Transgenic animals of the present invention also can be used as models for studying disease states.
In one embodiment of the invention, a BBS1 transgene is introduced into a non-human host to produce a transgenic animal expressing a human or murine BBS1 gene. The transgenic animal is produced by the integration of the transgene into the genome in a manner that permits the expression of the transgene. Methods for producing transgenic animals are generally described by Wagner and Hoppe (U.S. Pat. No. 4,873,191; which is incorporated herein by reference), Brinster et al., 1985; which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety) and in “Manipulating the Mouse Embryo; A Laboratory Manual” 2nd edition (eds., Hogan, Beddington, Costantimi and Long, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1994; which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).
It may be desirable to replace the endogenous BBS1 by homologous recombination between the transgene and the endogenous gene; or the endogenous gene may be eliminated by deletion as in the preparation of “knock-out” animals. Typically, a BBS1 gene flanked by genomic sequences is transferred by microinjection into a fertilized egg. The microinjected eggs are implanted into a host female, and the progeny are screened for the expression of the transgene. Transgenic animals may be produced from the fertilized eggs from a number of animals including, but not limited to reptiles, amphibians, birds, mammals, and fish. Within a particularly preferred embodiment, transgenic mice are generated which overexpress BBS1 or express a mutant form of the polypeptide. Alternatively, the absence of a BBS1 in “knock-out” mice permits the study of the effects that loss of BBS1 protein has on a cell in vivo. Knock-out mice also provide a model for the development of BBS1 -related disease.
As noted above, transgenic animals and cell lines derived from such animals may find use in certain testing experiments. In this regard, transgenic animals and cell lines capable of expressing wild-type or mutant BBS1 may be exposed to test substances. These test substances can be screened for the ability to enhance wild-type BBS1 expression and or function or impair the expression or function of mutant BBS1.
V. Methods for Treating BBS
The present invention also contemplates the treatment of BBS and related symptoms such as obesity, diabetes, renal cancer or other abnormalities, retinal degeneration and hypertension by providing a BBS1 protein to cells of an affected individual.
A. Genetic Based Therapies
Specifically, the present inventors intend to provide, to a cell, an expression construct capable of providing BBS1 to that cell. Because the sequence homology between the human, and other BBS1, any of these nucleic acids could be used in human therapy, as could any of the gene sequence variants discussed above which would encode the same, or a biologically equivalent polypeptide. The lengthy discussion of expression vectors and the genetic elements employed therein is incorporated into this section by reference. Particularly preferred expression vectors are viral vectors such as adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, herpesvirus, vaccinia virus and retrovirus. Also preferred is liposomally-encapsulated expression vector.
Those of skill in the art are well aware of how to apply gene delivery to in vivo and ex vivo situations. For viral vectors, one generally will prepare a viral vector stock. Depending on the kind of virus and the titer attainable, one will deliver 1×104, 1×105, 1×106, 1×107, 1×108, 1×109, 1×1010, 1×1011 or 1×1012 infectious particles the patient. Similar figures may be extrapolated for liposomal or other non-viral formulations by comparing relative uptake efficiencies. Formulation as a pharmaceutically acceptable composition is discussed below.
B. Protein Therapy
Another therapy approach is the provision, to a subject, of BBS1 polypeptide, active fragments, synthetic peptides, mimetics or other analogs thereof. The protein may be produced by recombinant expression means. Formulations would be selected based on the route of administration and purpose including, but not limited to, liposomal formulations and classic pharmaceutical preparations.
VI. Engineering Expression Constructs
In certain embodiments, the present invention involves the manipulation of genetic material to produce expression constructs that encode BBS1 gene. Such methods involve the generation of expression constructs containing, for example, a heterologous DNA encoding a gene of interest~and a means for its expression, replicating the vector in an appropriate helper cell, obtaining viral particles produced therefrom, and infecting cells with the recombinant virus particles.
The gene will be a normal BBS1 gene discussed herein above. In the context of gene therapy, the gene will be a heterologous DNA, meant to include DNA derived from a source other than the viral genome which provides the backbone of the vector. The gene may be derived from a prokaryotic or eukaryotic source such as a bacterium, a virus, a yeast, a parasite, a plant, or even an animal. The heterologous DNA also may be derived from more than one source, i.e., a multigene construct or a fusion protein. The heterologous DNA also may include a regulatory sequence which may be derived from one source and the gene from a different source.
A. Selectable Markers
In certain embodiments of the invention, the therapeutic expression constructs of the present invention contain nucleic acid constructs whose expression may be identified in vitro or in vivo by including a marker in the expression construct. Such markers would confer an identifiable change to the cell permitting easy identification of cells containing the expression construct. Usually the inclusion of a drug selection marker aids in cloning and in the selection of transformants. For example, genes that confer resistance to neomycin, puromycin, hygromycin, DHFR, GPT, zeocin and histidinol are useful selectable markers. Alternatively, enzymes such as herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) may be employed. Immunologic markers also can be employed. The selectable marker employed is not believed to be important, so long as it is capable of being expressed simultaneously with the nucleic acid encoding a gene product. Further examples of selectable markers are well known to one of skill in the art and include reporters such as EGFP, β-gal or chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT).
B. Control Regions
Throughout this application, the term “expression construct” is meant to include any type of genetic construct containing a nucleic acid coding for gene products in which part or all of the nucleic acid encoding sequence is capable of being transcribed. The transcript may be translated into a protein, but it need not be. In certain embodiments, expression includes both transcription of a gene and translation of mRNA into a gene product. In other embodiments, expression only includes transcription of the nucleic acid encoding genes of interest.
The nucleic acid encoding a gene product is under transcriptional control of a promoter. A “promoter” refers to a DNA sequence recognized by the synthetic machinery of the cell, or introduced synthetic machinery, required to initiate the specific transcription of a gene. The phrase “under transcriptional control” means that the promoter is in the correct location and orientation in relation to the nucleic acid to control RNA polymerase initiation and expression of the gene.
The term promoter will be used here to refer to a group of transcriptional control modules that are clustered around the initiation site for RNA polymerase II. Much of the thinking about how promoters are organized derives from analyses of several viral promoters, including those for the HSV thymidine kinase (tk) and SV40 early transcription units. These studies, augmented by more recent work, have shown that promoters are composed of discrete functional modules, each consisting of approximately 7-20 bp of DNA, and containing one or more recognition sites for transcriptional activator or repressor proteins.
At least one module in each promoter functions to position the start site for RNA synthesis. The best known example of this is the TATA box, but in some promoters lacking a TATA box, such as the promoter for the mammalian terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase gene and the promoter for the SV40 late genes, a discrete element overlying the start site itself helps to fix the place of initiation.
Additional promoter elements regulate the frequency of transcriptional initiation. Typically, these are located in the region 30-110 bp upstream of the start site, although a number of promoters have recently been shown to contain functional elements downstream of the start site as well. The spacing between promoter elements frequently is flexible, so that promoter function is preserved when elements are inverted or moved relative to one another. In the tk promoter, the spacing between promoter elements can be increased to 50 bp apart before activity begins to decline. Depending on the promoter, it appears that individual elements can function either cooperatively or independently to activate transcription.
The particular promoter employed to control the expression of a nucleic acid sequence of interest is not believed to be important, so long as it is capable of directing the expression of the nucleic acid in the targeted cell. Thus, where a human cell is targeted, it is preferable to position the nucleic acid coding region adjacent to and under the control of a promoter that is capable of being expressed in a human cell. Generally speaking, such a promoter might include either a human or viral promoter.
In various embodiments, the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early gene promoter, the SV40 early promoter, the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat, β-actin, rat insulin promoter and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase can be used to obtain high-level expression of the coding sequence of interest. The use of other viral or mammalian cellular or bacterial phage promoters which are well-known in the art to achieve expression of a coding sequence of interest is contemplated as well, provided that the levels of expression are sufficient for a given purpose. By employing a promoter with well-known properties, the level and pattern of expression of the protein of interest following transfection or transformation can be optimized.
Selection of a promoter that is regulated in response to specific physiologic or synthetic signals can permit inducible expression of the gene product. For example in the case where expression of a transgene, or transgenes when a multicistronic vector is utilized, is toxic to the cells in which the vector is produced in, it may be desirable to prohibit or reduce expression of one or more of the transgenes. Examples of transgenes that may be toxic to the producer cell line are pro-apoptotic and cytokine genes. Several inducible promoter systems are available for production of viral vectors where the transgene product may be toxic.
The ecdysone system (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, Calif.) is one such system. This system is designed to allow regulated expression of a gene of interest in mammalian cells. It consists of a tightly regulated expression mechanism that allows virtually no basal level expression of the transgene, but over 200-fold inducibility. The system is based on the heterodimeric ecdysone receptor of Drosophila, and when ecdysone or an analog such as muristerone A binds to the receptor, the receptor activates a promoter to turn on expression of the downstream transgene high levels of mRNA transcripts are attained. In this system, both monomers of the heterodimeric receptor are constitutively expressed from one vector, whereas the ecdysone-responsive promoter which drives expression of the gene of interest is on another plasmid. Engineering of this type of system into the gene transfer vector of interest would therefore be useful. Cotransfection of plasmids containing the gene of interest and the receptor monomers in the producer cell line would then allow for the production of the gene transfer vector without expression of a potentially toxic transgene. At the appropriate time, expression of the transgene could be activated with ecdysone or muristeron A.
Another inducible system that would be useful is the Tet-Off™ or Tet-On™ system (Clontech, Palo Alto, Calif.) originally developed by Gossen and Bujard (Gossen and Bujard, 1992; Gossen et al., 1995). This system also allows high levels of gene expression to be regulated in response to tetracycline or tetracycline derivatives such as doxycycline. In the Tet-On™ system, gene expression is turned on in the presence of doxycycline, whereas in the Tet-Off™ system, gene expression is turned on in the absence of doxycycline. These systems are based on two regulatory elements derived from the tetracycline resistance operon of E. coli. The tetracycline operator sequence to which the tetracycline repressor binds, and the tetracycline repressor protein. The gene of interest is cloned into a plasmid behind a promoter that has tetracycline-responsive elements present in it. A second plasmid contains a regulatory element called the tetracycline-controlled transactivator, which is composed, in the Tet-Off™ system, of the VP16 domain from the herpes simplex virus and the wild-type tertracycline repressor. Thus in the absence of doxycycline, transcription is constitutively on. In the Tet-On™ system, the tetracycline repressor is not wild type and in the presence of doxycycline activates transcription. For gene therapy vector production, the Tet-Off™ system would be preferable so that the producer cells could be grown in the presence of tetracycline or doxycycline and prevent expression of a potentially toxic transgene, but when the vector is introduced to the patient, the gene expression would be constitutively on.
In some circumstances, it may be desirable to regulate expression of a transgene in a gene therapy vector. For example, different viral promoters with varying strengths of activity may be utilized depending on the level of expression desired. In mammalian cells, the CMV immediate early promoter if often used to provide strong transcriptional activation. Modified versions of the CMV promoter that are less potent have also been used when reduced levels of expression of the transgene are desired. When expression of a transgene in hematopoetic cells is desired, retroviral promoters such as the LTRs from MLV or MMTV are often used. Other viral promoters that may be used depending on the desired effect include SV40, RSV LTR, HIV-1 and HIV-2 LTR, adenovirus promoters such as from the EIA, E2A, or MLP region, AAV LTR, cauliflower mosaic virus, HSV-TK, and avian sarcoma virus.
Similarly tissue specific promoters may be used to effect transcription in specific tissues or cells so as to reduce potential toxicity or undesirable effects to non-targeted tissues. For example, promoters such as the PSA, probasin, prostatic acid phosphatase or prostate-specific glandular kallikrein (hK2) may be used to target gene expression in the prostate. Similarly, the following promoters may be used to target gene expression in other tissues (Table 5).
In certain indications, it may be desirable to activate transcription at specific times after administration of the gene therapy vector. This may be done with such promoters as those that are hormone or cytokine regulatable. For example in gene therapy applications where the indication is a gonadal tissue where specific steroids are produced or routed to, use of androgen or estrogen regulated promoters may be advantageous. Such promoters that are hormone regulatable include MMTV, MT-1, ecdysone and RuBisco. Other hormone regulated promoters such as those responsive to thyroid, pituitary and adrenal hormones are expected to be useful in the present invention. Cytokine and inflammatory protein responsive promoters that could be used include K and T Kininogen (Kageyama et al., 1987), c-fos, TNF-alpha, C-reactive protein (Arcone et al., 1988), haptoglobin (Oliviero et al., 1987), serum amyloid A2, C/EBP alpha, IL-1, IL-6 (Poli and Cortese, 1989), Complement C3 (Wilson et al., 1990), IL-8, alpha-i acid glycoprotein (Prowse and Baumann, 1988), alpha-i antitypsin, lipoprotein lipase (Zechner et al., 1988), angiotensinogen (Ron et al., 1991), fibrinogen, c-jun (inducible by phorbol esters, TNF-alpha, UV radiation, retinoic acid, and hydrogen peroxide), collagenase (induced by phorbol esters and retinoic acid), metallothionein (heavy metal and glucocorticoid inducible), Stromelysin (inducible by phorbol ester, interleukin-1 and EGF), alpha-2 macroglobulin and alpha-1 antichymotrypsin.
It is envisioned that cell cycle regulatable promoters may be useful in the present invention. For example, in a bi-cistronic gene therapy vector, use of a strong CMV promoter to drive expression of a first gene such as p16 that arrests cells in the G1 phase could be followed by expression of a second gene such as p53 under the control of a promoter that is active in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, thus providing a “second hit” that would push the cell into apoptosis. Other promoters such as those of various cyclins, PCNA, galectin-3, E2F1, p53 and BRCA1 could be used.
Promoters that could be used according to the present invention include Lac-regulatable, chemotherapy inducible (e.g. MDR), and heat (hyperthermia) inducible promoters, Radiation-inducible (e.g., EGR (Joki et al., 1995)), Alpha-inhibin, RNA pol III tRNA met and other amino acid promoters, U1 snRNA (Bartlett et al., 1996), MC-1, PGK, -actin and alpha-globin. Many other promoters that may be useful are listed in Walther and Stein (1996).
It is envisioned that any of the above promoters alone or in combination with another may be useful according to the present invention depending on the action desired. In addition, this list of promoters should not be construed to be exhaustive or limiting, those of skill in the art will know of other promoters that may be used in conjunction with the promoters and methods disclosed herein.
Enhancers are genetic elements that increase transcription from a promoter located at a distant position on the same molecule of DNA. Enhancers are organized much like promoters. That is, they are composed of many individual elements, each of which binds to one or more transcriptional proteins. The basic distinction between enhancers and promoters is operational. An enhancer region as a whole must be able to stimulate transcription at a distance; this need not be true of a promoter region or its component elements. On the other hand, a promoter must have one or more elements that direct initiation of RNA synthesis at a particular site and in a particular orientation, whereas enhancers lack these specificities. Promoters and enhancers are often overlapping and contiguous, often seeming to have a very similar modular organization.
Below is a list of promoters additional to the tissue specific promoters listed above, cellular promoters/enhancers and inducible promoters/enhancers that could be used in combination with the nucleic acid encoding a gene of interest in an expression construct (Table 6 and Table 7). Additionally, any promoter/enhancer combination (as per the Eukaryotic Promoter Data Base EPDB) could also be used to drive expression of the gene. Eukaryotic cells can support cytoplasmic transcription from certain bacterial promoters if the appropriate bacterial polymerase is provided, either as part of the delivery complex or as an additional genetic expression construct.
In preferred embodiments of the invention, the expression construct comprises a virus or engineered construct derived from a viral genome. The ability of certain viruses to enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and to integrate into host cell genome and express viral genes stably and efficiently have made them attractive candidates for the transfer of foreign genes into mammalian cells (Ridgeway, 1988; Nicolas and Rubenstein, 1988; Baichwal and Sugden, 1986; Temin, 1986). The first viruses used as gene vectors were DNA viruses including the papovaviruses (simian virus 40, bovine papilloma virus, and polyoma) (Ridgeway, 1988; Baichwal and Sugden, 1986) and adenoviruses (Ridgeway, 1988; Baichwal and Sugden, 1986). These have a relatively low capacity for foreign DNA sequences and have a restricted host spectrum. Furthermore, their oncogenic potential and cytopathic effects in permissive cells raise safety concerns. They can accommodate only up to 8 kB of foreign genetic material but can be readily introduced in a variety of cell lines and laboratory animals (Nicolas and Rubenstein, 1988; Temin, 1986).
c. Polyadenylation Signals
Where a cDNA insert is employed, one will typically desire to include a polyadenylation signal to effect proper polyadenylation of the gene transcript. The nature of the polyadenylation signal is not believed to be crucial to the successful practice of the invention, and any such sequence may be employed such as human or bovine growth hormone and SV40 polyadenylation signals. Also contemplated as an element of the expression cassette is a terminator. These elements can serve to enhance message levels and to minimize read through from the cassette into other sequences.
VII. METHODS OF GENE TRANSFER In order to mediate the effect transgene expression in a cell, it will be necessary to transfer the therapeutic expression constructs of the present invention into a cell. Such transfer may employ viral or non-viral methods of gene transfer. This section provides a discussion of methods and compositions of gene transfer.
A. Viral Vector-Mediated Transfer
In certain embodiments, the BBS1 gene is incorporated into a viral particle to mediate gene transfer to a cell. Typically, the virus simply will be exposed to the appropriate host cell under physiologic conditions, permitting uptake of the virus. The present methods may be advantageously employed using a variety of viral vectors, as discussed below.
Adenovirus is particularly suitable for use as a gene transfer vector because of its mid-sized DNA genome, ease of manipulation, high titer, wide target-cell range, and high infectivity. The roughly 36 kB viral genome is bounded by 100-200 base pair (bp) inverted terminal repeats (ITR), in which are contained cis-acting elements necessary for viral DNA replication and packaging. The early (E) and late (L) regions of the genome that contain different transcription units are divided by the onset of viral DNA replication.
The E1 region (E1A and E1B) encodes proteins responsible for the regulation of transcription of the viral genome and a few cellular genes. The expression of the E2 region (E2A and E2B) results in the synthesis of the proteins for viral DNA replication. These proteins are involved in DNA replication, late gene expression, and host cell shut off (Renan, 1990). The products of the late genes (L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5), including the majority of the viral capsid proteins, are expressed only after significant processing of a single primary transcript issued by the major late promoter (MLP). The MLP (located at 16.8 map units) is particularly efficient during the late phase of infection, and all the mRNAs issued from this promoter possess a 5′ tripartite leader (TL) sequence which makes them preferred mRNAs for translation.
In order for adenovirus to be optimized for gene therapy, it is necessary to maximize the carrying capacity so that large segments of DNA can be included. It also is very desirable to reduce the toxicity and immunologic reaction associated with certain adenoviral products. The two goals are, to an extent, coterminous in that elimination of adenoviral genes serves both ends. By practice of the present invention, it is possible achieve both these goals while retaining the ability to manipulate the therapeutic constructs with relative ease.
The large displacement of DNA is possible because the cis elements required for viral DNA replication all are localized in the inverted terminal repeats (ITR) (100-200 bp) at either end of the linear viral genome. Plasmids containing ITR's can replicate in the presence of a non-defective adenovirus (Hay et al., 1984). Therefore, inclusion of these elements in an adenoviral vector should permit replication.
In addition, the packaging signal for viral encapsidation is localized between 194-385 bp (0.5-1.1 map units) at the left end of the viral genome (Hearing et al., 1987). This signal mimics the protein recognition site in bacteriophage λ DNA where a specific sequence close to the left end, but outside the cohesive end sequence, mediates the binding to proteins that are required for insertion of the DNA into the head structure. E1 substitution vectors of Ad have demonstrated that a 450 bp (0-1.25 map units) fragment at the left end of the viral genome could direct packaging in 293 cells (Levrero et al., 1991).
Previously, it has been shown that certain regions of the adenoviral genome can be incorporated into the genome of mammalian cells and the genes encoded thereby expressed. These cell lines are capable of supporting the replication of an adenoviral vector that is deficient in the adenoviral function encoded by the cell line. There also have been reports of complementation of replication deficient adenoviral vectors by “helping” vectors, e.g., wild-type virus or conditionally defective mutants.
Replication-deficient adenoviral vectors can be complemented, in trans, by helper virus. This observation alone does not permit isolation of the replication-deficient vectors, however, since the presence of helper virus, needed to provide replicative functions, would contaminate any preparation. Thus, an additional element was needed that would add specificity to the replication and/or packaging of the replication-deficient vector. That element, as provided for in the present invention, derives from the packaging function of adenovirus.
It has been shown that a packaging signal for adenovirus exists in the left end of the conventional adenovirus map (Tibbetts, 1977). Later studies showed that a mutant with a deletion in the E1A (194-358 bp) region of the genome grew poorly even in a cell line that complemented the early (EIA) function (Hearing and Shenk, 1983). When a compensating adenoviral DNA (0-353 bp) was recombined into the right end of the mutant, the virus was packaged normally. Further mutational analysis identified a short, repeated, position-dependent element in the left end of the Ad5 genome. One copy of the repeat was found to be sufficient for efficient packaging if present at either end of the genome, but not when moved towards the interior of the Ad5 DNA molecule (Hearing et al., 1987).
By using mutated versions of the packaging signal, it is possible to create helper viruses that are packaged with varying efficiencies. Typically, the mutations are point mutations or deletions. When helper viruses with low efficiency packaging are grown in helper cells, the virus is packaged, albeit at reduced rates compared to wild-type virus, thereby permitting propagation of the helper. When these helper viruses are grown in cells along with virus that contains wild-type packaging signals, however, the wild-type packaging signals are recognized preferentially over the mutated versions. Given a limiting amount of packaging factor, the virus containing the wild-type signals are packaged selectively when compared to the helpers. If the preference is great enough, stocks approaching homogeneity should be achieved.
The retroviruses are a group of single-stranded RNA viruses characterized by an ability to convert their RNA to double-stranded DNA in infected cells by a process of reverse-transcription (Coffin, 1990). The resulting DNA then stably integrates into cellular chromosomes as a provirus and directs synthesis of viral proteins. The integration results in the retention of the viral gene sequences in the recipient cell and its descendants. The retroviral genome contains three genes—gag, pol and env—that code for capsid proteins, polymerase enzyme, and envelope components, respectively. A sequence found upstream from the gag gene, termed Ψ, functions as a signal for packaging of the genome into virions. Two long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences are present at the 5′ and 3′ ends of the viral genome. These contain strong promoter and enhancer sequences and also are required for integration in the host cell genome (Coffin, 1990).
In order to construct a retroviral vector, a nucleic acid encoding a promoter is inserted into the viral genome in the place of certain viral sequences to produce a virus that is replication-defective. In order to produce virions, a packaging cell line containing the gag, pol and env genes but without the LTR and Ψ components is constructed (Mann et al., 1983). When a recombinant plasmid containing a human cDNA, together with the retroviral LTR and Ψ sequences is introduced into this cell line (by calcium phosphate precipitation for example), the Ψ sequence allows the RNA transcript of the recombinant plasmid to be packaged into viral particles, which are then secreted into the culture media (Nicolas and Rubenstein, 1988; Temin, 1986; Mann et al., 1983). The media containing the recombinant retroviruses is collected, optionally concentrated, and used for gene transfer. Retroviral vectors are able to infect a broad variety of cell types. However, integration and stable expression of many types of retroviruses require the division of host cells (Paskind et al., 1975).
An approach designed to allow specific targeting of retrovirus vectors recently was developed based on the chemical modification of a retrovirus by the chemical addition of galactose residues to the viral envelope. This modification could permit the specific infection of cells such as hepatocytes via asialoglycoprotein receptors, should this be desired.
A different approach to targeting of recombinant retroviruses was designed in which biotinylated antibodies against a retroviral envelope protein and against a specific cell receptor were used. The antibodies were coupled via the biotin components by using streptavidin (Roux et al., 1989). Using antibodies against major histocompatibility complex class I and class II antigens, the infection of a variety of human cells that bore those surface antigens was demonstrated with an ecotropic virus in vitro (Roux et al., 1989).
c. Adeno-Associated Virus
AAV utilizes a linear, single-stranded DNA of about 4700 base pairs. Inverted terminal repeats flank the genome. Two genes are present within the genome, giving rise to a number of distinct gene products. The first, the cap gene, produces three different virion proteins (VP), designated VP-1, VP-2 and VP-3. The second, the rep gene, encodes four non-structural proteins (NS). One or more of these rep gene products is responsible for transactivating AAV transcription.
The three promoters in AAV are designated by their location, in map units, in the genome. These are, from left to right, p5, p19 and p40. Transcription gives rise to six transcripts, two initiated at each of three promoters, with one of each pair being spliced. The splice site, derived from map units 42-46, is the same for each transcript. The four non-structural proteins apparently are derived from the longer of the transcripts, and three virion proteins all arise from the smallest transcript.
AAV is not associated with any pathologic state in humans. Interestingly, for efficient replication, AAV requires “helping” functions from viruses such as herpes simplex virus I and II, cytomegalovirus, pseudorabies virus and, of course, adenovirus. The best characterized of the helpers is adenovirus, and many “early” functions for this virus have been shown to assist with AAV replication. Low level expression of AAV rep proteins is believed to hold AAV structural expression in check, and helper virus infection is thought to remove this block.
The terminal repeats of the AAV vector can be obtained by restriction endonuclease digestion of AAV or a plasmid such as p201, which contains a modified AAV genome (Samulski et al., 1987), or by other methods known to the skilled artisan, including but not limited to chemical or enzymatic synthesis of the terminal repeats based upon the published sequence of AAV. The ordinarily skilled artisan can determine, by well-known methods such as deletion analysis, the minimum sequence or part of the AAV ITRs which is required to allow function, i.e., stable and site-specific integration. The ordinarily skilled artisan also can determine which minor modifications of the sequence can be tolerated while maintaining the ability of the terminal repeats to direct stable, site-specific integration.
AAV-based vectors have proven to be safe and effective vehicles for gene delivery in vitro, and these vectors are being developed and tested in pre-clinical and clinical stages for a wide range of applications in potential gene therapy, both ex vivo and in vivo (Carter and Flotte, 1996 ; Chattedjee et al., 1995; Ferrari et al., 1996; Fisher et al., 1996; Flotte et al., 1993; Goodman et al., 1994; Kaplitt et al., 1994; 1996, Kessler et al., 1996; Koeberl et al., 1997; Mizukami et al., 1996).
AAV-mediated efficient gene transfer and expression in the lung has led to clinical trials for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (Carter and Flotte, 1995; Flotte et al., 1993). Similarly, the prospects for treatment of muscular dystrophy by AAV-mediated gene delivery of the dystrophin gene to skeletal muscle, of Parkinson's disease by tyrosine hydroxylase gene delivery to the brain, of hemophilia B by Factor IX gene delivery to the liver, and potentially of myocardial infarction by vascular endothelial growth factor gene to the heart, appear promising since AAV-mediated transgene expression in these organs has recently been shown to be highly efficient (Fisher et al., 1996; Flotte et al., 1993; Kaplitt et al., 1994; 1996; Koeberl et al., 1997; McCown et al., 1996; Ping et al., 1996; Xiao et al., 1996).
d. Other Viral Vectors
Other viral vectors may be employed as expression constructs in the present invention. Vectors derived from viruses such as vaccinia virus (Ridgeway, 1988; Baichwal and Sugden, 1986; Coupar et al., 1988) canary pox virus, and herpes viruses may be employed. These viruses offer several features for use in gene transfer into various mammalian cells.
B. Non-viral Transfer
Several non-viral methods for the transfer of expression constructs into cultured mammalian cells are contemplated by the present invention. These include calcium phosphate precipitation (Graham and Van Der Eb, 1973; Chen and Okayama, 1987; Rippe et al., 1990) DEAE-dextran (Gopal, 1985), electroporation (Tur-Kaspa et al., 1986; Potter et al., 1984), direct microinjection (Harland and Weintraub, 1985), DNA-loaded liposomes (Nicolau and Sene, 1982; Fraley et al., 1979), cell sonication (Fechheimer et al., 1987), gene bombardment using high velocity microprojectiles (Yang et al., 1990), and receptor-mediated transfection (Wu and Wu, 1987; Wu and Wu, 1988).
Once the construct has been delivered into the cell the nucleic acid encoding the therapeutic gene may be positioned and expressed at different sites. In certain embodiments, the nucleic acid encoding the therapeutic gene may be stably integrated into the genome of the cell. This integration may be in the cognate location and orientation via homologous recombination (gene replacement) or it may be integrated in a random, non-specific location (gene augmentation). In yet further embodiments, the nucleic acid may be stably maintained in the cell as a separate, episomal segment of DNA. Such nucleic acid segments or “episomes” encode sequences sufficient to permit maintenance and replication independent of or in synchronization with the host cell cycle. How the expression construct is delivered to a cell and where in the cell the nucleic acid remains is dependent on the type of expression construct employed.
In a particular embodiment of the invention, the expression construct may be entrapped in a liposome. Liposomes are vesicular structures characterized by a phospholipid bilayer membrane and an inner aqueous medium. Multilamellar liposomes have multiple lipid layers separated by aqueous medium. They form spontaneously when phospholipids are suspended in an excess of aqueous solution. The lipid components undergo self-rearrangement before the formation of closed structures and entrap water and dissolved solutes between the lipid bilayers (Ghosh and Bachhawat, 1991). The addition of DNA to cationic liposomes causes a topological transition from liposomes to optically birefringent liquid-crystalline condensed globules (Radler et al., 1997). These DNA-lipid complexes are potential non-viral vectors for use in gene therapy.
Liposome-mediated nucleic acid delivery and expression of foreign DNA in vitro has been very successful. Using the β-lactamase gene, Wong et al., (1980) demonstrated the feasibility of liposome-mediated delivery and expression of foreign DNA in cultured chick embryo, HeLa, and hepatoma cells. Nicolau et al., (1987) accomplished successful liposome-mediated gene transfer in rats after intravenous injection. Also included are various commercial approaches involving “lipofection” technology.
In certain embodiments of the invention, the liposome may be complexed with a hemagglutinating virus (HVJ). This has been shown to facilitate fusion with the cell membrane and promote cell entry of liposome-encapsulated DNA (Kaneda et al., 1989). In other embodiments, the liposome may be complexed or employed in conjunction with nuclear nonhistone chromosomal proteins (HMG-1) (Kato et al., 1991). In yet further embodiments, the liposome may be complexed or employed in conjunction with both HVJ and HMG-1. In that such expression constructs have been successfully employed in transfer and expression of nucleic acid in vitro and in vivo, then they are applicable for the present invention.
Other vector delivery systems which can be employed to deliver a nucleic acid encoding a therapeutic gene into cells are receptor-mediated delivery vehicles. These take advantage of the selective uptake of macromolecules by receptor-mediated endocytosis in almost all eukaryotic cells. Because of the cell type-specific distribution of various receptors, the delivery can be highly specific (Wu and Wu, 1993).
Receptor-mediated gene targeting vehicles generally consist of two components: a cell receptor-specific ligand and a DNA-binding agent. Several ligands have been used for receptor-mediated gene transfer. The most extensively characterized ligands are asialoorosomucoid (ASOR) (Wu and Wu, 1987) and transferring (Wagner et al., 1990). Recently, a synthetic neoglycoprotein, which recognizes the same receptor as ASOR, has been used as a gene delivery vehicle (Ferkol et al., 1993; Perales et al., 1994) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) has also been used to deliver genes to squamous carcinoma cells (Myers, EPO 0273085).
In other embodiments, the delivery vehicle may comprise a ligand and a liposome. For example, Nicolau et al. (1987) employed lactosyl-ceramide, a galactose-terminal asialganglioside, incorporated into liposomes and observed an increase in the uptake of the insulin gene by hepatocytes. Thus, it is feasible that a nucleic acid encoding a therapeutic gene also may be specifically delivered into a cell type such as prostate, epithelial or tumor cells, by any number of receptor-ligand systems with or without liposomes. For example, the human prostate-specific antigen (Watt et al., 1986) may be used as the receptor for mediated delivery of a nucleic acid in prostate tissue.
In another embodiment of the invention, the expression construct may simply consist of naked recombinant DNA or plasmids. Transfer of the construct may be performed by any of the methods mentioned above which physically or chemically permeabilize the cell membrane. This is applicable particularly for transfer in vitro, however, it may be applied for in vivo use as well. Dubensky et al., (1984) successfully injected polyomavirus DNA in the form of CaPO4 precipitates into liver and spleen of adult and newborn mice demonstrating active viral replication and acute infection. Benvenisty and Neshif (1986) also demonstrated that direct intraperitoneal injection of CaPO4 precipitated plasmids results in expression of the transfected genes. It is envisioned that DNA encoding a CAM also may be transferred in a similar manner in vivo and express CAM.
Another embodiment of the invention for transferring a naked DNA expression construct into cells may involve particle bombardment. This method depends on the ability to accelerate DNA coated microprojectiles to a high velocity allowing them to pierce cell membranes and enter cells without killing them (Klein et al., 1987). Several devices for accelerating small particles have been developed. One such device relies on a high voltage discharge to generate an electrical current, which in turn provides the motive force (Yang et al., 1990). The microprojectiles used have consisted of biologically inert substances such as tungsten or gold beadsVIII. FORMULATIONS AND ROUTES FOR ADMINISTRATION TO PATIENTS
Where clinical applications are contemplated, it will be necessary to prepare pharmaceutical compositions—expression vectors, virus stocks, proteins, antibodies and drugs—in a form appropriate for the intended application. Generally, this will entail preparing compositions that are essentially free of pyrogens, as well as other impurities that could be harmful to humans or animals.
One will generally desire to employ appropriate salts and buffers to render delivery vectors stable and allow for uptake by target cells. Buffers also will be employed when recombinant cells are introduced into a patient. Aqueous compositions of the present invention comprise an effective amount of the vector to cells, dissolved or dispersed in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or aqueous medium. Such compositions also are referred to as inocula. The phrase “pharmaceutically or pharmacologically acceptable” refer to molecular entities and compositions that do not produce adverse, allergic, or other untoward reactions when administered to an animal or a human. As used herein, “pharmaceutically acceptable carrier” includes any and all solvents, dispersion media, coatings, antibacterial and antifungal agents, isotonic and absorption delaying agents and the like. The use of such media and agents for pharmaceutically active substances is well know in the art. Except insofar as any conventional media or agent is incompatible with the vectors or cells of the present invention, its use in therapeutic compositions is contemplated. Supplementary active ingredients also can be incorporated into the compositions.
The active compositions of the present invention may include classic pharmaceutical preparations. Administration of these compositions according to the present invention will be via any common route so long as the target tissue is available via that route. This includes oral, nasal, buccal, rectal, vaginal or topical. Alternatively, administration may be by orthotopic, intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal or intravenous injection. Such compositions would normally be administered as pharmaceutically acceptable compositions, described supra.
The active compounds also may be administered parenterally or intraperitoneally. Solutions of the active compounds as free base or pharmacologically acceptable salts can be prepared in water suitably mixed with a surfactant, such as hydroxypropylcellulose. Dispersions can also be prepared in glycerol, liquid polyethylene glycols, and mixtures thereof and in oils. Under ordinary conditions of storage and use, these preparations contain a preservative to prevent the growth of microorganisms.
The pharmaceutical forms suitable for injectable use include sterile aqueous solutions or dispersions and sterile powders for the extemporaneous preparation of sterile injectable solutions or dispersions. In all cases the form must be sterile and must be fluid to the extent that easy syringability exists. It must be stable under the conditions of manufacture and storage and must be preserved against the contaminating action of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. The carrier can be a solvent or dispersion medium containing, for example, water, ethanol, polyol (for example, glycerol, propylene glycol, and liquid polyethylene glycol, and the like), suitable mixtures thereof, and vegetable oils. The proper fluidity can be maintained, for example, by the use of a coating, such as lecithin, by the maintenance of the required particle size in the case of dispersion and by the use of surfactants. The prevention of the action of microorganisms can be brought about by various antibacterial an antifungal agents, for example, parabens, chlorobutanol, phenol, sorbic acid, thimerosal, and the like. In many cases, it will be preferable to include isotonic agents, for example, sugars or sodium chloride. Prolonged absorption of the injectable compositions can be brought about by the use in the compositions of agents delaying absorption, for example, aluminum monostearate and gelatin.
Sterile injectable solutions are prepared by incorporating the active compounds in the required amount in the appropriate solvent with various of the other ingredients enumerated above, as required, followed by filtered sterilization. Generally, dispersions are prepared by incorporating the various sterilized active ingredients into a sterile vehicle which contains the basic dispersion medium and the required other ingredients from those enumerated above. In the case of sterile powders for the preparation of sterile injectable solutions, the preferred methods of preparation are vacuum-drying and freeze-drying techniques which yield a powder of the active ingredient plus any additional desired ingredient from a previously sterile-filtered solution thereof.
As used herein, “pharmaceutically acceptable carrier” includes any and all solvents, dispersion media, coatings, antibacterial and antifungal agents, isotonic and absorption delaying agents and the like. The use of such media and agents for pharmaceutical active substances is well known in the art. Except insofar as any conventional media or agent is incompatible with the active ingredient, its use in the therapeutic compositions is contemplated. Supplementary active ingredients can also be incorporated into the compositions.
For oral administration the polypeptides of the present invention may be incorporated with excipients and used in the form of non-ingestible mouthwashes and dentifrices. A mouthwash may be prepared incorporating the active ingredient in the required amount in an appropriate solvent, such as a sodium borate solution (Dobell's Solution). Alternatively, the active ingredient may be incorporated into an antiseptic wash containing sodium borate, glycerin and potassium bicarbonate. The active ingredient also may be dispersed in dentifrices, including: gels, pastes, powders and slurries. The active ingredient may be added in a therapeutically effective amount to a paste dentifrice that may include water, binders, abrasives, flavoring agents, foaming agents, and humectants.
The compositions of the present invention may be formulated in a neutral or salt form. Pharmaceutically-acceptable salts include the acid addition salts (formed with the free amino groups of the protein) and which are formed with inorganic acids such as, for example, hydrochloric or phosphoric acids, or such organic acids as acetic, oxalic, tartaric, mandelic, and the like. Salts formed with the free carboxyl groups can also be derived from inorganic bases such as, for example, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, or ferric hydroxides, and such organic bases as isopropylamine, trimethylamine, histidine, procaine and the like.
Upon formulation, solutions will be administered in a manner compatible with the dosage formulation and in such amount as is therapeutically effective. The formulations are easily administered in a variety of dosage forms such as injectable solutions, drug release capsules and the like. For parenteral administration in an aqueous solution, for example, the solution should be suitably buffered if necessary and the liquid diluent first rendered isotonic with sufficient saline or glucose. These particular aqueous solutions are especially suitable for intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal administration. In this connection, sterile aqueous media which can be employed will be known to those of skill in the art in light of the present disclosure. For example, one dosage could be dissolved in 1 ml of isotonic NaCl solution and either added to 1000 ml of hypodermoclysis fluid or injected at the proposed site of infusion, (see for example, “Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences” 15th Edition, pages 1035-1038 and 1570-1580). Some variation in dosage will necessarily occur depending on the condition of the subject being treated. The person responsible for administration will, in any event, determine the appropriate dose for the individual subject. Moreover, for human administration, preparations should meet sterility, pyrogenicity, general safety and purity standards as required by FDA Office of Biologics standards.XI. EXAMPLES
The following examples are included to demonstrate preferred embodiments of the invention. It should be appreciated by those of skill in the art that the techniques disclosed in the examples which follow represent techniques discovered by the inventor to function well in the practice of the invention, and thus can be considered to constitute preferred modes for its practice. However, those of skill in the art should, in light of the present disclosure, appreciate that many changes can be made in the specific embodiments which are disclosed and still obtain a like or similar result without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.Example 1 Materials and Methods
Patients and Families
Signed informed consent was obtained from each patient and family member using protocols approved by the Institutional Review Board at The University of Iowa and collaborating institutions. The diagnosis of BBS was based on clinical examination using diagnostic criteria that consist of the presence of at least three of the cardinal features of BBS (obesity, polydactyly, renal anomalies, retinopathy, hypogonadism and mental retardation). Retinopathy was diagnosed mainly by ophthalmoscopy. Electroretinography was also performed in some patients.
PCR amplification for the analysis of short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) was performed using 40 ng of genomic DNA in 8.4 μl reactions containing 1.25 μl of 10× PCR buffer [100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.8), 500 mM KCl, 15 mM MgCl2, 0.01% gelatin (w/v)], 200 μM each of dATP, dCTP, dGTP and dTTP, 2.5 pmol of each primer and 0.2 units of Taq polymerase (Bioline, Springfield, N.J.). Samples were subjected to 35 cycles of 94° C. for 30 s, (50, 52, 55 or 57 ° C. as required) for 30 s and 72° C. for 30 s. Amplification products were separated on 6% polyacrylamide gels containing 7.7 M urea at 60 W for approximately 2 h. The bands were visualized by silver staining (Bassam, et al., 1991).
For markers that proved difficult to amplify using the standard Taq polymerase, an equal amount of AmpliTaq (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) along with an initial incubation of the PCR mixture at 94° C. for 10 minutes was substituted. For PCR reactions involving YAC, BAC or plasmid DNA, 1 to 2 ng of DNA was utilized as a template. For colony PCR, a small number of cells were inoculated into 20 μl of ddH2O. One microliter of this suspension was used as template for the PCR reaction.
Oligonucleotide primers for the STRPs were obtained as MapPairs (Research Genetics, Huntsville, Ala.). The custom primers required for this study were designed using the Primer3 program (http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/cgi-bin/primer/primer3.cgi) and synthesized commercially (Research Genetics, Huntsville, Ala. or Integrated DNA Technologies, Coralville, Iowa).
Gene Identification and Characterization
EST sequence data were obtained from Genbank and SCF files from the WashU-Merck ftp site (ftp://genome.wustl.edu) for UniGene clusters representing candidate genes. This data was imported directly into the Sequencher v3.1 program (GeneCodes, Ann Arbor, Mich). When necessary, additional sequencing was performed via a primer walking methodology. Contigs were generated by comparing all fragments in a project with the parameters of at least a 50 bp overlap in sequence with 80% level of identity. For gene identification, sequences of BACs from the 11q13 region were submitted to the BLAST server at NCBI for BLASTN analyses on both the nr and dbEST databases (Altschul et al., 1990) Any region that gave a significant score (p<10-5) was also submitted for BLASTX screen of the SWISS-PROT database. The determination of gene structure was aided by BLASTN analysis of cDNA sequence against the public and Celera sequence databases.
PCR products for sequencing were amplified in a 25 μl reaction volume and visualized on a 1.2% agarose gel. The corresponding bands were excised and purified using the QIAquick gel extraction kit (Qiagen, Valencia, Calif.). 150 ng of plasmid DNA (in 4.5 μl) or 4.5 μl of purified PCR product was used as template for sequencing reactions. For plasmid, 5 pmoles of primer and 2 μl of terminator sequencing mix (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) were added for a final reaction volume of 10 μl. For PCR product, 10 pmoles of primer and 1 μl of terminator sequencing mix were added for a final reaction volume of 10 μl. Cycling conditions were performed as specified by the manufacturer. Plasmid sequencing reactions were precipitated in the presence of linear acrylamide and resuspended in 2 μl of loading buffer. PCR product sequencing reactions were plate precipitated in the presence of glycogen and isopropanol. The reactions were analyzed on an ABI 3700 sequencer.
Mutation Detection and Confirmation
Mutation detection was performed by direct sequencing of PCR amplification products. Primer sequences used to screen the BBS1 gene are provided. In some cases, coding sequences of candidate genes were screened by SSCP. Amplicons for SSCP analysis were designed to be approximately 200 bp in size. For SSCP, PCR products were separated on native gels (7 ml 50% glycerol, 3.5 ml 5× TBE, 8.8 ml 37.5:1 acrylamide/bis and 50.7 ml ddH2O) for 3 to 4 hr in 0.5× TBE at room temperature with the temperature controlled by a cooling fan. Gels were silver stained as described above. Abnormal variants were sequenced and compared to a control sample (CEPH sample 1331-01) to detect any changes from that of the normal sequence.
Northern Blot Analysis
Human Multiple Tissue Northern (MTN) blot I was obtained from Clontech (San Francisco, Calif.). The blot was hybridized with a 1.2 kb BBS1 cDNA probe generated by PCR amplification of a human fetus Marathon-Ready cDNA library from Clontech. The probe was labeled with 32P-dCTP using Ready-To-Go DNA Labeling Beads (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Piscataway, N.J.). Hybridization and autoradiography were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The blots were stripped of probe and re-hybridized with a cDNA probe for β-actin (Clontech, San Francisco, Calif.) to assess RNA loading.Example 2 Genotyping Data on Affected Individuals
In the present invention haplotype analysis of several extended families was used to define a candidate interval between markers D11S913 and AFMa190yd5 (
One gene, corresponding to the UniGene cluster Hs.54890, was selected for further examination as it had weak similarity to the BBS2 protein sequence. Analysis of Hs.54890 identified a 3370 bp contig with an open reading frame of 593 codons. A comparison of the assembled cDNA sequence to the public and Celera databases revealed that the gene is composed of 17 exons and spans approximately 23 kb (
Sequencing of the coding region and corresponding consensus splice sites from a consanguineous Puerto Rican family revealed a homozygous G→T transversion in exon 16 that results in a nonsense mutation (E549X;
The inventors evaluated 50 unrelated North American BBS probands for the presence of the four mutations identified in the extended families using single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. SSCP analysis, followed by sequence verification, identified 17 individuals who had at least one copy of the M390R mutation. Twelve of these individuals were homozygous for this variation (allele frequency=0.29). This sequence variation was not detected in 192 control chromosomes from North America (p<0.001).
Northern-blot analysis demonstrated that BBS1 is ubiquitously expressed as a 2.5 kb transcript in all tisssues with the highest expression in the kidney. The pattern of expression is very similar to the pattern seen for the three previously identified BBS genes (Mykytyn et al., 2001, Nishimura et al., 2001, Slavotinek et al., 2000)
Lack of Homology to MKKS and Other Known Genes
As the BBS6 gene, MKKS, has been provisionally identified as a chaperonin, the inventors attempted to identify homology between BBS1 and known chaperonin or chaperonin-like genes. No homology was found to any genes with known function by both BLAST analysis or by searching for functional domains within BBS1 suggesting, that BBS1 does not function as a chaperonin.Example 4 Materials and Methods
Patients and Families
Signed informed consent was obtained from each patient and family member, using protocols approved by the institutional review board at the University of Iowa and collaborating institutions. The diagnosis of BBS was based on clinical examination, using diagnostic criteria that consist of the presence of at least three of the cardinal features of BBS (obesity, polydactyly, renal anomalies, retinopathy, hypogonadism, and mental retardation). Retinopathy was diagnosed mainly by ophthalmoscopy. Electroretinography was also performed in some patients. Nearly all patients were of northern European ancestry.
Mutational and Genetic Analysis Mutation detection was performed by direct sequencing of PCR amplification products. Primer sequences are available upon request. In some cases, coding sequences of BBS1 were screened by SSCP, followed by directDNA sequencing. Amplicons for SSCP analysis were designed to be ˜200 bp. For SSCP, PCR products were separated on native gels (7 ml of 50% glycerol, 3.5 ml 5 x TBE, 8.8 ml 37.5:1 acrylamide:bis, and 50.7 ml ddH20) for 3-4 h in 0.5× TBE at room temperature, with the temperature controlled by a cooling fan. The bands were visualized by silver staining (Bassam et al. 1991). Abnormal variants were sequenced and compared with a control sample (CEPH sample 1331-01) to detect any changes from that of the normal sequence.
PCR products for sequencing were amplified in a 25 ×l reaction volume and visualized on 1.2% agarose gels. The corresponding bands were excised and purified using the QIAquick gel extraction kit (Qiagen). Plasmid DNA (150 ng in 4.5 μl) or 4.5 μl of purified PCR product was used as template for sequencing reactions. For plasmid, 5 pmol of primer and 2 μl of terminator sequencing mix (Applied Biosystems) were added for a final reaction volume of 10 μl. For PCR products, 10 pmol of primer and 1 βl of terminator sequencing mix were added for a final reaction volume of 10 μl. Cycling conditions were as specified by the manufacturer. Plasmid sequencing reactions were precipitated in the presence of linear acrylamide and were resuspended in 2 ml of loading buffer. PCR product sequencing reactions were plate precipitated in the presence of glycogen and isopropanol. The reactions were analyzed on an ABI 3700 sequencer.
PCR amplification for the analysis of STRPs was performed, using 40 ng of genomic DNA in 8.4-μl reaction volumes containing 1.25 ml of 10× PCR buffer (100 mM Tris-HCl [pH 8.8]; 500 mM KCl; 15 mM MgCl2; 0.01% gelatin [w/v]; 200 μM each of dATP, dCTP, dGTP, and dTTP; 2.5 pmol of each primer; and 0.2 U of Taq polymerase [Bioline]). Samples were subjected to 35 cycles of 94° C. (50° C., 52° C., 55° C., or 57° C., as required) for 30 s and 72° C. for 30 s. Amplification products were separated on 6% polyacrylamide gels containing 7.7 M urea at 60 W for ˜2 h. Gels were silver stained, as described above.
Oligonucleotide primers for the STRPs were obtained as MapPairs (Research Genetics). The custom primers required for this study were designed using the Primer3 program and were synthesized commercially (Research Genetics or Integrated DNA Technologies). For markers that proved difficult to amplify using the standard Taq polymerase, an equal amount of AmpliTaq (Applied Biosystems) was substituted, along with an initial incubation of the PCR mixture at 94° C. for 10 min.
Identification of BBS1 Homologues
To identify the mouse ortholog of BBS1, the human BBS1 DNA sequence was used to search the mouse genome subdivision of the Celera sequence database. A 500-Mb contig containing the entire Bbs1 coding sequence was identified and downloaded. The coding exons were then assembled into a contig and were conceptually translated. Similarity scores were calculated using the BLOSUM62 amino acid similarity matrix. Homologous bovine, zebrafish, and honeybee sequences were identified by searching the translated EST database containing sequences from organisms other than human or mouse. Sequences were aligned using the ClustalW and Multiple Alignment programs (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex.) and were formatted using the Boxshade program (EMBnet).Example 5 Results
Mutation Analysis of BBS1
Linkage analysis studies have suggested that BBS1 is the most common BBS locus, accounting for one-third to one-half of all BBS cases (Bruford et al. 1997). It was reported elsewhere that screening of the BBS1 gene in 60 unrelated probands with BBS by SSCP analysis identified 22 individuals who had at least one copy of the M390R mutation, with 16 of these individuals being homozygous for this variant (Mykytyn et al. 2002). A total of 129 unrelated individuals with BBS (including 69 previously unreported probands) have been screened for the M390R mutation, using SSCP analysis and/or direct sequencing. Of the 129 probands, 39 have at least one copy of the M390R mutation, and 27 demonstrate homozygosity for M390R, indicating that this mutation is and/or direct sequencing. Of the 129 probands, 39 have at least one copy of the M390R mutation, and 27 demonstrate homozygosity for M390R, indicating that this mutation is involved in 30% of all BBS cases in the cohort. The entire BBS1 gene in those individuals who were heterozygous for the M390R mutation was sequenced, and a second BBS1 mutation was identified in 10 of 12 cases (Table 1).
These mutations are nonsense and deletion mutations, with the exception of one missense mutation (L518P) that was not found in chromosomes from 192 northern European control individuals. SSCP analysis of the entire BBS1 gene in 60 patients revealed 2 patients with 2 non-M390R mutations (Table 1). These data indicate that, in at least 32% (41/129) of the probands in this cohort, the BBS phenotype is caused by mutations in BBS1, and the M390R mutation accounts for ˜80% of BBS1 disease-associated alleles in this population.
Evaluation of Complex Inheritance Involving BBS1
The sequencing all of the known BBS genes (BBS2, BBS4, and MKKS) in probands from the six families with BBS1 and in 10 unrelated probands homozygous for the BBS1 M390R mutation, to search for additional mutations has been reported (Mykytyn et al. 2002). No additional mutations were identified in any of these individuals. To further evaluate the involvement of BBS1 in complex inheritance, the BBS2, BBS4, and MKKS genes in a total of 43 unrelated probands, each having two BBS1 mutations, have been sequenced. Although a few sequence variants were detected (Table 2), they are all likely to be non-disease-causing polymorphisms, because they result in a conservative amino acid substitution, do not segregate in a manner consistent with disease causation, and/or are found in control individuals.
Three large Bedouin kindreds that included multiple affected individuals and in each of which the BBS mutation mapped to a different locus (BBS2, BBS3, and BBS4) (Kwitek-Black et al. 1993; Sheffield et al. 1994; Carmi et al. 1995) were identifited elsewhere. Analysis of the inheritance pattern in each of these large pedigrees indicates autosomal recessive inheritance. Mutation analysis of the family with BBS2 indicates that all 11 affected individuals are homozygous for the BBS2 mutation. In addition, none of the 26 unaffected first-degree relatives have two copies of the mutation. All 14 affected members of the kindred with BBS3 are homozygous for the chromosome 3 disease haplotype, and none of the 36 unaffected first-degree relatives are homozygous for the disease haplotype. The BBS3 gene has yet to be identified, so the haplotype data cannot be confirmed by mutation analysis. All eight affected individuals of the Bedouin family with BBS4 are homozygous for the disease-associated haplotype, as well as for the disease mutation. One of the 18 unaffected first-degree relatives in this family (a parent of affected individuals) was homozygous for the disease-associated haplotype. However, sequencing of the BBS4 gene reveals that this individual is heterozygous for the disease-causing mutation. In the three families combined, 80 unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with BBS were analyzed for the kindred-specific mutation or disease-associated haplotype, without detecting any unaffected homozygous individuals.
To determine whether BBS1 could contribute a third mutant allele in the three large Bedouin families with BBS, the BBS1 gene in an affected proband from each kindred was sequenced. No BBS1 sequence variants were identified. Finally, in six multiplex families in which affected individuals had two BBS1 mutations, none of 28 unaffected first-degree relatives were homozygous or compound heterozygous for BBS1 mutations, indicating complete disease penetrance.
All of the composition and methods disclosed and claimed herein can be made and executed without undue experimentation in light of the present disclosure. While the compositions and methods of this invention have been described in terms of preferred embodiments, it will be apparent to those of skill in the art that variations may be applied to the compositions and methods and in the steps or in the sequence of steps of the method described herein without departing from the concept, spirit and scope of the invention. More specifically, it will be apparent that certain agents which are both chemically and physiologically related may be substituted for the agents described herein while the same or similar results would be achieved. All such similar substitutes and modifications apparent to those skilled in the art are deemed to be within the spirit, scope and concept of the invention as defined by the appended claims.REFERENCES
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32. A monoclonal antibody that binds immunologically to a polypeptide comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:2.
33. The antibody of claim 32, wherein said antibody is bound to a support.
34. A hybdridoma cells that produces a monoclonal antibody that binds immunologically to a polypeptide comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:2.
35. A polyclonal antiserum, antibodies of which bind immunologically to a polypeptide comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:2
36. The antiserum of claim 35, wherein antibodies of said antiserum are bound to a support.
37. A method of diagnosing Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) comprising identifying a mutation in a BBS1 polypeptide.
39. The method of claim 37, wherein said method comprises immunologic analysis using a BBS1-binding monoclonal antibody or polyclonal antiserum.
40. The method of claim 39, wherein said immunologic analysis comprises ELISA, RIA, or Western blot.
48. A method of identifying an individual genetically predisposed to obesity comprising identifying a mutation in a BBS1 polypeptide.
49. A method of identifying an individual genetically predisposed to diabetes mellitus comprising identifying a mutation in a BBS1 polypeptide.
50. A method of identifying an individual genetically predisposed to renal defects comprising identifying a mutation in a BBS1 polypeptide.
51. A method of identifying an individual genetically predisposed to retinopathy comprising identifying a mutation in a BBS1 polypeptide.
52. A method of identifying an individual genetically predisposed to hypogonadism comprising identifying a mutation in a BBS1 polypeptide.
53. A method of identifying an individual genetically predisposed to mental retardation comprising identifying a mutation in a BBS1 polypeptide.
54. A method of identifying an individual genetically predisposed to polydactyly comprising identifying a mutation in a BBS1 polypeptide.
International Classification: C12Q 1/68 (20060101); C07H 21/04 (20060101); C12P 21/06 (20060101); C07K 14/47 (20060101);