Braided stent and method for its manufacture
A stent includes regions of differing numbers of braided filaments to provide different dimensions and/or properties in different regions along the stent length. The stent may include a first and second plurality of braided filaments each braided together. The second plurality of braided filaments is braided into the first plurality of braided filaments to form a region of different properties than the first. A method of constructing a braided stent includes the steps of braiding a first plurality of filaments to form the flexible portion, combining a second plurality of filaments to the first plurality of filaments, and then braiding the second plurality of filaments with the first plurality of filaments to form the more rigid region from the combination of the first and second plurality of filaments, where the second plurality of filaments is braided only in the rigid region.
This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 11/657,864, filed Jan. 25, 2007, which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 11/294,287, filed Dec. 5, 2005, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,213,495, which is a divisional of application Ser. No. 10/295,454, filed Nov. 15, 2002, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,001,425, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety and for all purposes.TECHNICAL FIELD
This invention relates generally to stents and stent-grafts, and more specifically, to braided stents and stent-grafts having segments of different strength and rigidity along the length, and/or different diameters of varying or constant strength and rigidity along the length.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
A stent is an elongated device used to support a luminal wall. A stent, along with a graft cover or liner, together provide an unobstructed conduit for fluid flow in the area of a stenosis. Such a stent-graft would typically have a tubular graft layer covering, or lining, the inside or outside of the stent (or both), thus providing a fluid conduit to bypass a stenosis or otherwise diseased body passageway.
Various types of stent architectures are known in the art, including many designs comprising a filament or number of filaments, such as a wire or wires, wound or braided into a particular configuration. Included among these wire stent configurations are braided stents, such as is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,655,771 to Hans I. Wallsten and incorporated herein by reference. The Wallsten patent is only one example of the many variations of braided stents known in the art and thus is not intended to be a limitation of the invention described herein later. Braided stents tend to be very flexible, having the ability to be placed in tortuous anatomy and still maintain patency. The flexibility of braided stents make them particularly well-suited for use in intraluminal delivery where the lumen of the vessel becomes contorted and irregular both before and after placement of the stent.
The most common use of stents and stent-grafts is in the vascular system, in which stents and stent-grafts having a first small diameter compressed configuration may be introduced into a body lumen at a point remote from a site in that lumen in need of repair and then transported through that lumen, typically through a catheter, to that site. Once the site in need of repair is reached, the stent or stent-graft is either expanded or allowed to expand to a second, expanded configuration to provide an open passageway through that site.
Many of these braided stents have the problem, however, of either being too rigid such that intraluminal delivery and placement becomes difficult, or too flexible (at the cost of reducing radial strength) such that radial expansion forces exhibited at the site of treatment are insufficient to adequately maintain an open passageway through the site. Moreover, by increasing the radial strength of a stent, one typically reduces flexibility, because the stent is more rigid. Likewise, by increasing flexibility, radial strength is often sacrificed.
Thus, there is still a need to provide a fully-supported stent-graft that is flexible enough for navigation through tortuous lumina but rigid enough to properly anchor the device and maintain patency through the device at the site of treatment.SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention provides a stent having segments of different strength and rigidity, or other differential properties, along its length, and/or different diameters of varying or constant properties along its length. In one embodiment of the invention, the diameter along the length of the stent is constant, but the rigidity of the stent changes along the longitudinal axis. In another embodiment, the rigidity of the stent stays the same along the longitudinal length, but the diameter changes. In still yet another embodiment, both rigidity and diameter change along the length of the stent. This variance in diameter and/or radial strength or rigidity is achieved through the use of different numbers of filaments braided into the stent at different locations. Generally, where more rigidity, or the same rigidity with a larger diameter, is desired, more filaments are added.
More specifically, and in a preferred embodiment, the stent of the present invention has a first plurality of braided filaments in one region, and an additional plurality of filaments added to the first plurality of filaments which are together braided to form a second region. The second plurality of filaments are present only in the second region. A preferred embodiment comprises a stent having a narrow region and a broader region with the broader region comprising more filaments than the narrow region such that increased radial strength is exhibited in the broader region. A more preferred stent of the present invention has a first plurality of filaments extending throughout the narrow region and the broader region, and a second plurality of filaments extending along only the broader region. The second plurality of filaments is preferably braided into the first plurality of filaments. In a still yet more preferred embodiment, the stent further comprises a transition region between the narrow region and the broader region. The transition region is comprised of the first plurality of filaments whose braiding increases in diameter from the narrow region to the broader region.
Also included in the invention is a method of braiding a stent having a region of relatively greater flexibility and a region of relatively higher radial strength. The method includes the steps of first braiding a first plurality of filaments to form the more flexible region, and then adding a second plurality of filaments to the first plurality and together braiding the combination to form the more rigid region of the stent. The method preferably includes the steps of first braiding a first plurality of filaments to form a narrow region, then combining a second plurality of filaments to the first portion, and braiding the second plurality of filaments with the first plurality of filaments to form a broader region from the combination of the first and second plurality of filaments. The method preferably includes braiding the stent around a mandrel having a mandrel body comprised of a first portion and a second portion, wherein the first step comprises braiding the first plurality of filaments about the first mandrel portion, and the last step comprises braiding the second plurality of filaments combined with the first plurality of filaments about the second mandrel portion. The second plurality of filaments are present only in the more rigid region. The second mandrel portion preferably has a larger diameter than the first mandrel portion.
An optional, but preferred feature of the invention, is the provision of a traumatic termination to the braided stent structure, both at the stent ends and at the mid-stent locations where one plurality of braided filaments ends.
The invention is best understood from the following detailed description when read in connection with the accompanying drawings. It is emphasized that, according to common practice, some of the features of the drawings are not to scale. On the contrary, the dimensions of some of the features are arbitrarily expanded or reduced for clarity. Included in the drawing are the following figures:
The invention will next be illustrated with reference to the figures wherein similar numbers indicate the same elements in all figures. Such figures are intended to be illustrative rather than limiting and are included herewith to facilitate the explanation of the apparatus of the present invention.
Referring now to
The stents shown in
It should be noted here that unitary stents 10 and 100 as shown in
Braiding of the filaments which form the stent of the present invention may be performed on a braiding machine having a predetermined plurality of bobbin carriers adapted to revolve in a pattern about a longitudinal axis. A first set of bobbin carriers may be adapted to revolve in a first circumferential direction and a second set of bobbin carriers may be adapted to revolve in a second circumferential direction, each bobbin carrier adapted to carry at least one bobbin. Each bobbin is adapted to provide one or more filaments for braiding the stent.
In such a case, braiding of the narrow, or flexible, region comprises using filaments from a first portion of the predetermined plurality of bobbins to braid the narrow portion about the first, narrow portion of the detachable mandrel leg positioned substantially along the longitudinal axis in a braiding zone. The braiding zone is defined as a conical zone defined by the filaments extending from the bobbins to the stent on the mandrel. The preferred number of filaments used to braid the narrow region is 12, although any suitable number may be used to achieve the desired balance between compressibility and radial strength of this region. The filaments used with the present invention may be any known to those skilled in the art, and preferably may be wire, such as nitinol or stainless steel, or may comprise a polymer.
In braiding the broader, or more rigid, region, the process comprises adding filaments from a second portion of the predetermined plurality of bobbins to increase the number of filaments used to braid the broader region about the second portion of the detachable mandrel leg positioned in the braiding zone. The additional filaments added are used in conjunction with the filaments already in place from braiding the narrow region of the stent. In other words, this second step comprises using filaments from both portions of the predetermined plurality of bobbins to braid the body about the second, larger diameter, mandrel body positioned in the braiding zone. The second plurality of filaments is only used in the broader region, and nowhere else in the stent.
Braiding machines can be used for manufacturing the stent of the present invention about an exemplary modular mandrel as shown in
Referring now to
Each bobbin comprises filament 75 wound thereon. The bobbin carrier and bobbin typically interface in a way that helps keep the wire unraveling from the bobbin under proper tension, as is known in the art. Although the motion of the bobbins is described herein, it should be understood that the bobbins 74 are moved by virtue of being mounted on bobbin carriers 71. Thus, although empty bobbin carriers 71 are shown in
During braiding, the mandrel around which braided stent 100 is formed, such as mandrel 300 as shown in
As can be seen from
To form a braid around a mandrel, wires 75 extending from bobbins 74 can be secured to the end of the mandrel in almost any manner, such as by taping them or tying them, and specifically do not have to be kept in any particular orientation. For example, all the wires may all be taped or tied to a single point on one side of the mandrel. Once the braiding machine starts, it will stabilize into the proper braid configuration after only a few circumferential hoops of overlaps are formed. The portion between the proper configuration and the end can either be cut away as scrap or unbraided and then manipulated to form a nonbraided end winding, as is discussed herein below. In the alternative, to minimize scrap, the ends of wires 75 may be wound around pins (not shown) or otherwise secured to the mandrel in a spaced circumferential configuration similar to the configuration of bobbins 74 in braiding machine 70.
In a preferred embodiment, each filament has each of its two halves wound around a separate bobbin so that the filament is wound on to two bobbins, each half of the filament on a separate bobbin. In such a case, a first end of the filament is wound on a first respective bobbin and a second end of the filament is wound on a second respective bobbin, with the filament midpoint exposed between the two bobbins. From this pair of bobbins, the midpoint of the filament is withdrawn and positioned on the mandrel to form an apex at a point where each filament is added to the stent. It is not required that the exact midpoint be exposed between the two bobbins, only that the filament is wound generally equivalently on to each bobbin such that enough of the filament exists on each bobbin to allow braiding of the stent.
For example, if a stent is desired such as that shown in
In such a case as just described, the first and second bobbins should be positioned on bobbin carriers in positions consistent with the helical angle of the stent and the distance of the mandrel from the bobbin carriers. Thus, the first and second bobbins may be positioned at opposite ends of a radius of the circle of notch gears, or at opposite ends of some chord through the circle, depending on the exact configuration of the machine and desired helical angle of the stent. An exemplary process for providing a stent with such ends is described in publication WO 99/25271 to Burlakov et al. and is incorporated herein by reference.
In one method for creating the braided stent of the present invention, the braiding machine is first loaded as shown in
The braiding operation is then performed as described above to form the narrow region of the braided stent around lower region 310 of mandrel 300. After braiding the narrow region about the lower region of the mandrel, and the transition region of the stent about the transition region of the mandrel, the stent is ready to have the additional filaments added so that the additional filaments can join the existing filaments and together form broader region 120 around upper region 320 of the mandrel.
Where the bobbins used to braid narrow region 110 must be moved from the braiding machine as described in more detail below, the existing filaments which are going to be used to finish braiding the stent must be secured to prevent backlashing or loosening of that part of the stent already braided. This can be done either by tying each off on a pin on the mandrel, or simply tying or clamping all of the filaments against the mandrel at a point where the additional filaments are going to be added to form the broader region of the stent.
As noted above, the method for adding filaments in preparation of braiding the broader region may include moving the bobbins used in the braiding of the narrow region. This movement may be accomplished by any of a number of ways. For example, certain bobbin carriers may comprise closed eyelets through which the wire is threaded, in which case the entire bobbin carrier may be removed. Other bobbin carriers, such as those manufactured, for example, by the Wardwell Braiding Machine Company of Central Falls, R.I., comprise open, curled guides resembling a “pigtail” such that the bobbins may be simply unlocked and lifted off of their respective bobbin carriers and the filament readily removed from the guide. It should be understood that, as referred to herein, removing or replacing “the bobbins” on and off of the machine may comprise removing or replacing the bobbins only or the bobbins as still attached to the bobbin carriers. Where the entire bobbin carrier is removed, the bobbin carrier may be removed by simply removing any fasteners holding it in place, or to facilitate quicker removal and replacement, a quick-connect fitting can be used. The quick-connect fitting may comprise any number of means well-known in the art for providing an interlocking engagement of one element with another, such as a magnetic connection, a twist-and-lock connection, a spring-loaded ball in channel connection, a lever-controlled cam connection, or any connection known in the art.
The filament addition process can be essentially understood by comparing
Alternatively, if the bobbin machine used to braid the narrow region of the stent has no additional bobbin holders (a situation not shown in
Important in the filament addition step is that the bobbins be arranged, either by movement to a different machine, or addition of extra bobbins, so that the desired overlap between filaments be obtained. For example, and as shown in
With regard again to
To provide increased radial strength at the ends of the braided stent of this invention or to counteract a known end-effect of braided stent architecture where the ends tend to have lesser radial strength than the intermediate portion of the stent, the ends may be flared as is well known in the art, or the ends may comprise a non-braided stent architecture such as is shown in
Atraumatic ends of the braided stent structure may also be provided by making adjacent filament pairs of filaments from each of the angularly disposed sets of parallel filaments, continuous with one another. Such atraumatic ends may be located at an end of the stent, as seen at 140 in
Moreover, using the method described above, one end of the stent has atraumatic, continuous-wire apices 140 such as are shown in
To deploy the stent of this invention, the stent is typically compressed into a radially compressed state into an introducer as is well-known in the art. The stent is then introduced to the lumen into which it is to be deployed, navigated through the lumen to a deployment location, typically a diseased artery such as the aorta, and then expanded to a radially expanded state in the deployment location as is known in the art. The deployment of a unitary stent of the present invention is thus accomplished by a method similar to that used for any stent known in the art. Expansion is also achieved through known methods (e.g. the stent is expandable between the radially compressed configuration and the radially expanded configuration by one of: balloon expansion, self-expansion via spring elasticity, or self-expansion via a thermally or stress-induced return of a pre-conditioned memory material).
Although non-bifurcated stent designs have been shown and described herein, the method of the present invention may be used for creating stent segments which are combined to form bifurcated systems or any number of multiple lumen systems.
The stent of the present invention can also be used with any biocompatible graft connected thereto as one of: an outer covering 165, an inner liner 175, or a combination thereof (as shown in
While described above with reference to embodiments having only two regions of differential properties, stents or stent-grafts with three or more regions of differential properties are also envisioned and may also be made by duplicating the teaching above for introducing and terminating a separate plurality of filaments at a mid-stent location.
Note too that the differential properties provided by varying the number of filaments in a braided stent structure are not limited to dimensional or rigidity/flexibility/strength characteristics, but may also include other properties, such as magnetizability, imagability, space density (the proportion of stent circumference occupied or not occupied by filaments), etc.
Although illustrated and described above with reference to certain specific embodiments, the present invention is nevertheless not intended to be limited to the details shown. Rather, various modifications may be made in the details within the scope and range of equivalents of the claims and without departing from the spirit of the invention.
10. A tubular stent comprising:
- a plurality of filaments extending throughout a length and interbraided to define a tubular, supportive structure having a longitudinal axis, each filament having a filament length, opposed filament ends and a filament portion between the opposed filament ends;
- a first atraumatic end integral with said tubular structure; and
- a second end integral with said tubular structure and opposed from the first atraumatic end to define a tubular stent;
- wherein the first atraumatic end of said stent comprises bends at about the portions of said plurality of filaments forming first apices thereat to define said first atraumatic end; and
- wherein the filament ends are disposed proximally away from the second end of said stent to define a second atraumatic end thereat.
11. The stent of claim 10, wherein the second atraumatic end of said stent comprises filament wound architectures having second apices formed from bends in a portion of said plurality of filaments.
12. The stent of claim 11, wherein the filament wound architectures comprise of non-braided, hexagonal architectures.
13. The stent of claim 10, wherein the filaments comprise wires.
14. The stent of claim 13, wherein said wires are selected from the group consisting of nitinol, stainless steel or combinations thereof.
15. The stent of claim 10, wherein said plurality of filaments have a braiding angle along the longitudinal axis.
16. The stent of claim 15, wherein said braiding angle is obtuse.
17. The stent of claim 16, wherein said braiding angle is about 110°.
18. The stent of claim 10, wherein said plurality of filaments vary from about 6 filaments to about 12 filaments.
19. The stent of claim 10, wherein the stent has a radially compressed configuration for introduction into the lumen and a radially expanded configuration for deployment within the lumen.
20. The stent of claim 19, wherein the stent is expandable between the radially compressed configuration and the radially expanded configuration by one of balloon expansion, self-expansion via spring elasticity, or self-expansion via a thermally or stress-induced return of a pre-conditioned memory material.
21. The stent of claim 10, further comprising a biocompatible tubular graft, said graft comprising an outer covering, an inner liner, or a combination thereof, for at least a portion of said stent.
22. A method of constructing a braided stent, comprising:
- providing a mandrel;
- providing a plurality of filaments;
- winding each filament between two bobbins such that a first end of each filament is wound on a first respective bobbin and a second end of each filament is wound on a second respective bobbin;
- positioning a point of each filament on the mandrel to form an apex to define a first atraumatic end of a braided stent;
- braiding the plurality of filaments to form a lengthwise region of the braided stent; and
- bending a portion of the plurality of filaments to form apices to define a second atraumatic end of the braided stent.
23. The method of claim 22, further comprising:
- winding the portion of the plurality of filaments in a non-braided architecture to form the apices at the second atraumatic end of the braided stent.
24. The method of claim 23, wherein the non-braided architecture comprises a non-braided, hexagonal architecture.
25. The method of claim 22, further comprising:
- disposing the filament ends proximally away from said apices at the second atraumatic end of the braided stent.
26. The method of claim 22, wherein the filaments comprise wires.
27. The method of claim 26, wherein said wires are selected from the group consisting of nitinol, stainless steel or combinations thereof.
28. The method of claim 22, further comprising
- braiding said plurality of filaments at a braiding angle along the lengthwise region.
29. The method of claim 28, wherein said braiding angle is obtuse.
30. The method of claim 28, wherein said braiding angle is about 110°.
31. The method of claim 22, wherein said plurality of filaments vary from about 6 filaments to about 12 filaments.
33. The method of claim 22, further comprising:
- performing the braiding on a braiding machine having a predetermined plurality of bobbins adapted to revolve about a longitudinal axis, a first set of bobbins adapted to revolve in a first circumferential direction and a second set of bobbins adapted to revolve in a second circumferential direction, each bobbin mounted upon a bobbin carrier adapted to carry at least one bobbin, and each bobbin adapted to provide one or more filaments for braiding into the stent.