METHODS FOR DRIVING ELECTROPHORETIC DISPLAYS USING DIELECTROPHORETIC FORCES
A dielectrophoretic display has a substrate having walls defining a cavity, the cavity having a viewing surface and a side wall inclined to the viewing surface. A fluid is contained within the cavity; and a plurality of particles are present in the fluid. There is applied to the substrate an electric field effective to cause dielectrophoretic movement of the particles so that the particles occupy only a minor proportion of the viewing surface.
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REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
This application is a division of application Ser. No. 11/162,188, filed Aug. 31, 2005 (Publication No. 2006/0038772), which claims benefit of provisional Application Ser. No. 60/605,761, filed Aug. 31, 2004.
The aforementioned application Ser. No. 11/162,188 is also a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 10/907,140, filed Mar. 22, 2005 (now U.S. Pat. No. 7,327,511, issued Feb. 5, 2008), which itself claims benefit of provisional Application Ser. No. 60/555,529, filed Mar. 23, 2004, and of provisional Application Ser. No. 60/585,579, filed Jul. 7, 2004.
The aforementioned application Ser. No. 11/162,188 is also a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 10/687,166, filed Oct. 16, 2003 (Publication No. 2004/0136048, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,259,744, issued Aug. 21, 2007), which itself claims benefit of Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/419,019, filed Oct. 16, 2002.
The aforementioned application Ser. No. 11/162,188 is also a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 10/249,973, filed May 23, 2003 (now U.S. Pat. No. 7,193,625, issued Mar. 20, 2007) which itself claims benefit of Application Ser. No. 60/319,315, filed Jun. 13, 2002, and Application Ser. No. 60/319,321, filed Jun. 18, 2002.
The entire contents of all the aforementioned applications, and of all U.S. patents and published and copending applications mentioned below, are herein incorporated by reference.
BACKGROUND OF INVENTION
This invention relates to methods for driving electrophoretic displays using dielectrophoretic forces. More specifically, this invention relates to driving methods for switching particle-based electrophoretic displays between various optical states using electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic forces.
The term “gray state” is used herein in its conventional meaning in the imaging art to refer to a state intermediate two extreme optical states of a pixel, and does not necessarily imply a black-white transition between these two extreme states. For example, several of the patents and published applications referred to below describe electrophoretic displays in which the extreme states are white and deep blue, so that an intermediate “gray state” would actually be pale blue. Indeed, the transition between the two extreme states may not be a color change at all, but may be a change in some other optical characteristic of the display, such as optical transmission, reflectance, luminescence or, in the case of displays intended for machine reading, pseudo-color in the sense of a change in reflectance of electromagnetic wavelengths outside the visible range.
The terms “bistable” and “bistability” are used herein in their conventional meaning in the art to refer to displays comprising display elements having first and second display states differing in at least one optical property, and such that after any given element has been driven, by means of an addressing pulse of finite duration, to assume either its first or second display state, after the addressing pulse has terminated, that state will persist for at least several times, for example at least four times, the minimum duration of the addressing pulse required to change the state of the display element. It is shown in published U.S. Patent Application No. 2002/0180687 that some particle-based electrophoretic displays capable of gray scale are stable not only in their extreme black and white states but also in their intermediate gray states, and the same is true of some other types of electro-optic displays. This type of display is properly called “multi-stable” rather than bistable, although for convenience the term “bistable” may be used herein to cover both bistable and multi-stable displays.
The term “impulse” is used herein in its conventional meaning of the integral of voltage with respect to time. However, some bistable electro-optic media act as charge transducers, and with such media an alternative definition of impulse, namely the integral of current over time (which is equal to the total charge applied) may be used. The appropriate definition of impulse should be used, depending on whether the medium acts as a voltage-time impulse transducer or a charge impulse transducer.
Particle-based electrophoretic displays, in which a plurality of charged particles move through a fluid under the influence of an electric field, have been the subject of intense research and development for a number of years. Electrophoretic displays can have attributes of good brightness and contrast, wide viewing angles, state bistability, and low power consumption when compared with liquid crystal displays. Nevertheless, problems with the long-term image quality of these displays have prevented their widespread usage. For example, particles that make up electrophoretic displays tend to settle, resulting in inadequate service-life for these displays.
As noted above, electrophoretic media require the presence of a fluid. In most prior art electrophoretic media, this fluid is a liquid, but electrophoretic media can be produced using gaseous fluids; see, for example, Kitamura, T., et al., “Electrical toner movement for electronic paper-like display”, IDW Japan, 2001, Paper HCS1-1, and Yamaguchi, Y., et al., “Toner display using insulative particles charged triboelectrically”, IDW Japan, 2001, Paper AMD4-4). See also European Patent Applications 1,429,178; 1,462,847; 1,482,354; and 1,484,625; and International Applications WO 2004/090626; WO 2004/079442; WO 2004/077140; WO 2004/059379; WO 2004/055586; WO 2004/008239; WO 2004/006006; WO 2004/001498; WO 03/091799; and WO 03/088495. Such gas-based electrophoretic media appear to be susceptible to the same types of problems due to particle settling as liquid-based electrophoretic media, when the media are used in an orientation which permits such settling, for example in a sign where the medium is disposed in a vertical plane. Indeed, particle settling appears to be a more serious problem in gas-based electrophoretic media than in liquid-based ones, since the lower viscosity of gaseous fluids as compared with liquid ones allows more rapid settling of the electrophoretic particles.
Numerous patents and applications assigned to or in the names of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and E Ink Corporation have recently been published describing encapsulated electrophoretic media. Such encapsulated media comprise numerous small capsules, each of which itself comprises an internal phase containing electrophoretically-mobile particles suspended in a fluid, and a capsule wall surrounding the internal phase. Typically, the capsules are themselves held within a polymeric binder to form a coherent layer positioned between two electrodes. Encapsulated media of this type are described, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,930,026; 5,961,804; 6,017,584; 6,067,185; 6,118,426; 6,120,588; 6,120,839; 6,124,851; 6,130,773; 6,130,774; 6,172,798; 6,177,921; 6,232,950; 6,249,271; 6,252,564; 6,262,706; 6,262,833; 6,300,932; 6,312,304; 6,312,971; 6,323,989; 6,327,072; 6,376,828; 6,377,387; 6,392,785; 6,392,786; 6,413,790; 6,422,687; 6,445,374; 6,445,489; 6,459,418; 6,473,072; 6,480,182; 6,498,114; 6,504,524; 6,506,438; 6,512,354; 6,515,649; 6,518,949; 6,521,489; 6,531,997; 6,535,197; 6,538,801; 6,545,291; 6,580,545; 6,639,578; 6,652,075; 6,657,772; 6,664,944; 6,680,725; 6,683,333; 6,704,133; 6,710,540; 6,721,083; 6,724,519; 6,727,881; 6,738,050; 6,750,473; 6,753,999; 6,816,147; 6,819,471; 6,822,782; 6,825,068; 6,825,829; 6,825,970; 6,831,769; 6,839,158; 6,842,167; 6,842,279; 6,842,657; 6,864,875; 6,865,010; 6,866,760; 6,870,661; 6,900,851; and 6,922,276; and U.S. Patent Applications Publication Nos. 2002/0060321; 2002/0063661; 2002/0090980; 2002/0113770; 2002/0130832; 2002/0180687; 2003/0011560; 2003/0020844; 2003/0025855; 2003/0102858; 2003/0132908; 2003/0137521; 2003/0214695; 2003/0222315; 2004/0012839; 2004/0014265; 2004/0027327; 2004/0075634; 2004/0094422; 2004/0105036; 2004/0112750; 2004/0119681; 2004/0136048; 2004/0155857; 2004/0180476; 2004/0190114; 2004/0196215; 2004/0226820; 2004/0239614; 2004/0252360; 2004/0257635; 2004/0263947; 2005/0000813; 2005/0001812; 2005/0007336; 2005/0007653; 2005/0012980; 2005/0017944; 2005/0018273; 2005/0024353; 2005/0035941; 2005/0041004; 2005/0062714; 2005/0067656; 2005/0078099; 2005/0105159; 2005/0122284; 2005/0122306; 2005/0122563; 2005/0122564; 2005/0122565; 2005/0151709; and 2005/0152022; and International Applications Publication Nos. WO 99/67678; WO 00/05704; WO 00/38000; WO 00/36560; WO 00/67110; WO 00/67327; WO 01/07961; and WO 03/107,315.
Many of the aforementioned patents and applications recognize that the walls surrounding the discrete microcapsules in an encapsulated electrophoretic medium could be replaced by a continuous phase, thus producing a so-called “polymer-dispersed electrophoretic display” in which the electrophoretic medium comprises a plurality of discrete droplets of an electrophoretic fluid and a continuous phase of a polymeric material, and that the discrete droplets of electrophoretic fluid within such a polymer-dispersed electrophoretic display may be regarded as capsules or microcapsules even though no discrete capsule membrane is associated with each individual droplet; see for example, the aforementioned 2002/0131147. Accordingly, for purposes of the present application, such polymer-dispersed electrophoretic media are regarded as sub-species of encapsulated electrophoretic media.
An encapsulated electrophoretic display typically does not suffer from the clustering and settling failure mode of traditional electrophoretic devices and provides further advantages, such as the ability to print or coat the display on a wide variety of flexible and rigid substrates. (Use of the word “printing” is intended to include all forms of printing and coating, including, but without limitation: pre-metered coatings such as patch die coating, slot or extrusion coating, slide or cascade coating, curtain coating; roll coating such as knife over roll coating, forward and reverse roll coating; gravure coating; dip coating; spray coating; meniscus coating; spin coating; brush coating; air knife coating; silk screen printing processes; electrostatic printing processes; thermal printing processes; ink jet printing processes; and other similar techniques.) Thus, the resulting display can be flexible. Further, because the display medium can be printed (using a variety of methods), the display itself can be made inexpensively.
A related type of electrophoretic display is a so-called “microcell electrophoretic display”. In a microcell electrophoretic display, the charged particles and the fluid are not encapsulated within capsules but instead are retained within a plurality of cavities formed within a carrier medium, typically a polymeric film. See, for example, International Application Publication No. WO 02/01281, and U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2002/0075556, both assigned to Sipix Imaging, Inc.
Although electrophoretic media are often opaque (since, for example, in many electrophoretic media, the particles substantially block transmission of visible light through the display) and operate in a reflective mode, many electrophoretic displays can be made to operate in a so-called “shutter mode” in which one display state is substantially opaque and one is light-transmissive. See, for example, the aforementioned U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,130,774 and 6,172,798, and U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,872,552; 6,144,361; 6,271,823; 6,225,971; and 6,184,856. Dielectrophoretic displays, which are similar to electrophoretic displays but rely upon variations in electric field strength, can operate in a similar mode; see U.S. Pat. No. 4,418,346.
One potentially important application of shutter mode displays is as light modulators, that is to say to variable transmission windows, mirrors and similar devices designed to modulate the amount of light or other electro-magnetic radiation passing therethrough; for convenience, the term “light” will normally be used herein, but this term should be understood in a broad sense to include electro-magnetic radiation at non-visible wavelengths. For example, as mentioned below, the present invention may be applied to provide windows which can modulate infra-red radiation for controlling temperatures within buildings.
As discussed in the aforementioned copending application Ser. No. 10/907,140, one potentially important market for electrophoretic media is windows with variable light transmission. As the energy performance of buildings and vehicles becomes increasingly important, electrophoretic media could be used as coatings on windows to enable the proportion of incident radiation transmitted through the windows to be electronically controlled by varying the optical state of the electrophoretic media. Such electronic control can supersede “mechanical” control of incident radiation by, for example, the use of window blinds. Effective implementation of such electronic “variable-transmissivity” (“VT”) technology in buildings is expected to provide (1) reduction of unwanted heating effects during hot weather, thus reducing the amount of energy needed for cooling, the size of air conditioning plants, and peak electricity demand; (2) increased use of natural daylight, thus reducing energy used for lighting and peak electricity demand; and (3) increased occupant comfort by increasing both thermal and visual comfort. Even greater benefits would be expected to accrue in an automobile, where the ratio of glazed surface to enclosed volume is significantly larger than in a typical building. Specifically, effective implementation of VT technology in automobiles is expected to provide not only the aforementioned benefits but also (1) increased motoring safety, (2) reduced glare, (3) enhanced mirror performance (by using an electro-optic coating on the mirror), and (4) increased ability to use heads-up displays. Other potential applications include of VT technology include privacy glass and glare-guards in electronic devices.
This invention seeks to provide improved drive schemes for electrophoretic displays using electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic forces. This invention is particularly, although not exclusively, intended for use in such displays used as light modulators.
SUMMARY OF INVENTION
In one aspect, this invention provides a method for operating a dielectrophoretic display, the method comprising:
- providing a substrate having walls defining at least one cavity, the cavity having a viewing surface; a fluid contained within the cavity; and a plurality of at least one type of particle within the fluid; and
- applying to the substrate an electric field effective to cause dielectrophoretic movement of the particles so that the particles occupy only a minor proportion of the viewing surface.
This aspect of the present invention may hereinafter for convenience be referred to as the “cavity” method of the invention. In one form of this method, the dielectrophoretic movement of the particles causes the particles to move to a side wall of the cavity. In another form of this method, the dielectrophoretic movement causes the particles to form at least one chain extending through the fluid. “Mixed” operation can of course occur with some particles moving to the side wall(s) and other particles forming chains.
In the cavity method, the fluid may be light-transmissive, and preferably transparent. The cavity method may further comprise applying to the substrate a second electric field effective to cause movement of the particles such that they occupy substantially the entire viewing surface, thereby rendering the display substantially opaque. This second electric field may be a direct current electric field, while the (first) electric field used to bring about dielectrophoretic movement of the particles may an alternating electric field, typically one having a frequency of at least about 100 Hz.
In the cavity method, at least some of the at least one type of particle may be electrically charged. There may be more than one type of particle present in the fluid. More specifically, there may be a first type of particle having a first optical characteristic and a first electrophoretic mobility, and a second type of particle having a second optical characteristic different from the first optical characteristic and a second electrophoretic mobility different from the first electrophoretic mobility. The first and second electrophoretic mobilities may differ in sign, so that the first and second types of particles move in opposed directions in an electric field. In this case, the method may further comprise:
- applying an electric field of a first polarity to the cavity, thereby causing the first type of particles to approach the viewing surface and the cavity to display the first optical characteristic at the viewing surface; and
- applying an electric field of a polarity opposite to the first polarity to the cavity, thereby causing the second type of particles to approach the viewing surface and the cavity to display the second optical characteristic at the viewing surface.
As described in the aforementioned copending application Ser. No. 10/687,166, a backing member may be disposed on the opposed side of the cavity from the viewing surface, at least part of the backing member having a third optical characteristic different from the first and second optical characteristics. The backing member may be multi-colored, and may be provided with areas having third and fourth optical characteristics different from each other and from the first and second optical characteristics.
In the cavity method, the at least one type of particle may be formed from an electrically conductive material, such as a metal or carbon black. The dielectrophoretic display may be of any of the types previously discussed. Thus, the substrate may comprise at least one capsule wall so that the dielectrophoretic display comprises at least one capsule. The substrate may comprise a plurality of capsules, the capsules being arranged in a single layer. Alternatively, the substrate may comprise a continuous phase surrounding a plurality of discrete droplets of the fluid having the at least one type of particle therein. In a further form of such a display, the substrate may comprise a substantially rigid material having the at least one cavity formed therein, the substrate further comprising at least one cover member closing the at least one cavity (i.e., the display may be of the aforementioned microcell type).
In a second aspect, this invention provides a method for operating a dielectrophoretic display, the method comprising:
- providing a dielectrophoretic medium comprising a fluid and a plurality of at least one type of particle within the fluid;
- applying to the medium an electric field having a first frequency, thereby causing the particles to undergo electrophoretic motion and producing a first optical state; and
- applying to the medium an electric field having a second frequency higher than the first frequency, thereby causing the particles to undergo dielectrophoretic motion and producing a second optical state different from the first optical state.
This aspect of the present invention may be referred to as the “varying frequency” method of the invention. In such a method, the first frequency may be not greater than about 10 Hz and the second frequency may be at least about 100 Hz. Conveniently, the electric fields have substantially the form of square waves or sine waves, though other waveforms can of course be used. For reasons explained below, it may be advantageous for the second frequency electric field to have a larger magnitude than the first frequency electric field.
Also for reasons explained in detail below, in the varying frequency method, it may be advisable to apply the second frequency electric field in an “interrupted manner” with two or more periods of application of the second frequency electric field separated by one or more periods in which no electric field, or a waveform different from that of the second frequency electric field, is applied. Thus, in one form of the varying frequency method, the application of the second frequency electric field is effected by:
- applying the second frequency electric field for a first period;
- thereafter applying zero electric field for a period; and
- thereafter applying the second frequency electric field for a second period.
In another form of the varying frequency method, the application of the second frequency electric field is effected by:
- applying the second frequency electric field for a first period at a first amplitude;
- thereafter applying the second frequency electric field for a period at a second amplitude less than the first amplitude; and
- thereafter applying the second frequency electric field for a second period at the first amplitude.
In a third form of the varying frequency method, the application of the second frequency electric field is effected by:
- applying the second frequency electric field for a first period;
- thereafter applying for a period an electric field having a frequency less than the second frequency; and
- thereafter applying the second frequency electric field for a second period.
Finally, this invention provides a method for operating a dielectrophoretic display, the method comprising:
- providing a dielectrophoretic medium comprising a fluid and a plurality of at least one type of particle within the fluid;
- applying to the medium an electric field having a high amplitude, low frequency component and a low amplitude, high frequency component, thereby causing the particles to undergo electrophoretic motion and producing a first optical state; and
- applying to the medium an electric field having a low amplitude, low frequency component and a high amplitude, high frequency component, thereby causing the particles to undergo dielectrophoretic motion and producing a second optical state different from the first optical state.
This aspect of the present invention may be referred to as the “varying amplitude” method of the invention. In such a method, low frequency components may have frequencies not greater than about 10 Hz and the high frequency components may have frequencies of at least about 100 Hz. The components may have substantially the form of square waves or sine waves.
All aspects of the present invention may make use of any of the types of electrophoretic displays discussed above.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
As indicated above, this invention provides several different methods for operating dielectrophoretic displays. These several methods may be described separately below, but it should be understood that a single display of the present invention may make use of more than one of such methods, either at the same time or as alternative methods of operation at different times. The following description will assume that the reader is familiar with the contents of the aforementioned copending application Ser. Nos. 10/907,140; 10/687,166 and 10/249,973, to which the reader is referred for further details of materials and display construction techniques useful in the displays of the present invention.
However, before describing in detail the various methods of the present invention, it is believed to be desirable to give some more theoretical consideration to electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic movement of particles within an electrophoretic medium.
In an electric field, particles experience a series of translational forces that can be ordered by couplings between various moments of the charge distribution on the particle to the external field or gradients of the external field. The first of these forces, the electrophoretic force, is between the net charge on the particle and the applied field:
where q is the net particle charge and E is the applied field. This force is first order in the applied field.
The second translational force is a coupling between the particle dipole (induced or permanent) and a gradient in the applied field:
Here, p is the electric dipole moment of the particle and ∇ is the gradient operator. This is the dielectrophoretic force. For particles without a permanent dipole, the dipole is induced by the applied field, and is typically linear in the applied field:
where α is a polarizability of the particle, or, more generally, a polarizability difference from the surrounding fluid. In this case, the dielectrophoretic force is quadratic in the applied field:
where E is the magnitude of the electric field E.
The next translational force is a coupling between the electric quadrupole and gradients in the field gradient, and there is a limitless series of additional couplings, all involving higher orders of gradients of the applied field coupled to higher moments of the electric charge distribution. Only electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic forces will be considered herein; the higher-order terms are regarded as insignificant at the practical field strengths applied in electrophoretic displays.
In a pixel of a typical electrophoretic display, the electrophoretic medium (which comprises a plurality of electrically charged particles dispersed in a fluid, and may contain other components, such as capsule walls, a polymeric binder, walls defining microcells, adhesives etc., as described in the aforementioned patents and applications) is in the form of a thin film sandwiched between a pixel electrode, which defines the pixel, and a second electrode, which is typically a common front electrode extending across a plurality of pixels and in many cases the entire display.
Cavity Method of the Invention
It will be apparent from
Dielectrophoretic forces offer new modes of particle motion in an electrophoretic cell. From Equation (3) above, it will be seen that particles more polarizable than the surrounding fluid (positive α) are attracted to regions of high electric field strength and particles less polarizable than the surrounding fluid (negative α) are attracted to regions of low electric field strength. The resultant dielectrophoretic forces offer the potential for particle motion or structure formation not available from the electrophoretic force alone.
Two examples of particle configurations that can be achieved through dielectrophoretic forces are illustrated in
A second example of particle configuration resulting from dielectrophoretic forces is shown in
Switching of a display (i.e., shifting the display between its various possible optical states) can be achieved by balancing electrophoretic motion against dielectrophoretic motion, and the various methods of the present invention make use of such balancing.
The cavity method of the present invention is an expanded form of the method for driving a dielectrophoretic display described in the aforementioned copending application Ser. No. 10/687,166, without the limitation that the dielectrophoretic movement of the particles cause the particles to move to the side wall of the cavity; as already noted, the cavity method of the present invention includes cases in which the particles form chains within the fluid rather than moving to a side wall of the cavity. However, the cavity method of the present invention may make use of any of the optional features of the method described in the aforementioned copending application Ser. No. 10/687,166.
Thus, references to “viewing surface” and “side wall” herein do not imply that these surfaces are perpendicular to each other, though a substantially perpendicular arrangement of the two surfaces is preferred when the dielectrophoretic movement of the particles is to the side wall, since when the particles are disposed adjacent the side wall of the cavity, such a perpendicular arrangement minimizes the area of the viewing surface occupied by the particles, and hence permits the maximum amount of light to pass through the cavity. The side wall or walls of the cavity also need not be planar; for example, an encapsulated display of the present invention may use capsules as described in the aforementioned U.S. Pat. No. 6,067,185 having the form of “flattened spheres” (i.e., oblate ellipsoids) with curved side walls.
As already indicated, it is necessary that there be a difference between the dielectric constant and/or conductivity of the fluid and that of the substrate to provide the heterogeneous electric field necessary for dielectrophoresis. Desirably, this difference should be made as large as possible. It may also be advantageous to use a capsule which has a non-circular, and preferably polygonal, cross-section perpendicular to the direction of the applied electric field since sharply curved regions or corners of the capsule produce increased field heterogeneity and thus assist the dielectrophoretic movement of the particles.
Those skilled in the technology of electrophoretic displays will appreciate that both electrically neutral and electrically charged particles can be moved by dielectrophoresis, since dielectrophoretic movement is dependent upon dipoles induced in the particles by the electric field and not upon any pre-existing charge on the particles. However, it appears advantageous to use electrically charged particles in the cavity method of the present invention since once the particles have been moved by dielectrophoresis, it is generally desirable to use normal electrophoretic movement of the particles to re-disperse them; it will be appreciated that since the heterogeneity of the electric field in an encapsulated display is due to differences between the properties of the fluid on the one hand and the capsule wall and surrounding material on the other, there will normally be no way of reversing the high field and low field regions, so that if the particle movement caused by dielectrophoresis is to be reversed, some applied force other than dielectrophoresis must be used.
If electrically charged particles are used in the present cavity method, the particles are of course subject to both electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic forces when an electric field is applied. Typically, electrophoretic movement of particles will be much more rapid than dielectrophoretic, so that to ensure that the desired dielectrophoretic movement is not subject to interference from electrophoretic movement, it is desirable to reverse the electric field at intervals; provided the field is applied for the same amount time in each direction, the electrophoretic movements will sum to zero, since electrophoretic movement is polarity-sensitive, whereas the dielectrophoretic movements will not sum to zero since dielectrophoretic movement is polarity-independent.
Dielectrophoretic movement of particles is affected by the material from which the particles are formed, and the size and shape of the particles. Since dielectrophoresis depends upon the induction of dipoles within the particles, it is desirable to use particles which are highly polarizable, especially conductive particles such as metals. For example, aluminum particles may be used in the present invention. It has been observed experimentally that carbon black particles, which have a reasonably high conductivity, have substantially greater dielectrophoretic mobility than substantially non-conductive titania particles. The particles may also be formed from a doped semiconductor; the type of doping is not critical provided that the particles have sufficient conductivity, but most undoped semiconductors have too low a conductivity to have high dielectrophoretic mobility.
The induced dipole, and hence the dielectrophoretic movement of the particles, is also affected by the size and shape of the particles. Since a large particle allows greater separation between the poles of a dipole than a smaller particle, increasing the size of the particles will increase dielectrophoretic mobility, although of course the particles should not be made so large as to readily visible when in their dielectrophoretically-induced configuration. For similar reasons, elongate particles, especially needle-shaped particles, will tend to have a higher dielectrophoretic mobility than spherical particles of the same volume. Anisotropically shaped particles may also be useful in the present invention.
As already indicated with reference to
In the second variation, the medium contain two different types of particles differing in at least one optical characteristic and in electrophoretic mobility and a fluid which may be colored or uncolored. This capsule can be switched among three states, namely a first opaque state, in which the first type of particles are visible, a second opaque state, in which the second type of particles are visible, and a “transparent” state, in which both types of particles are moved by dielectrophoresis and the color of the fluid is visible; if, as will typically be the case, the fluid is uncolored, the transparent state is actually transparent and may be used to display the color of a reflector or filter disposed on the opposed side of the capsule from the viewing surface thereof, as previously described.
It will be appreciated that, provided that the desired color can be seen when the display is in a transparent state, the location of the colored material is essentially irrelevant. Thus, although reference has been made above to a reflector or filter, it is not essential that the reflector be a discrete integer, and color could be provided in any convenient location. Thus, for example, the colored reflector or filter could be provided by coloring (a) the substrate itself, for example the polymeric film used in a microcell form of the present display; (b) a material associated with the substrate, for example a polymeric binder used to retain capsules in a coherent layer in an encapsulated display of the invention, or a lamination adhesive layer used to secure the dielectrophoretic layer to a backplane; or (c) the pixel electrodes or another component of a backplane used to drive the display. In principle, in an encapsulated display color could be provided by dyeing the capsule walls themselves, but this does have the disadvantage that in the opaque state of a pixel the color in the portion of the capsule adjacent the viewing surface will affect the color seen at that surface when the pixel is in an opaque state. In some cases, the resultant color shift may be acceptable, or may be minimized, for example by using particles which have a color complementary to that of the color caused by the capsule wall. In other cases, color may be provided only on the parts of the capsule wall lying on the opposed side of the capsule to the viewing surface, for example by providing a radiation-sensitive color-forming material in the capsule wall and then exposing this color-forming material to radiation effective to bring about the formation of color, this radiation being directed on to the capsule from the side of the display opposite to the viewing surface.
Color could also be provided from a source separate from the display itself. For example, if the display is arranged to operate as a light valve and backlit by projecting light on to a surface on the opposed side of the display from the viewing surface, color could be provided by imaging an appropriate color filter on to the rear surface of the display.
Except in cases where it is essential that the colored member be light transmissive, the color may be provided either by dyes or pigments, although the latter are generally preferred since they are typically more stable against prolonged exposure to radiation, and thus tend to provide displays with longer operating lifetimes.
Special electrode configurations are not always necessary in the cavity method of the present invention; the invention can be practiced with simple parallel electrodes on opposed sides of the cavity; for example, a multi-pixel display of the invention using at least one cavity per pixel could have the conventional electrode configuration of a single pixel electrode for each pixel on one side of the cavities and a single common electrode extending across all the pixels on the opposed side of the cavities. However, this invention does not exclude the possibility that the electrodes might be shaped to enhance the dielectrophoretic effect. It may also be useful to use so-called “z-axis adhesives” (i.e., adhesives having a substantially greater conductivity parallel to the thickness of a layer of adhesive than in the plane of this layer) between one or both of the electrodes and the cavities cf. copending application Ser. No. 10/708,121, filed Feb. 10, 2004 (Publication No. 2004/0252360). In addition, as discussed in detail below with reference to
As already indicated, there are several types of dielectrophoretic media which can be used in the present invention. The first type is the “classical” encapsulated electrophoretic type as described in the aforementioned E Ink and MIT patents and applications. In this type of display, the substrate has the form of at least one capsule wall, which is typically deformable, and formed by depositing a film-forming material around a droplet containing the fluid and the dielectrophoretic particles. The second type is the polymer-dispersed electrophoretic type in which the substrate comprises a continuous phase surrounding a plurality of discrete droplets of the fluid. Full details regarding the preparation of this type of display are given in the aforementioned 2002/0131147. The third type is the microcell display, in which a plurality of cavities or recesses are formed in a substrate, filled with the fluid and particles and then sealed, either by lamination a cover sheet over the recesses or by polymerizing a polymerizable species also present in the fluid.
As shown in
Re-dispersion of the particles 908 and 910 from the transparent state of the display 900 shown in
It will be appreciated that the present invention need not make use of a colored reflector behind the capsules but may be used to provide backlit displays, variable transmission windows and transparent displays; indeed, the present invention may be useful in any where light modulation is desired.
Varying Frequency Method of the Invention
As already noted, electrophoretic particle motion drives electrophoretic particles to be relatively uniformly distributed across the viewing surface, and across the pixel or capsules or microcells containing the particles. These configurations are hereinafter referred to as “electrophoretic-induced particle configurations”, and an example of such a configuration has been discussed above with reference to
In such a drive scheme, as the frequency of the drive waveform increases, the amplitude of the electrophoretic motion decreases. Except where particle motion is impeded by a solid object (such as the wall of a capsule in an encapsulated electrophoretic medium), the distance of travel of a particle under electrophoretic force is approximately:
where μ is the electrophoretic mobility, <E> is the time-average electric field, and t is the time that the electric field has a particular direction. This time, t, is equal to half the period of a sinusoidal or square wave, for example. For a particular waveform, the time t is inversely proportional to the frequency of the waveform, and so the amplitude of electrophoretic motion is also inversely proportional to the frequency.
At frequencies (typically above about 50 Hz) where the distance of electrophoretic motion is small compared to the thickness of the electrophoretic medium (e.g., vertically in
Thus, a display can be switched from electrophoretically-induced particle configurations (where particles are relatively uniformly distributed across the electrophoretic medium and the viewing surface) to dielectrophoretically-induced particle configurations (where particles are aggregated into chains or in small regions of the electrophoretic medium, so that they occupy only a minor proportion of the viewing surface) by changing the frequency of the applied periodic drive voltage. Intermediate configurations can be achieved by choosing intermediate drive frequencies, that is to say particle configurations between electrophoretically-induced and dielectrophoretically-induced types can be achieved by intermediate frequencies. Examples of waveforms for such switching are shown in
To illustrate a varying frequency method of the present invention, experimental single pixel displays were prepared by suspending commercial carbon black particles in a hydrocarbon/halocarbon mixture, and encapsulating the resultant internal phase substantially as described in the aforementioned 2002/0180687. The capsules were slot coated on to the ITO-covered surface of one piece of glass, and the resultant sub-assembly was laminated using a lamination adhesive to a second sheet of ITO-coated glass. The resultant single pixel displays were then subjected to square waves of varying frequency and voltage and the transmission of the display measured. The results are shown in
Varying Amplitude Method of the Invention
Particles in an electrophoretic medium can also be switched among electrophoretically-induced configurations, dielectrophoretically-induced configurations and intermediate configurations by applying low-frequency and high-frequency waveforms simultaneously, and examples of such waveforms are illustrated in
Further Considerations Regarding Waveforms for Dielectrophoretic Displays
As already mentioned, the dielectrophoretic forces acting on electrophoretic particles are determined in part by gradients in the electric field, as shown in Equations (2) and (4) above. In electrophoretic media driven by parallel electrodes, the field gradients are created by differences in the electrical properties of the various materials used to form the electrophoretic medium. For example, as already mentioned, the dielectrophoretically-induced particle configuration of
where σ is the conductivity and ∈ the dielectric constant of a material, both expressed in Gaussian units, so that conductivity has units of inverse time and the dielectric constant is dimensionless. At frequencies below this cutoff frequency the material response is primarily conductive and above this frequency the response is mostly dielectric. This material response is important because it is the contrast in material properties that give rise to gradients in the applied electric field which drives dielectrophoresis.
The existence of a cutoff frequency in the various materials comprising an electrophoretic medium can be used in two ways. Firstly, materials selection and modification can be used to provide enhanced or reduced dielectrophoresis. Secondly, waveforms can be developed that exploit one or more crossover frequencies.
In the materials selection/modification approach, one can choose materials having similar dielectric constants and conductivities when constructing an electrophoretic medium in order to minimize the creation of gradients in the applied electric field. More broadly, one can choose materials whose electrical response is similar over frequency ranges that are relevant to the drive waveforms applied to the medium. For example, one can choose materials with similar dielectric constants and also cutoff frequencies that are all high compared to most of the frequency components comprising the drive voltages. The frequency components of the drive voltage can be determined by Fourier Transform of the drive voltage, and displaying the amplitude of magnitude of the various frequency components. A sine wave drive voltage exhibits only one frequency component and a square wave drive voltage is composed of a series of drive frequencies. However, the magnitude of the frequency components diminishes with increased frequency of each component, so that most of the square wave drive voltage is represented by a fundamental and one or more harmonic Fourier components; the higher terms are less significant because of their low magnitudes.
On the other hand, to enhance dielectrophoretic motion, one could choose materials with strong differences in electric response over the range of dominant frequency components of the drive waveform chosen to induce dielectrophoresis. Contrast can be induced by having materials with widely-differing dielectric constants. Even stronger contrast can be achieved by choosing materials that exhibit dielectric response at the dominant frequencies of the drive waveform along with other components that exhibit conductive response at these frequencies. The former materials have cutoff frequencies high compared to the dominant frequencies of the drive waveform and the latter materials have cutoff frequencies lower than the dominant frequencies of the drive waveform. As an example, an encapsulated electrophoretic medium can be constructed from conductive particles and external polymeric components that have a significant ionic response over accessible drive frequencies (for example, at about 10 to 60 Hertz), and a fluid that does not have significant ionic response at these frequencies; the contrast between the fluid and the particles can induce chaining as illustrated in
Given a particular combination of materials, the frequency dependence of the electrical response of constituent materials can be used to create advantageous drive waveforms. A waveform can be developed that adjusts the frequency of the drive voltage to move from above to below a cutoff frequency of a constituent material of the display medium and thus increases or decreases the dielectrophoretic response of the medium. For example, consider a sine wave drive waveform. At very low frequencies, the medium response is electrophoretic, and particles are spread relatively uniformly across the medium. At higher frequencies, electrophoretic motion is reduced in amplitude, so dielectrophoretic response develops, driven by differences between conductive and non-conductive components of the display medium. At even higher frequencies, above the cutoff frequency of all the constituent materials, the response of all the materials is dielectric and the contrast between components is much smaller, so the dielectrophoretic driving force is small. In this way, one can choose, through frequency modulation, among electrophoretic response at low frequency, strong dielectrophoretic response at intermediate frequencies, and weak electrophoretic and weak dielectrophoretic response at high frequencies.
In most cases, electrophoretic particles have insignificant permanent dipole moments, and the particle dipole induced by the electric field is larger than any permanent dipole. Under these conditions, the dielectrophoretic force is proportional to the square of the applied voltage, while the electrophoretic force is, to a good approximation, linear with respect to the applied voltage. Thus, advantageous waveforms can be developed based upon the different dependencies of these two forces on the strength of the applied electric field (and therefore on the applied voltage). Such waveforms can be useful, for example, when the range of frequencies available for the drive waveform is limited, or the speed of one of the electro-optic transitions needs to be increased. Thus, this type of drive uses both frequency and amplitude variation in the drive waveform to shift between electrophoretically-induced particle configurations and dielectrophoretically-induced particle configurations. Essentially, in this type of drive scheme, low voltage and low frequency are used to achieve electrophoretically-induced particle configurations, and high voltage and high frequency to achieve dielectrophoretically-induced particle configurations.
A second modification of the waveform of
In a third modification (not illustrated) of the waveform of
It has also been found advantageous, at least in some cases, to apply the portion of the waveform responsible for the dielectrophoretically-induced particle configurations in an “interrupted” manner, i.e., to apply this portion of the waveform during two or more separate periods, with a different type of waveform section intervening between these periods.
Some quasi-static particle configurations, for example the particle chaining illustrated in
In this scheme, switching over to waveform E for a short period helps to eliminate some of the more weakly-growing structures that form under waveform D. For example, as already noted, the dielectrophoretic waveform D may cause formation of clusters as shown in
As described in several of the aforementioned E Ink patents and applications (see especially 2003/0137521; 2005/0001812; and 2005/0024353), it is highly desirable that the waveform used to drive an electrophoretic display be DC balanced, in the sense that, regardless of the exact sequence of transitions applied to a given pixel, the algebraic sum of the impulses applied to be that pixel is bounded. Accordingly, it is highly desirable that waveforms of the types shown in
It is also desirable that the E portion of the waveform be DC balanced. This can occur, for example, in the two ways shown in
It is also desirable that the total DC imbalance of the E portion(s) of the waveform not exceed a predetermined value at any time. The amount of DC imbalance is desirably limited to the area under the voltage versus time curve for the positive portion of one cycle of the E waveform or one time segment of the E waveform, whichever is less. Likewise, the DC imbalance in the negative direction is desirably limited to the area under the negative portion of one cycle of the E waveform or one time segment of the E waveform, whichever is less. In the waveform shown in
The various types of waveform described above can be combined with more traditional electrophoretic switching so that, by combining electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic switching, several extreme states can be achieved, along with related intermediate states. For example, in a dual particle electrophoretic medium containing white and black particles (such as that shown in
It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that numerous changes and modifications can be made in the specific embodiments of the present invention described above without departing from the scope of the invention. Accordingly, the whole of the foregoing description is to be construed in an illustrative and not in a limitative sense.
1. A method for operating a dielectrophoretic display, the method comprising:
- applying to the medium an electric field having a high amplitude, low frequency component and a low amplitude high frequency component, thereby causing the particles to undergo electrophoretic motion and producing a first optical state; and
- applying to the medium an electric field having a low amplitude low frequency component and a high amplitude high frequency component, thereby causing the particles to undergo dielectrophoretic motion and producing a second optical state different from the first optical state.
2. A method according to claim 1 wherein the low frequency components have frequencies not greater than about 10 Hz and the high frequency components have frequencies of at least about 100 Hz.
3. A method according to claim 1 wherein the components have substantially the form of square waves or sine waves.
4. A method according to claim 1 wherein the at least one type of particle is formed from an electrically conductive material.
5. A method according to claim 4 wherein the at least one type of particle is formed from a metal or carbon black.
6. A method according to claim 1 wherein the substrate comprises at least one capsule wall so that the dielectrophoretic display comprises at least one capsule.
7. A method according to claim 6 wherein the substrate comprises a plurality of capsules, the capsules being arranged in a single layer.
8. A method according to claim 1 wherein the substrate comprises a continuous phase surrounding a plurality of discrete droplets of the fluid having the at least one type of particle therein.
9. A method according to claim 1 wherein the substrate comprises a substantially rigid material having the at least one cavity formed therein, the substrate further comprising at least one cover member closing the at least one cavity.
Filed: Apr 22, 2011
Publication Date: Aug 11, 2011
Applicant: E INK CORPORATION (Cambridge, MA)
Inventors: Karl R. Amundson (Cambridge, MA), Alexi C. Arango (Somerville, MA), Joseph M. Jacobson (Newton Centre, MA), Thomas H. Whitesides (Victoria), Michael D. McCreary (Acton, MA), Richard J. Paolini, JR. (Framingham, MA)
Application Number: 13/092,634
International Classification: G09G 3/34 (20060101); G09G 5/00 (20060101);