FAMILY OF PAIN PRODUCING SUBSTANCES AND METHODS TO PRODUCE NOVEL ANALGESIC DRUGS
A method may include treating pain, shock, and/or inflammatory conditions in a subject. A method may include using a therapeutically effective amount of an antibody, a lipoxygenase inhibitor, a cytochrome P-450 enzyme inhibitor, and/or an antioxidant configurable to at least partially treat pain, shock, and/or inflammatory conditions in a subject. A method of treating pain, shock, and/or inflammatory conditions in a subject may include inactivating or preventing at least one linoleic acid metabolite to treat certain conditions (e.g., pain, shock, and/or inflammation).
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This application is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/131,220 filed May 25, 2011 which claims priority to PCT/US2009/065739 filed Nov. 24, 2009 also claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/118,078 filed Nov. 26, 2008.STATEMENT ON U.S. FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
This invention was made with government support under NIH Grant No. R01 DA19585 awarded by the National Institutes of Health. Accordingly, the United States Government may have certain rights in this invention.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention generally relates to the fields of treating a pain, shock, and/or inflammatory condition in a subject. More specifically, the present invention is related to the use of a pharmaceutical composition that comprises one or more compounds that inhibit and/or minimize the production of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites and/or block the activity of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites.
2. Description of the Relevant Art
Many pain conditions are poorly managed by currently available analgesics. For example, burn injuries affect more than two million people annually in the United States alone. Importantly, poor pain control in burn patients is known to increase the risk for long term adverse outcomes. This is a critical issue since surveys indicate that about one-half of burned patients have inadequate pain management. Patients suffering from a burn injury experience pain at the initial heat insult, during healing, and even in a chronic form, post burn injury.
Currently available analgesics for treating burn pain (eg., opiates, local anesthetics) demonstrate only limited efficacy and are associated with considerable adverse effects. In addition to burn pain, there are many other pain states (e.g., inflammatory pain, neuropathic pain, cancer pain, herpes zoster pain, etc) for which currently available analgesics exhibit very limited activity, especially with repeated dosing.
Shock resulting from massive trauma, severe blood or fluid loss, systemic infections, insufficient cardiac output, or any other disorder or injury that leads to a hypoperfusional state is a serious, life threatening condition. Even with aggressive and prompt treatment shock is often fatal.
It is therefore desirable to develop a safer method of treating a pain, shock, and/or inflammatory condition in a subject.SUMMARY
In some embodiments, one or more compounds that inhibit and/or minimize the production of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites and/or block the activity of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites may be used in the preparation of a pharmaceutical composition for treating pain, shock, inflammatory conditions, or combinations thereof, in a mammal in need thereof.
A pharmaceutical composition for treating pain, shock, inflammatory conditions, or combinations thereof in a subject may include one or more compounds that inhibit and/or minimize the production of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites and/or block the activity of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers.
In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition comprises one or more compounds that block the activity of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites, wherein at least one of the compounds is an antibody that binds to at least one oxidized linoleic acid metabolite. Antibodies that may be used in the pharmaceutical composition include antibodies that bind to a hydroxy linoleic acid metabolite, antibodies that bind to an epoxy linoleic acid metabolite, and antibodies that bind to an oxo linoleic acid metabolite. Examples of linoleic acid metabolites that the antibody binds to include, but are not limited to: (10E,12Z)-9-oxooctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid; (9Z,11E)-13-oxooctadeca-9,11-dienoic acid; 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid; 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid; 9(10)-dihydroxy-octadec-12-enoic acid; 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid; (12Z)-9,10-epoxyoctadecenoic acid; 12,13-epoxyoctadec-9Z-enoic acid. The antibody may be a monoclonal antibody or a polyclonal antibody.
In an embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition may include one or more compounds that inhibit and/or minimize the production of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites. In one embodiment, wherein at least one of the compounds that inhibit and/or minimize the production of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites is a cytochrome P-450 enzyme inhibitor.
In an embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition may include one or more compounds that inhibit and/or minimize the production of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites. In one embodiment, at least one of the compounds is an antioxidant sufficient to substantially inhibit and/or reduce the catalytic effect of relevant metabolic enzymes in the Linoleate pathway.
In an embodiment, a method of treating pain, shock, inflammatory conditions, or combinations thereof in a subject includes administering to a subject who would benefit from such treatment a therapeutically effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition, wherein the pharmaceutical composition comprises one or more compounds that inhibit and/or minimize the production of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites and/or block the activity of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites. The pharmaceutical composition may be administered intravenously, orally, topically, or directly into the central nervous system.
Advantages of the present invention may become apparent to those skilled in the art with the benefit of the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments and upon reference to the accompanying drawings described herein below.
While the invention is susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specific embodiments thereof are shown by way of example in the drawings and may herein be described in detail. The drawings may not be to scale. It should be understood, however, that the drawings and detailed description thereto are not intended to limit the invention to the particular form disclosed, but on the contrary, the intention is to cover all modifications, equivalents and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims.DETAILED DESCRIPTION
It is to be understood the present invention is not limited to particular devices or biological systems, which may, of course, vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to be limiting. As used in this specification and the appended claims, the singular forms “a”, “an”, and “the” include singular and plural referents unless the content clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to “a linker” includes one or more linkers.Definitions
The terms used throughout this specification generally have their ordinary meanings in the art, within the context of the invention, and in the specific context where each term is used. Certain terms are discussed below, or elsewhere in the specification, to provide additional guidance to the practitioner in describing the devices and methods of the invention and how to make and use them. It will be appreciated that the same thing can be said in more than one way. Consequently, alternative language and synonyms may be used for any one or more of the terms discussed herein, nor is any special significance to be placed upon whether or not a term is elaborated or discussed in greater detail herein. Synonyms for certain terms are provided. A recital of one or more synonyms does not exclude the use of other synonyms. The use of examples anywhere in this specification, including examples of any terms discussed herein, is illustrative only, and in no way limits the scope and meaning of the invention or of any exemplified term.
As used herein the terms “administration,” “administering,” or the like, when used in the context of providing a pharmaceutical or nutraceutical composition to a subject generally refers to providing to the subject one or more pharmaceutical, “over-the-counter” (OTC) or nutraceutical compositions in combination with an appropriate delivery vehicle by any means such that the administered compound achieves one or more of the intended biological effects for which the compound was administered. By way of non-limiting example, a composition may be administered by parenteral, subcutaneous, intravenous, intracoronary, rectal, intramuscular, intra-peritoneal, transdermal, or buccal routes of delivery. Alternatively, or concurrently, administration may be by the oral route. The dosage administered will be dependent upon the age, health, weight, and/or disease state of the recipient, kind of concurrent treatment, if any, frequency of treatment, and/or the nature of the effect desired. The dosage of pharmacologically active compound that is administered will be dependent upon multiple factors, such as the age, health, weight, and/or disease state of the recipient, concurrent treatments, if any, the frequency of treatment, and/or the nature and magnitude of the biological effect that is desired.
As used herein, the term “agonist” generally refers to a type of ligand or drug that binds and alters the activity of a receptor.
As used herein, the term “antagonist” generally refers to a type of receptor ligand which binds a receptor but which does not alter the activity of the receptor; however when used with an agonist, prevents the binding of the agonist to the receptor hence the effect of the agonist.
As used herein, the term “allodynia” generally refers to pain from stimuli which are not normally painful. The pain may occur other than in the area stimulated. Allodynia may generally refer to other pain.
As used herein, the term “antinociception” generally refers to a reduction in pain sensitivity.
As used herein, the term “monoclonal antibody” generally refers to an antibody obtained from a population of substantially homogeneous antibodies (the individual antibodies comprising the population are identical except for possible naturally occurring mutations that may be present in minor amounts). As used herein, the term “polyclonal antibody” generally refers to a population of antibodies that are directed against a common epitope but which are not identical in structure.
As used herein, terms such as “pharmaceutical composition,” “pharmaceutical formulation,” “pharmaceutical preparation,” or the like, generally refer to formulations that are adapted to deliver a prescribed dosage of one or more pharmacologically active compounds to a cell, a group of cells, an organ or tissue, an animal or a human. Methods of incorporating pharmacologically active compounds into pharmaceutical preparations are widely known in the art. The determination of an appropriate prescribed dosage of a pharmacologically active compound to include in a pharmaceutical composition in order to achieve a desired biological outcome is within the skill level of an ordinary practitioner of the art. A pharmaceutical composition may be provided as sustained-release or timed-release formulations. Such formulations may release a bolus of a compound from the formulation at a desired time, or may ensure a relatively constant amount of the compound present in the dosage is released over a given period of time. Terms such as “sustained release” or “timed release” and the like are widely used in the pharmaceutical arts and are readily understood by a practitioner of ordinary skill in the art. Pharmaceutical preparations may be prepared as solids, semi-solids, gels, hydrogels, liquids, solutions, suspensions, emulsions, aerosols, powders, or combinations thereof. Included in a pharmaceutical preparation may be one or more carriers, preservatives, flavorings, excipients, coatings, stabilizers, binders, solvents and/or auxiliaries that are, typically, pharmacologically inert. It will be readily appreciated by an ordinary practitioner of the art that, pharmaceutical compositions, formulations and preparations may include pharmaceutically acceptable salts of compounds. It will further be appreciated by an ordinary practitioner of the art that the term also encompasses those pharmaceutical compositions that contain an admixture of two or more pharmacologically active compounds, such compounds being administered, for example, as a combination therapy.
As used herein the term “pharmaceutically acceptable salts” includes salts prepared from by reacting pharmaceutically acceptable non-toxic bases or acids, including inorganic or organic bases, with inorganic or organic acids. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts may include salts derived from inorganic bases include aluminum, ammonium, calcium, copper, ferric, ferrous, lithium, magnesium, manganic salts, manganous, potassium, sodium, zinc, etc. Examples include the ammonium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts. Salts derived from pharmaceutically acceptable organic non-toxic bases include salts of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines, substituted amines including naturally occurring substituted amines, cyclic amines, and basic ion exchange resins, such as arginine, betaine, caffeine, choline, N,N′-dibenzylethylenediamine, diethylamine, 2-dibenzylethylenediamine, 2-diethylaminoethanol, 2-dimethylaminoethanol, ethanolamine, ethylenediamine, N-ethyl-morpholine, N-ethylpiperidine, glucamine, glucosamine, histidine, hydrabamine, isopropylamine, lysine, methylglucamine, morpholine, piperazine, piperidine, polyamine resins, procaine, purines, theobromine, triethylamine, trimethylamine, tripropylamine, tromethamine, etc.
The terms “reducing,” “inhibiting” and “ameliorating,” as used herein, when used in the context of modulating a pathological or disease state, generally refers to the prevention and/or reduction of at least a portion of the negative consequences of the disease state. When used in the context of an adverse side effect associated with the administration of a drug to a subject, the term(s) generally refer to a net reduction in the severity or seriousness of said adverse side effects.
As used herein the term “subject” generally refers to a mammal, and in particular to a human.
As used herein, the term “treat” generally refers to an action taken by a caregiver that involves substantially inhibiting, slowing or reversing the progression of a disease, disorder or condition, substantially ameliorating clinical symptoms of a disease disorder or condition, or substantially preventing the appearance of clinical symptoms of a disease, disorder or condition.
Terms such as “in need of treatment,” “in need thereof,” “benefit from such treatment,” and the like, when used in the context of a subject being administered a pharmacologically active composition, generally refers to a judgment made by an appropriate healthcare provider that an individual or animal requires or will benefit from a specified treatment or medical intervention. Such judgments may be made based on a variety of factors that are in the realm of expertise of healthcare providers, but include knowledge that the individual or animal is ill, will be ill, or is at risk of becoming ill, as the result of a condition that may be ameliorated or treated with the specified medical intervention.
By “therapeutically effective amount” is meant an amount of a drug or pharmaceutical composition that will elicit at least one desired biological or physiological response of a cell, a tissue, a system, animal or human that is being sought by a researcher, veterinarian, physician or other caregiver.Methods and Compositions
Mechanistically, burn injury is a unique type of tissue damage where transient exposure to heat results in long lasting changes in the exposed tissue (e.g., skin). The studies performed in humans and in animals demonstrated that these changes in the damaged tissue are at least in part responsible for the development and maintenance of ongoing pain or hyperalgesia. The heat injured tissue generates various inflammatory mediators that sensitize ion channels such as transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 or TRPV1 to evoke ongoing pain and hyperalgesia. Other important pain conditions include inflammatory, neuropathic, cancer and the like.
TRPV1, also known as the capsaicin receptor, plays a pivotal role in burn injury and other important pain conditions by evoked hyperalgesia and allodynia such that the mice deficient in TRPV1 protein show little to no hyperalgesia in these models. The key role played by TRPV1 in the development of thermal hyperalgesia and possibly mechanical hyperalgesia in various pain models is well established in animal and human studies. Signaling cascades initiated by a variety of inflammatory mediators may sensitize TRPV1 and contribute to inflammatory hyperalgesia. Given the importance of TRPV1 in inflammatory pain, burn pain and cancer pain, including other various pain states, antagonists against TRPV1 may be used for treating pain and/or inflammatory conditions. However, recent studies have demonstrated some serious on target side effects of TRPV1 antagonists that may exclude their clinical use. These data necessitate additional research in findings ways to block TRPV1 activation without using the antagonists.
A variety of endogenous molecules have been shown to activate TRPV1 and they include anandamide, N-arachidonoyl-dopamine, N-oleoyldopamine, polyamines etc. Such endogenous TRPV1 ligands may be generated during inflammation and contribute to constitutive activation of TRPV1. Barring a few reports, the role of these endogenous TRPV1 ligands in physiological or pathological pain is not known. Interestingly, TRPV1 may be activated by stimuli such as protons and noxious heat. The mechanism by which heat activates TRPV1 is not completely understood although several hypotheses have been proposed. Heat may generate endogenous TRPV1-stimulating ligands in the heat-exposed tissue and thus initiates noxious pain sensation. In tissues exposed to heat for longer durations, the endogenous TRPV1 ligands may be constitutively synthesized and activate TRPV1 to produce ongoing pain sensation in the absence of heat. A similar pathway may exist for inflammatory or other pain conditions as well.
In some embodiments, heat injury to organs such as skin results in generation of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites. These metabolites represent a novel family of endogenous TRPV1 ligands. These ligands activate TRPV1 expressed by sensory nerve terminals in the damaged tissue. The opening of TRPV1 leads to generation of action potentials and the pain sensation in the somatosensory cortex.
In some embodiments, metabolites of linoleic acid have been identified as TRPV1 agonists. Linoleic acid is also known by its IUPAC name cis, cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid. Linoleic acid has a structure:
In some embodiments, pharmacological interventions that can block the generation of the endogenous TRPV1 ligand in response to heat may be of therapeutic use.
In some embodiments, oxidized linoleic acid metabolites are generated upon heat stimulation of skin. Oxidized linoleic acid metabolites include, but are not limited to, oxo linoleic acid metabolites, hydroxyl linoleic acid metabolites, and epoxy linoleic acid metabolites. Examples of oxo linoleic acid metabolites include, but are not limited to (10E,12Z)-9-oxooctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid (9-oxoODE, 9-KODE) and (9Z,11E)-13-oxooctadeca-9,11-dienoic acid (13-oxoODE, 13-KODE). Examples of hydroxyl linoleic acid metabolites include, but are not limited to: 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE); 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE); 9(10)-dihydroxy-octadec-12-enoic acid (9,10-DiHOME); and 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DiHOME). Examples of epoxy linoleic acid metabolites include, but are not limited to: (12Z)-9,10-epoxyoctadecenoic acid (9(10)-EpOME) and 12,13-epoxyoctadec-9Z-enoic acid (12(13)-EpOME). It is believed that oxidized linoleic acid metabolites may function as endogenous TRPV1 agonists.
In some embodiments, the blockade of synthesis or immunoneutralization of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites results in decreased activation of pain sensing neurons by heat in vitro and results in thermal antinociception in vivo. Immunoneutralization of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites may be accomplished by the use of one or more antibodies that bind to at least one oxidized linoleic acid metabolite. Antibodies for oxidized linoleic acids may be formed using the procedure of Spindler et al. (Spindler et al. “Significance and immunoassay of 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids.” Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996; 218:187-191), which is incorporated herein by reference.
TRPV1 is not the only heat-sensitive channel in the body. In some embodiments, other members of the family, TRPV3 and TRPV4 are activated by warm temperatures. Therefore, the linoleic acid metabolites were screened against these channels In some embodiments, 12,13-EpOME and 9,10-DiHOME are TRPV3 and TRPV4 agonists respectively.
In some embodiments, intrathecal application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) or neutralizing antibodies against 9-HODE and 13-HODE may be an effective way to block inflammatory allodynia. Thus compounds such as NDGA and neutralizing antibodies may have two unique sites of action in the treatment of thermal and mechanical allodynia. NDGA is a lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitor and an antioxidant. LOX inhibitors may be administered sufficiently to substantially attenuate the catalytic effect of enzymes such as EC 22.214.171.124 (aka: arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase) in order to treat pain, shock, and/or inflammatory conditions. In some embodiments, LOX inhibitors other than NDGA may be administered.
In some embodiments, a method of treating a pain, shock and/or inflammatory conditions may include administering a cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzyme inhibitor sufficient to substantially inhibit and/or reduce the catalytic effect of multiple P450 isozymes capable of synthesizing oxidized linoleic acid metabolites (OLAMs). In some embodiments, the CYP inhibitor may be administered intravenously, orally, topically (for burns or wounds), directly into the central nervous system (e.g., epidural), or any other method described herein or that will be known to those skilled in the art.
In some embodiments, a method of treating a pain, shock and/or inflammatory conditions may include administering a cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoenzyme inhibitor sufficient to substantially inhibit or reduce the catalytic effect of enzyme EC 126.96.36.199 (aka: CYP2C9 and CYP2C 19).
Examples of CYP inhibitors include, but are not limited to; ketoconazole, micronazole, fluconazole, benzbromarone, sulfaphenazole, valproic acid, amiodarone, cimetidine, fenofibrate, fluvastatin, lovastatin, fluvoxamine, sertraline, isoniazid, probenecid, sulfamethoxazole, teniposide, voriconazole, and zafirlukast. In some embodiments, the CYP inhibitor may be administered intravenously, orally, topically (for burns or wounds), directly into the central nervous system (e.g., epidural), or any other method described herein or that will be known to those skilled in the art.
In one embodiment, cytochrome P450 inhibitors that block the formation of linoleic acid metabolites may be used as analgesic drugs. In one embodiment, ketoconazole is administered topically or systemically to relieve pain or inflammation, shock or hypotension mediated by the formation of linoleic acid metabolites.
In some embodiments, a method of treating a pain, shock, and/or inflammatory condition may include administering an antioxidant sufficient to substantially inhibit and/or reduce the catalytic effect of relevant metabolic enzymes in the Linoleate pathway. In some embodiments, antioxidant inhibitors of relevant metabolic enzymes in the Linoleate pathway may include Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), Vitamin E and/or Vitamin E derivatives (e.g., water soluble Vitamin E derivative). NDGA may function at least in part as a therapeutic agent due to its strong antioxidant characteristics.
Recent research has indicated that activation of TRPV1 by 9-HODE may have other roles in the body depending upon the expression of TRPV1. TRPV1 in the spinal cord may play an important role in maintenance of thermal and mechanical allodynia in inflammatory or other pain conditions. Depolarization of the spinal cord may lead to the release of 9-HODE and activation of TRPV1. 9-HODE in the spinal cord may lead to development of mechanical allodynia. Similar to heated skin, depolarized spinal cord (with high potassium) may release compound(s) that have TRPV1 agonist activity. Depolarized spinal cord superfusate may contain significantly higher amounts of 9-HODE. Moreover, activation of TRPV1 in the spinal cord by capsaicin (positive control) or by 9-HODE results in tactile allodynia that is completely reversible by a TRPV1 antagonist. Thus, in some embodiments, the role of 9-HODE and similar linoleic acid oxidation products extends beyond heat-nociception.
In some embodiments, a method may include treating shock and/or inflammation. The therapy used to treat any one case of shock depends upon the cause of the patient's hypoperfusional disorder, however, a disruption in cellular membrane integrity, leading to the release and oxidation of linoleic acid metabolites from stressed cells, is a process common to many if not most cases of shock. These oxidized linoleic acid metabolites have paracrine and/or endocrine effects that act to worsen the symptoms of shock. A method as described herein may effectively delay the multi-organ failure associated with Refractory (Irreversible) shock. This therapeutic method may be used in many, if not most cases of shock and save many lives.
In some embodiments, given the role of these metabolites in various other diseases (e.g., arthritis, pulmonary edema and shock), similar methods and antibodies may be used in treating these conditions.
Any suitable route of administration may be employed for providing a subject with an effective dosage of the compositions (e.g., antibodies, compounds) described herein. For example, oral, rectal, topical, parenteral, ocular, pulmonary, nasal, and the like may be employed. Dosage forms include tablets, troches, dispersions, suspensions, solutions, capsules, creams, ointments, aerosols, and the like.
The compositions may include those compositions suitable for oral, rectal, topical, parenteral (including subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous), ocular (ophthalmic), pulmonary (aerosol inhalation), or nasal administration, although the most suitable route in any given case will depend on the nature and severity of the conditions being treated and on the nature of the active ingredient. They may be conveniently presented in unit dosage form and prepared by any of the methods well-known in the art of pharmacy.
In practical use, compositions may be combined as the active ingredient in intimate admixture with a pharmaceutical carrier according to conventional pharmaceutical compounding techniques. The carrier may take a wide variety of forms depending on the form of preparation desired for administration, e.g., oral or parenteral (including intravenous). In preparing the compositions for oral dosage form, any of the usual pharmaceutical media may be employed, such as, for example, water, glycols, oils, alcohols, flavoring agents, preservatives, coloring agents and the like in the case of oral liquid preparations, such as, for example, suspensions, elixirs and solutions; or carriers such as starches, sugars, microcrystalline cellulose, diluents, granulating agents, lubricants, binders, disintegrating agents and the like in the case of oral solid preparations such as, for example, powders, capsules and tablets, with the solid oral preparations being preferred over the liquid preparations. Because of their ease of administration, tablets and capsules represent the most advantageous oral dosage unit form in which case solid pharmaceutical carriers are obviously employed. If desired, tablets may be coated by standard aqueous or nonaqueous techniques.
The pharmaceutical preparations may be manufactured in a manner which is itself known to one skilled in the art, for example, by means of conventional mixing, granulating, dragee-making, softgel encapsulation, dissolving, extracting, or lyophilizing processes. Thus, pharmaceutical preparations for oral use may be obtained by combining the compositions with solid and semi-solid excipients and suitable preservatives, and/or co-antioxidants. Optionally, the resulting mixture may be ground and processed. The resulting mixture of granules may be used, after adding suitable auxiliaries, if desired or necessary, to obtain tablets, softgels, lozenges, capsules, or dragee cores.
Suitable excipients may be fillers such as saccharides (e.g., lactose, sucrose, or mannose), sugar alcohols (e.g., mannitol or sorbitol), cellulose preparations and/or calcium phosphates (e.g., tricalcium phosphate or calcium hydrogen phosphate). In addition binders may be used such as starch paste (e.g., maize or corn starch, wheat starch, rice starch, potato starch, gelatin, tragacanth, methyl cellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, and/or polyvinyl pyrrolidone). Disintegrating agents may be added (e.g., the above-mentioned starches) as well as carboxymethyl-starch, cross-linked polyvinyl pyrrolidone, agar, or alginic acid or a salt thereof (e.g., sodium alginate). Auxiliaries are, above all, flow-regulating agents and lubricants (e.g., silica, talc, stearic acid or salts thereof, such as magnesium stearate or calcium stearate, and/or polyethylene glycol, or PEG). Dragee cores are provided with suitable coatings, which, if desired, are resistant to gastric juices. Soft gelatin capsules (“softgels”) are provided with suitable coatings, which, typically, contain gelatin and/or suitable edible dye(s). Animal component-free and kosher gelatin capsules may be particularly suitable for the embodiments described herein for wide availability of usage and consumption. For this purpose, concentrated saccharide solutions may be used, which may optionally contain gum arabic, talc, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and/or titanium dioxide, lacquer solutions and suitable organic solvents or solvent mixtures, including dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetone, ethanol, or other suitable solvents and co-solvents. In order to produce coatings resistant to gastric juices, solutions of suitable cellulose preparations such as acetylcellulose phthalate or hydroxypropylmethyl-cellulose phthalate, may be used. Dye stuffs or pigments may be added to the tablets or dragee coatings or soft gelatin capsules, for example, for identification or in order to characterize combinations of active compound doses, or to disguise the capsule contents for usage in clinical or other studies.
In some embodiments, compositions (e.g., antibodies) will typically be formulated in such vehicles at a concentration of about 0.1 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml.
For the prevention or treatment of disease, the appropriate dosage of the composition will depend on the type of disease to be treated, as defined above, the severity and course of the disease, whether the compositions are administered for preventive or therapeutic purposes, previous therapy, the patient's clinical history and response to the composition, and the discretion of the attending physician. The composition is suitably administered to the patient at one time or over a series of treatments.
Depending on the type and severity of the disease, about 0.015 to 15 mg/kg of composition (e.g., antibodies) is an initial candidate dosage for administration to the patient, whether, for example, by one or more separate administrations, or by continuous infusion. For repeated administrations over several days or longer, depending on the condition, the treatment is repeated until a desired suppression of disease symptoms occurs. However, other dosage regimens may be useful.
According to another embodiment of the invention, the effectiveness of the composition in preventing or treating disease may be improved by administering the composition serially or in combination with another agent that is effective for those purposes, such as another antibody directed against a different epitope or neutralizing a different protein than the first composition, or one or more conventional therapeutic agents such as, for example, alkylating agents, folic acid antagonists, anti-metabolites of nucleic acid metabolism, antibiotics, pyrimidine analogs, 5-fluorouracil, purine nucleosides, amines, amino acids, triazol nucleosides, corticosteroids, calcium, retinoids, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase inhibitors, fumaric acid and its salts, analgesics, psychopharmaceuticals, local anesthetics, spasmolytics, and beta-blockers. Such other agents may be present in the composition being administered or may be administered separately. The composition may be suitably administered serially or in combination with radiological treatments, whether involving irradiation or administration of radioactive substances.EXAMPLES
To further characterize the TRPV1 specificity of these endogenous heat-generated compound(s), the effect of pretreatment with the TRPV1 antagonist iodo-resiniferatoxin (I-RTX) on the activation of rat TG neurons was evaluated. I-RTX completely blocked the activation of neurons by compound(s) released from heated skin (
Collectively, these new data demonstrate the selectivity of the oxidized linoleic acid metabolites for activating TRP channels associated with pain, shock and inflammation, such as TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4 and TRPA1. In addition, the new data demonstrate that extracts from burned human skin in living patients activate sensory neurons via TRPV1 and activate CHO cells transfected with TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4 and TRPA1, suggesting that oxidized linoleic acid metabolites active TRP channels associated with pain, shock and inflammation in humans. Thus, drugs that block the synthesis or actions of these oxidized linoleic acid metabolites will have utility for treatment of pain, shock and inflammation.
- 1) NDGA: Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid
- 2) DPI: Diphenyliodonium
- 3) CO: Carbon Monoxide
- 4) 17-ODYA: 17-Octadecynoic acid
- 5) L-NAME: L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester (hydrochloride)
- 6) L-NNA: NG-nitro-L-Arginine; L-NG-Nitroarginine
- 7) BW-70C: N-[3-[3-(-Fluorophenoxylphenyl]-1-methyl-2-propenyl]-N-hydroxyurea
- 8) PD 146176: 6,11-Dihydrobenzothiopyrano[4,3-b]indole
- 9) 2-TEDC: 2-(1-Thienyl)ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzylidenecyanoacetate
- 10) TROLOX: 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid
- 11) NAC: N-Acetyl-L-cysteine
- 12) TEMPOL: 1-Oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxypiperidine
The results indicate that the P450 inhibitors, including ketoconozole, and certain antioxidants, completely blocked the ability of linoleic acid to activate pain neurons. Although DPI and CO block all cytochrome P450s, the linoleic acid metabolism is a specific effect since more selective P450 inhibitors (eg., ketoconazole vs ODYA) do not universally inhibit the formation of these neuron-activating compounds. Thus, ketoconazole inhibits the formation of linoleic acid metabolites and is analgesic, yet ODYA does not.
In this patent, certain U.S. patents, U.S. patent applications, and other materials (e.g., articles) may have been incorporated by reference. The text of such U.S. patents, U.S. patent applications, and other materials is, however, only incorporated by reference to the extent that no conflict exists between such text and the other statements and drawings set forth herein. In the event of such conflict, then any such conflicting text in such incorporated by reference U.S. patents, U.S. patent applications, and other materials is specifically not incorporated by reference in this patent.
Further modifications and alternative embodiments of various aspects of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art in view of this description. Accordingly, this description is to be construed as illustrative only and is for the purpose of teaching those skilled in the art the general manner of carrying out the invention. It is to be understood that the forms of the invention shown and described herein are to be taken as examples of embodiments. Elements and materials may be substituted for those illustrated and described herein, parts and processes may be reversed, and certain features of the invention may be utilized independently, all as would be apparent to one skilled in the art after having the benefit of this description of the invention. Changes may be made in the elements described herein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as described in the following claims.
2. A pharmaceutical composition for treating pain, shock, inflammatory conditions, or combinations thereof in a subject comprising one or more compounds that inhibit and/or minimize the production of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites and/or block the activity of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers.
3. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 2, wherein the pharmaceutical composition comprises one or more compounds that block the activity of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites, wherein at least one of the compounds is an antibody that binds to at least one oxidized linoleic acid metabolite.
4. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 3, wherein the antibody binds to a hydroxy linoleic acid metabolite.
5. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 3, wherein the antibody binds to an epoxy linoleic acid metabolite.
6. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 3, wherein the antibody binds to an oxo linoleic acid metabolite.
7. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 3, wherein the antibody binds to one or more of: (10E,12Z)-9-oxooctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid; (9Z,11E)-13-oxooctadeca-9,11-dienoic acid; 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid; 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid; 9(10)-dihydroxy-octadec-12-enoic acid; 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid; (12Z)-9,10-epoxyoctadecenoic acid; 12,13-epoxyoctadec-9Z-enoic acid.
8. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 3, wherein the antibody is a monoclonal antibody.
9. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 3, wherein the antibody is a polyclonal antibody.
10. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 1, wherein the pharmaceutical composition comprises one or more compounds that inhibit and/or minimize the production of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites.
11. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 1, wherein the pharmaceutical composition comprises one or more compounds that inhibit and/or minimize the production of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites, wherein at least one of the compounds is a cytochrome P-450 enzyme inhibitor.
12. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 9, wherein the cytochrome P-450 enzyme inhibitor is ketoconazole.
13. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 1, wherein the pharmaceutical composition comprises one or more compounds that inhibit and/or minimize the production of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites, wherein at least one of the compounds is an antioxidant sufficient to substantially inhibit and/or reduce the catalytic effect of relevant metabolic enzymes in the Linoleate pathway.
25. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 1, wherein the composition comprises ketoconazole and nordihydroguaiaretic acid.
26. pharmaceutical composition of claim 1, wherein the pharmaceutical composition comprises up to about 10% by weight of ketoconazole.
Filed: Apr 11, 2014
Publication Date: Oct 16, 2014
Applicant: Board of Regents of the University of Texas System (Austin, TX)
Inventors: Amol Madhusudan Patwardhan (Tucson, AZ), Kenneth Michael Hargreaves (San Antonio, TX), Armen Narakovich Akopian (San Antonio, TX)
Application Number: 14/250,860
International Classification: A61K 39/395 (20060101); A61K 31/496 (20060101); A61K 31/05 (20060101); C07K 16/44 (20060101);