SirT INHIBITORS THAT BIND TO NAD
Compound of formula (I) and methods of treating disorders by administering a compound of formula (I) are described herein. Examples of disorders include neoplastic disorders, fat-cell related disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic disorders.
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This application is a continuation of U.S. Ser. No. 13/902,062, filed May 24, 2013, which is a continuation of U.S. Ser. No. 12/423,751, filed on Apr. 14, 2009, which is a divisional of U.S. Ser. No. 11/077,664 filed on Mar. 11, 2005, which claims priority under 35 USC §119(e) to U.S. Patent Application Ser. No. 60/502,811, filed on Sep. 12, 2003, U.S. Patent Application Ser. No. 60/531,443, filed on Dec. 19, 2003, and U.S. Patent Application Ser. No. 60/560,509, filed on Apr. 7, 2004, and is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/940,269, filed Sep. 13, 2004, the entire contents of each of which are hereby incorporated by reference.BACKGROUND
The Sir2 protein is a deacetylase which uses NAD as a cofactor (Imai et al., 2000; Moazed, 2001; Smith et al., 2000; Tanner et al., 2000; Tanny and Moazed, 2001). Unlike other deacetylases, many of which are involved in gene silencing, Sir2 is insensitive to histone deacetylase inhibitors like trichostatin A (TSA) (Imai et al., 2000; Landry et al., 2000a; Smith et al., 2000).SUMMARY
The invention relates to substituted heterocyclic compounds, compositions comprising the compounds, and methods of using the compounds and compound compositions. The compounds and compositions comprising them are useful for treating disease or disease symptoms, including those mediated by sirtuin, e.g., SIRT1, mediated deacetylation.
In one aspect, this invention relates to a method for treating or preventing a disorder in a subject, e.g., a disorder described herein. The method includes administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound having a formula (I):
R1 and R2, together with the carbons to which they are attached, form C5-C10 cycloalkyl, C5-C10 heterocyclyl, C5-C10 cycloalkenyl, C5-C10 heterocycloalkenyl, C6-C10 aryl, or C5-C10 heteroaryl, each of which may be optionally substituted with 1-5 R5; or R1 is H, S-alkyl, or S-aryl, and R2 is amidoalkyl wherein the nitrogen is substituted with alkyl, aryl, or arylalkyl, each of which is optionally further substituted with alkyl, halo, hydroxy, or alkoxy;
R3 and R4, together with the carbons to which they are attached, form C5-C10 cycloalkyl, C5-C10 heterocyclyl, C5-C10 cycloalkenyl, C5-C10 heterocycloalkenyl, C6-C10 aryl, or C5-C10 heteroaryl, each of which may be optionally substituted with 1-5 R6;
each of R5 and R6 is, independently, halo, hydroxy, C1-C10 alkyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, C1-C10 alkoxy, C1-C6 haloalkoxy, C6-C10 aryl, C5-C10 heteroaryl, C7-C12 aralkyl, C7-C12 heteroaralkyl, C3-C8 heterocyclyl, C2-C12 alkenyl, C2-C12 alkynyl, C5-C10 cycloalkenyl, C5-C10 heterocycloalkenyl, carboxy, carboxylate, cyano, nitro, amino, C1-C6 alkyl amino, C1-C6 dialkyl amino, mercapto, SO3H, sulfate, S(O)NH2, S(O)2NH2, phosphate, C1-C4 alkylenedioxy, oxo, acyl, aminocarbonyl, C1-C6 alkyl aminocarbonyl, C1-C6 dialkyl aminocarbonyl, C1-C10 alkoxycarbonyl, C1-C10 thioalkoxycarbonyl, hydrazinocarbonyl, C1-C6 alkyl hydrazinocarbonyl, C1-C6 dialkyl hydrazinocarbonyl, hydroxyaminocarbonyl; alkoxyaminocarbonyl; or one of R5 or R6 and R7 form a cyclic moiety containing 4-6 carbons, 1-3 nitrogens, 0-2 oxygens and 0-2 sulfurs, which may be optionally substituted with oxo or C1-C6 alkyl;
X is NR7, O, or S; Y is NR7′, O or S;
represent optional double bonds;
each of R7 and R7′ is, independently, hydrogen, C1-C6 alkyl, C7-C12 arylalkyl, C7-C12 heteroarylalkyl; or R7 and one of R5 or R6 form a cyclic moiety containing 4-6 carbons, 1-3 nitrogens, 0-2 oxygens and 0-2 sulfurs, which may be optionally substituted with oxo or C1-C6 alkyl; and n is 0 or 1.
Embodiments can include one or more of the following.
In certain embodiments, n can be 1.
X can be NR7 and Y can be NR7′. R7 and R7′ can each be, e.g., hydrogen or CH3. One of R7 and R7′ can be hydrogen and the other can be CH3.
R1 and R2 can form C5-C10 cycloalkenyl.
R1 and R2 can form C6-C10 aryl.
R1 and R2 can form C5-C10 cycloalkenyl, which may be substituted with R5, and R3 and R4 can form C6-C10 aryl, which may be substituted with R6.
In certain embodiments, the cycloalkenyl double bond can be between the carbon attached to R1 and the carbon attached to R2. C5-C10 cycloalkenyl, e.g., C6 or C7 cycloalkenyl, can be substituted with R5 and C6-C10 aryl can be substituted with R6.
R6 can be halo (e.g., chloro or bromo), C1-C6 alkyl (e.g., CH3), C1-C6 haloalkyl (e.g., CF3) or C1-C6 haloalkoxy (e.g., OCF3). R5 can be for example, C1-C6 alkyl substituted with a substituent such as an amino substituent, or aminocarbonyl (for example a substituted aminocarbonyl, substituted with substituents such an aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, heterocylcloalkyl, aminocarbonyl, alkylaminocarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl or other substituents. In each instances, the substituents can be further substituted with other substituents.).
n can be 0.
R1 and R2 can form C5-C10 cycloalkenyl.
R1 and R2 can form C6-C10 aryl.
X can be NR7, and R7 can be, e.g., hydrogen or CH3.
R1 and R2 can form C5-C10 cycloalkenyl, which may be substituted with R5, and R3 and R4 can form C6-C10 aryl, which may be substituted with R6.
In certain embodiments, the cycloalkenyl double bond can be between the carbon attached to R1 and the carbon attached to R2. C5-C10 cycloalkenyl, e.g., C6 or C7 cycloalkenyl, can be substituted with R5 and C6-C10 aryl can be substituted with R6.
R6 can be halo (e.g., chloro), C1-C6 alkyl (e.g., CH3), C1-C6 haloalkyl (e.g., CF3) or C1-C6 haloalkoxy (e.g., OCF3). R5 can be aminocarbonyl.
n can be 0.
R1 and R2 can form C5-C10 cycloalkenyl.
R1 and R2 can form C6-C10 aryl.
X can be NR7, and R7 can be, e.g., hydrogen or CH3.
R1 and R2 can form C5-C10 cycloalkenyl, which may be substituted with R5, and R3 and R4 can form C6-C10 aryl, which may be substituted with R6.
In certain embodiments, the cycloalkenyl double bond can be between the carbon attached to R1 and the carbon attached to R2. C5-C10 cycloalkenyl, e.g., C6 or C7 cycloalkenyl, can be substituted with R5 and C6-C10 aryl can be substituted with R6. These compounds may have formula (II) or formula (III):
R6 can be halo (e.g., chloro or bromo), C1-C6 alkyl (e.g., CH3), C1-C6 haloalkyl (e.g., CF3) or C1-C6 haloalkoxy (e.g., OCF3). R5 can be aminocarbonyl. The compound may be a compound selected from
In one instance, the compound can be a compound of formula (VI) having a high enantiomeric excess of a single isomer, wherein the optical rotation of the predominant isomer is negative, for example, −14.1 (c=0.33, DCM) or, for example, [α]D25 −41.2° (c 0.96, CH3OH). In a second instance, the compound can be a compound of formula (IV) having a high enantiomeric excess of a single isomer, wherein the optical rotation of the predominant isomer is negative. In some instances, a compound of formula (IV), (V), or (VII) is administered having a high enantiomeric excess of a single isomer, where the predominant isomer has the same absolute configuration as the negative isomer of the compound of formula (VI) as corresponds to the asterisk carbon shown above.
The compound can preferentially inhibit SIRT1 relative to a non-SIRT1 sirtuin, e.g., at least a 1.5, 2, 5, or 10 fold preference. The compound can have a Ki for SIRT1 that is less than 500, 100, 50, or 40 nM.
In some instances, the compound reduces the activity of a FOXO transcription factor such as FoxO1 or FoxO3.
The amount can be effective to ameliorate at least one symptom of the disorder. The disease or disorder can be, e.g., an age-associated disorder, a geriatric disorder, a disorder having an age-associated susceptibility factor, a neoplastic disorder, a non-neoplastic disorder, a neurological disorder, a cardiovascular disorder, a metabolic disorder, a dermatological disorder, or a dermatological tissue condition. In one embodiment, the disease or disorder can be a neurodegenerative disease or disorder in which the neurodegenerative disorder can be mediated at least in part by polyglutamine aggregation, e.g., Huntington's disease, Spinalbulbar Muscular Atrophy (SBMA or Kennedy's Disease) Dentatorubropallidoluysian Atrophy (DRPLA), Spinocerebellar Ataxia 1 (SCA1), Spinocerebellar Ataxia 2 (SCA2), Machado-Joseph Disease (MJD; SCA3), Spinocerebellar Ataxia 6 (SCA6), Spinocerebellar Ataxia 7 (SCA7), and Spinocerebellar Ataxia 12 (SCA12). The neurodegenerative disorder can be Parkinson's or Alzheimer's.
The disease or disorder can be associated with or mediated at least in part by a sirtuin, e.g., the disease or disorder can be associated with or mediated at least in part by sirtuin-mediated deacetylation, e.g., excessive sirtuin activity or excessive levels of deacetylated p53, FoxO1, or FoxO3. The sirtuin can be SIRT1, e.g., human SIRT1.
The disease or disorder can be cancer. The amount can be, e.g., effective to reduce cancer or tumor cell mass, risk of metastasis, or rate of tumor cell growth. The amount can be effective to modulate (e.g., increase) apoptosis.
The disease or disorder can be a metabolic disease, such as metabolic syndrome or diabetes (e.g., type I diabetes or type II diabetes). The amount can be, for example, effective to increase insulin sensitivity, increase insulin secretion, or otherwise or lower levels of glucose. In some instances, the disease or disorder is related to a metabolic disease, such as cardiac disorder related diabetes.
The disease or disorder can be a fat related disorder such as obesity or dislipidemia or hyperlipidemia. The amount can be, for example, effective to reduce weight in a subject or to prevent weight gain in a subject.
The disease or disorder can be a neurological disorder such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. The amount can be, for example, effective to reduce one or more symptoms of the neurological disorder.
The method can include administering the compound more than once, e.g., repeatedly administering the compound. The compound can be administered in one or more boluses or continuous. The compound can be administered from without (e.g., by injection, ingestion, inhalation, etc), or from within, e.g., by an implanted device.
The method can include administering the compound locally.
The amount can be effective to increase acetylation of a sirtuin substrate (e.g., a nuclear protein, e.g., a histone or a transcription factor, e.g., p53, FoxO1, or FoxO3) in at least some cells of the subject.
The subject can be a mammal, e.g., a human.
The subject can be identified as being in need of such treatment or prevention.
The method further can further include identifying a subject in need of such treatment, e.g., by evaluating sirtuin activity in a cell of the subject, evaluating nucleotide identity in a nucleic acid of the subject that encodes a sirtuin, evaluating the subject for neoplastic cells or a neoplastic growth (e.g., a tumor), evaluating the genetic composition or expression of genes in a cell of the subject, e.g., a tumor biopsy.
The method can further include monitoring the subject, e.g., imaging the subject, evaluating tumor size in the subject, evaluating sirtuin activity in a cell of the subject, evaluating the subject for side effects, e.g., renal function.
In another aspect, this invention relates to a method of inhibiting sirtuin-mediated deacetylation of a substrate, such as a FoxO transcription factor. The method includes contacting a sirtuin with a compound of formula (I). The inhibiting can occur in vitro, in cell-free medium, in cell culture, or in an organism, e.g., a mammal, preferably a human.
In a further aspect, this invention relates to a method for evaluating a plurality of compounds, the method includes: a) providing library of compound that comprises a plurality of compounds, each having a formula (I); and b) for each of a plurality of compounds from the library, i) contacting the compound to a sirtuin test protein that comprises a functional deacetylase domain of a sirtuin; and ii) evaluating interaction between the compound and the sirtuin test protein in the presence of the compound.
Embodiments can include one or more of the following.
In one embodiment, evaluating the interaction between the compound and the sirtuin test protein includes evaluating enzymatic activity of the sirtuin test protein.
In one embodiment, evaluating the interaction between the compound and the sirtuin test protein includes evaluating a binding interaction between the compound and the sirtuin test protein
The method can further include selecting, based on results of the evaluating, a compound that modulates deacetylase activity for a substrate. The substrate can be an acetylated lysine amino acid, an acetylated transcription factor (e.g., p53, FoxO1, or FoxO3) or an acetylated peptide thereof, an acetylated histone or an acetylated peptide thereof.
The method may also further include selecting, based on results of the evaluating, a compound that modulates sirtuin deacetylase activity of a substrate.
The method may also further include selecting, based on results of the evaluating, a compound that modulates the sirtuin.
In one aspect, this invention relates to a conjugate that includes: a targeting agent and a compound, wherein the targeting agent and the compound are covalently linked, and the compound has a formula (I).
Embodiments can include one or more of the following.
The targeting agent can be an antibody, e.g., specific for a cell surface protein, e.g., a cancer-specific antigen.
The targeting agent can be a synthetic peptide.
The targeting agent can be a domain of a naturally occurring protein.
In another aspect, this invention relates to a kit which includes: a compound described herein, and instructions for use for treating a disease described herein. The kit may further include a printed material comprising a rendering of the structure of the name of the compound.
In another aspect, this invention relates to a method of analyzing or designing structures, the method includes: providing a computer-generated image or structure (preferably a three dimensional image or structure) for a compound described herein, e.g., a compound of formula I, providing a computer-generated image or structure (preferably a three dimensional image or structure) for a second compound, e.g., another compound described herein, (e.g., a compound of formula I, NAD) or a target, e.g., e.g., a sirtuin (e.g., a human sirtuin, e.g., SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, SIRT4, SIRT5, SIRT6, or SIRT7), or an off-target molecule, e.g., a sirtuin other than SIRT1, e.g., SIRT2 or SIRT3, or non-sirtuin histone deacetylase; and comparing the structure of the first and second compound, e.g., comparing the structure, e.g., a parameter related to bond angle, inter- or intra-molecular distance, position of an atom or moiety; e.g., a first or second generation compound—the predicted ability of compound to interact or inhibit a target or off-target molecule.
In a preferred embodiment, the structure is further evaluated in vitro, in vivo, or in silico with target or off-target molecule.
In a further aspect, this invention relates to a database, which includes: information about or identifying the structure, information about activity of the structure, e.g., in vitro, in vivo or in silico, e.g., at least 5, 10, 50, or 100 records.
In one aspect, this invention relates to a database, which includes a plurality of records, each record having: a) information about or identifying a compound that has a structure described herein, e.g., a structure of formula I; and b) information about a parameter of a patient, the parameter relating to a neoplastic disorder or a neurodegenerative disorder, e.g. a patient parameter.
In one aspect, this invention relates to a method of evaluating a compound, the method includes: providing a first compound that has a structure of formula I, or a data record having information about the structure; providing a second compound that has a structure of formula I or not having formula I, or a data record having information about the structure; evaluating a first compound and the second compound, e.g., in vivo, in vitro, or in silico; and comparing the ability of a second compound to interact, e.g., inhibit a sirtuin, e.g., SIRT1, with a first compound, thereby evaluating ability of the second compound to interact with SIRT1.
In other aspects, the invention relates to a composition comprising a compound of any of the formulae herein, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The composition may contain an additional therapeutic agent, e.g., an anti-tumor agent or a neurodegenerative disease agent. Also within the scope of this invention is the use of such a composition for the manufacture of a medicament for the just-mentioned use.
In another aspect, the invention is a method for treating or preventing a disease characterized by unwanted cell proliferation, e.g., cancer, e.g., a p53 dependent cancer or a p53 independent cancer, in a subject. The method includes administering a SIRT1 antagonist. For example, the SIRT1 antagonist can be one or more of: antisense of SIRT1, RNAi, an antibody, an intrabody, and other compounds identified by a method described herein, e.g., compounds that induce apoptosis in a SIRT1 expressing cell.
In a preferred embodiment, the method includes administering a SIRT1 antagonist in combination with one or more therapeutic agents, e.g., a therapeutic agent or agent for treating unwanted cell proliferation. The therapeutic agents include, for example, one or more of a chemotherapeutic agent, a radioisotope, and a cytotoxin. Examples of chemotherapeutic agents include taxol, cytochalasin B, gramicidin D, mitomycin, etoposide, tenoposide, vincristine, vinblastine, colchicin, busulfan, cisplatin, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, dihydroxy anthracin dione, mitoxantrone, mithramycin, chlorambucil, gemcitabine, actinomycin, procaine, tetracaine, lidocaine, propranolol, puromycin, maytansinoids and analogs or homologs thereof. Additional therapeutic agents include, but are not limited to, antimetabolites (e.g., methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, cytarabine, 5-fluorouracil decarbazine), alkylating agents (e.g., mechlorethamine, thioepa chlorambucil, CC-1065, melphalan, carmustine (BSNU) and lomustine (CCNU), cyclothosphamide, busulfan, dibromomannitol, streptozotocin, mitomycin C, and cis-dichlorodiamine platinum (II) (DDP) cisplatin), anthracyclines (e.g., daunorubicin (formerly daunomycin) and doxorubicin), antibiotics (e.g., dactinomycin (formerly actinomycin), bleomycin, mithramycin, and anthramycin (AMC)), and anti-mitotic agents (e.g., vincristine, vinblastine, taxol and maytansinoids). Radioisotopes can include alpha, beta and/or gamma emitters. Examples of radioisotopes include 212Bi, 213Bi, 131I, 211At, 186Re, 90Y and 117Lu.
The SIRT1 antagonist and the therapeutic agents can be administered simultaneously or sequentially.
Also within the scope of this invention is a packaged product. The packaged product includes a container, one of the aforementioned compounds in the container, and a legend (e.g., a label or insert) associated with the container and indicating administration of the compound for treating a disorder described herein (e.g., cancer or neurodegenerative disorders), diseases, or disease symptoms, including any of those delineated herein.
The subject can be a mammal, preferably a human. The subject can also be a non-human subject, e.g., an animal model. In certain embodiments the method can further include identifying a subject. Identifying a subject in need of such treatment can be in the judgment of a subject or a health care professional and can be subjective (e.g., opinion) or objective (e.g., measurable by a test or diagnostic method).
The term “mammal” includes organisms, which include mice, rats, cows, sheep, pigs, rabbits, goats, and horses, monkeys, dogs, cats, and preferably humans.
The term “treating” or “treated” refers to administering a compound described herein to a subject with the purpose to cure, heal, alleviate, relieve, alter, remedy, ameliorate, improve, or affect a disease, e.g., an infection, the symptoms of the disease or the predisposition toward the disease.
An effective amount of the compound described above may range from about 0.1 mg/Kg to about 500 mg/Kg, alternatively from about 1 to about 50 mg/Kg. Effective doses will also vary depending on route of administration, as well as the possibility of co-usage with other agents.
The term “halo” or “halogen” refers to any radical of fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine.
The term “alkyl” refers to a hydrocarbon chain that may be a straight chain or branched chain, containing the indicated number of carbon atoms. For example, C1-C12 alkyl indicates that the group may have from 1 to 12 (inclusive) carbon atoms in it. The term “haloalkyl” refers to an alkyl in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by halo, and includes alkyl moieties in which all hydrogens have been replaced by halo (e.g., perfluoroalkyl). The terms “arylalkyl” or “aralkyl” refer to an alkyl moiety in which an alkyl hydrogen atom is replaced by an aryl group. Aralkyl includes groups in which more than one hydrogen atom has been replaced by an aryl group. Examples of “arylalkyl” or “aralkyl” include benzyl, 2-phenylethyl, 3-phenylpropyl, 9-fluorenyl, benzhydryl, and trityl groups.
The term “alkylene” refers to a divalent alkyl, e.g., —CH2—, —CH2CH2—, and —CH2CH2CH2—.
The term “alkenyl” refers to a straight or branched hydrocarbon chain containing 2-12 carbon atoms and having one or more double bonds. Examples of alkenyl groups include, but are not limited to, allyl, propenyl, 2-butenyl, 3-hexenyl and 3-octenyl groups. One of the double bond carbons may optionally be the point of attachment of the alkenyl substituent. The term “alkynyl” refers to a straight or branched hydrocarbon chain containing 2-12 carbon atoms and characterized in having one or more triple bonds. Examples of alkynyl groups include, but are not limited to, ethynyl, propargyl, and 3-hexynyl. One of the triple bond carbons may optionally be the point of attachment of the alkynyl substituent.
The terms “alkylamino” and “dialkylamino” refer to —NH(alkyl) and —NH(alkyl)2 radicals respectively. The term “aralkylamino” refers to a —NH(aralkyl) radical. The term alkylaminoalkyl refers to a (alkyl)NH-alkyl- radical; the term dialkylaminoalkyl refers to a (alkyl)2N-alkyl- radical The term “alkoxy” refers to an —O-alkyl radical. The term “mercapto” refers to an SH radical. The term “thioalkoxy” refers to an —S-alkyl radical. The term thioaryloxy refers to an —S-aryl radical.
The term “aryl” refers to an aromatic monocyclic, bicyclic, or tricyclic hydrocarbon ring system, wherein any ring atom capable of substitution can be substituted (e.g., by one or more substituents). Examples of aryl moieties include, but are not limited to, phenyl, naphthyl, and anthracenyl.
The term “cycloalkyl” as employed herein includes saturated cyclic, bicyclic, tricyclic, or polycyclic hydrocarbon groups having 3 to 12 carbons. Any ring atom can be substituted (e.g., by one or more substituents). The cycloalkyl groups can contain fused rings. Fused rings are rings that share a common carbon atom. Examples of cycloalkyl moieties include, but are not limited to, cyclopropyl, cyclohexyl, methylcyclohexyl, adamantyl, and norbornyl.
The term “heterocyclyl” refers to a nonaromatic 3-10 membered monocyclic, 8-12 membered bicyclic, or 11-14 membered tricyclic ring system having 1-3 heteroatoms if monocyclic, 1-6 heteroatoms if bicyclic, or 1-9 heteroatoms if tricyclic, said heteroatoms selected from O, N, or S (e.g., carbon atoms and 1-3, 1-6, or 1-9 heteroatoms of N, O, or S if monocyclic, bicyclic, or tricyclic, respectively). The heteroatom may optionally be the point of attachment of the heterocyclyl substituent. Any ring atom can be substituted (e.g., by one or more substituents). The heterocyclyl groups can contain fused rings. Fused rings are rings that share a common carbon atom. Examples of heterocyclyl include, but are not limited to, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydropyranyl, piperidinyl, morpholino, pyrrolinyl, pyrimidinyl, quinolinyl, and pyrrolidinyl.
The term “cycloalkenyl” refers to partially unsaturated, nonaromatic, cyclic, bicyclic, tricyclic, or polycyclic hydrocarbon groups having 5 to 12 carbons, preferably 5 to 8 carbons. The unsaturated carbon may optionally be the point of attachment of the cycloalkenyl substituent. Any ring atom can be substituted (e.g., by one or more substituents). The cycloalkenyl groups can contain fused rings. Fused rings are rings that share a common carbon atom. Examples of cycloalkenyl moieties include, but are not limited to, cyclohexenyl, cyclohexadienyl, or norbornenyl.
The term “heterocycloalkenyl” refers to a partially saturated, nonaromatic 5-10 membered monocyclic, 8-12 membered bicyclic, or 11-14 membered tricyclic ring system having 1-3 heteroatoms if monocyclic, 1-6 heteroatoms if bicyclic, or 1-9 heteroatoms if tricyclic, said heteroatoms selected from O, N, or S (e.g., carbon atoms and 1-3, 1-6, or 1-9 heteroatoms of N, O, or S if monocyclic, bicyclic, or tricyclic, respectively). The unsaturated carbon or the heteroatom may optionally be the point of attachment of the heterocycloalkenyl substituent. Any ring atom can be substituted (e.g., by one or more substituents). The heterocycloalkenyl groups can contain fused rings. Fused rings are rings that share a common carbon atom. Examples of heterocycloalkenyl include but are not limited to tetrahydropyridyl and dihydropyranyl.
The term “heteroaryl” refers to an aromatic 5-8 membered monocyclic, 8-12 membered bicyclic, or 11-14 membered tricyclic ring system having 1-3 heteroatoms if monocyclic, 1-6 heteroatoms if bicyclic, or 1-9 heteroatoms if tricyclic, said heteroatoms selected from O, N, or S (e.g., carbon atoms and 1-3, 1-6, or 1-9 heteroatoms of N, O, or S if monocyclic, bicyclic, or tricyclic, respectively). Any ring atom can be substituted (e.g., by one or more substituents).
The term “oxo” refers to an oxygen atom, which forms a carbonyl when attached to carbon, an N-oxide when attached to nitrogen, and a sulfoxide or sulfone when attached to sulfur.
The term “acyl” refers to an alkylcarbonyl, cycloalkylcarbonyl, arylcarbonyl, heterocyclylcarbonyl, or heteroarylcarbonyl substituent, any of which may be further substituted (e.g., by one or more substituents).
The terms “aminocarbonyl,” alkoxycarbonyl,” hydrazinocarbonyl, and hydroxyaminocarbonyl refer to the radicals —C(O)NH2, —C(O)O(alkyl), —C(O)NH2NH2, and —C(O)NH2NH2, respectively.
The term “amindo” refers to a —NHC(O)— radical, wherein N is the point of attachment.
The term “substituents” refers to a group “substituted” on an alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heterocyclyl, heterocycloalkenyl, cycloalkenyl, aryl, or heteroaryl group at any atom of that group. Any atom can be substituted. Suitable substituents include, without limitation, alkyl (e.g., C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, C9, C10, C11, C12 straight or branched chain alkyl), cycloalkyl, haloalkyl (e.g., perfluoroalkyl such as CF3), aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroaralkyl, heterocyclyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, alkoxy, haloalkoxy (e.g., perfluoroalkoxy such as OCF3), halo, hydroxy, carboxy, carboxylate, cyano, nitro, amino, alkyl amino, SO3H, sulfate, phosphate, methylenedioxy (—O—CH2—O— wherein oxygens are attached to vicinal atoms), ethylenedioxy, oxo, thioxo (e.g., C═S), imino (alkyl, aryl, aralkyl), S(O)nalkyl (where n is 0-2), S(O), aryl (where n is 0-2), S(O), heteroaryl (where n is 0-2), S(O), heterocyclyl (where n is 0-2), amine (mono-, di-, alkyl, cycloalkyl, aralkyl, heteroaralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and combinations thereof), ester (alkyl, aralkyl, heteroaralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl), amide (mono-, di-, alkyl, aralkyl, heteroaralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and combinations thereof), sulfonamide (mono-, di-, alkyl, aralkyl, heteroaralkyl, and combinations thereof). In one aspect, the substituents on a group are independently any one single, or any subset of the aforementioned substituents. In another aspect, a substituent may itself be substituted with any one of the above substituents.
The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.
All references cited herein, whether in print, electronic, computer readable storage media or other form, are expressly incorporated by reference in their entirety, including but not limited to, abstracts, articles, journals, publications, texts, treatises, internet web sites, databases, patents, patent applications and patent publications. U.S. Ser. No. 60/502,811, filed Sep. 12, 2003, is also incorporated by reference in its entirety.
Structure of Compounds
Compounds that can be used in practicing the invention have a general formula (I) and contain a substituted five or six membered ring core containing one or two, respectively, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms as a constituent atom of the ring, e.g., X
and Y in formula (I) below.
Any ring carbon atom can be substituted. For example, R1, R2, R3, and R4 may include without limitation substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heterocyclyl, heterocycloalkenyl, cycloalkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, etc. The five or six membered ring core may be saturated, i.e. containing no double bonds, or partially or fully saturated, i.e. one or two double bonds respectively. When n=0, “X” may be oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen, e.g., NR7. The substituent R7 can be without limitation hydrogen, alkyl, e.g., C1, C2, C3, C4 alkyl, SO2(aryl), acyl, or the ring nitrogen may form part of a carbamate, or urea group. When n=1, X can be NR7, O, or S; and Y can be NR7′, O or S. X and Y can be any combination of heteroatoms, e.g., N,N, N,O, N, S, etc.
A preferred subset of compounds of formula (I) includes those having one, or preferably, two rings that are fused to the five or six membered ring core, e.g., R1 and R2, together with the carbons to which they are attached, and/or R3 and R4, together with the carbons to which they are attached, can form, e.g., C5-C10 cycloalkyl (e.g., C5, C6, or C7), C5-C10 heterocyclyl (e.g., C5, C6, or C7), C5-C10 cycloalkenyl (e.g., C5, C6, or C7), C5-C10 heterocycloalkenyl (e.g., C5, C6, or C7), C6-C10 aryl (e.g., C6, C8 or C10), or C6-C10 heteroaryl (e.g., C5 or C6). Fused ring combinations may include without limitation one or more of the following:
Preferred combinations include B, e.g. having C6 aryl and C6 cycloalkenyl (B1), and C, e.g. having C6 aryl and C7 cycloalkenyl (C1):
Each of these fused ring systems may be optionally substituted with substituents, which may include without limitation halo, hydroxy, C1-C10 alkyl (C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,C7,C8,C9,C10), C1-C6 haloalkyl (C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,), C1-C10 alkoxy (C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,C7,C8,C9,C10), C1-C6 haloalkoxy (C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,), C6-C10 aryl (C6,C7,C8,C9,C10), C5-C10 heteroaryl (C5,C6,C7,C8,C9,C10), C7-C12 aralkyl (C7,C8,C9,C10,C11,C12), C7-C12 heteroaralkyl (C7,C8,C9,C10,C11,C12), C3-C8 heterocyclyl (C3,C4,C5,C6,C7,C8), C2-C12 alkenyl (C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,C7,C8,C9,C10,C11,C12), C2-C12 alkynyl (C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,C7,C8,C9,C10,C11,C12), C5-C10 cycloalkenyl (C5,C6,C7,C8,C9,C10), C5-C10 heterocycloalkenyl (C5,C6,C7,C8,C9,C10), carboxy, carboxylate, cyano, nitro, amino, C1-C6 alkyl amino (C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,), C1-C6 dialkyl amino (C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,), mercapto, SO3H, sulfate, S(O)NH2, S(O)2NH2, phosphate, C1-C4 alkylenedioxy (C1,C2,C3,C4), oxo, acyl, aminocarbonyl, C1-C6 alkyl aminocarbonyl (C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,), C1-C6 dialkyl aminocarbonyl (C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,), C1-C10 alkoxycarbonyl (C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,C7,C8,C9,C10), C1-C10 thioalkoxycarbonyl (C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,C7,C8,C9,C10), hydrazinocarbonyl, C1-C6 alkyl hydrazinocarbonyl (C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,), C1-C6 dialkyl hydrazinocarbonyl (C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,), hydroxyaminocarbonyl, etc. Preferred substituents include halo (e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo), C1-C10 alkyl (e.g., C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, C9, C10), C1-C6 haloalkyl (e.g., C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, e.g., CF3), C1-C6 haloalkoxyl (e.g., C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, e.g., OCF3), or aminocarbonyl. The substitution pattern on the two fused rings may be selected as desired, e.g., one ring may be substituted and the other is not, or both rings may be substituted with 1-5 substitutents (1,2,3,4,5 substitutents). The number of substituents on each ring may be the same or different. Preferred substitution patterns are shown below:
In certain embodiments, when n is 0 and X is NR7, the nitrogen substituent R7 can form a cyclic structure with one of the fused rings containing, e.g., 4-6 carbons, 1-3 nitrogens, 0-2 oxygens and 0-2 sulfurs. This cyclic structure may optionally be substituted with oxo or C1-C6 alkyl.
Combinations of substituents and variables envisioned by this invention are only those that result in the formation of stable compounds. The term “stable”, as used herein, refers to compounds which possess stability sufficient to allow manufacture and which maintains the integrity of the compound for a sufficient period of time to be useful for the purposes detailed herein (e.g., therapeutic or prophylactic administration to a subject).
Exemplary compounds include those depicted in Table 1 below*:
* Compounds having activity designated with an A have an IC50 of less than 1.0 μM. Compounds having activity designated with a B have an IC50 between 1.0 μM and 10.0 μM. Compounds having activity designated with a C have an IC50 greater than 10.0 μM. Compounds designated with a D were not tested in this assay.
Compounds that can be useful in practicing this invention can be identified through both in vitro (cell and non-cell based) and in vivo methods. A description of these methods is described in the Examples.
Synthesis of Compounds
The compounds described herein can be obtained from commercial sources (e.g., Asinex, Moscow, Russia; Bionet, Camelford, England; ChemDiv, SanDiego, Calif.; Comgenex, Budapest, Hungary; Enamine, Kiev, Ukraine; IF Lab, Ukraine; Interbioscreen, Moscow, Russia; Maybridge, Tintagel, UK; Specs, The Netherlands; Timtec, Newark, Del.; Vitas-M Lab, Moscow, Russia) or synthesized by conventional methods as shown below using commercially available starting materials and reagents. For example, exemplary compound 4 can be synthesized as shown in Scheme 1 below.
Brominated β-keto ester 1 can be condensed with 4-chloroaniline followed by cyclization can afford indole 2. Ester saponification can afford acid 3. Finally amination with PyAOP can yield the amide 4. Other methods are known in the art, see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 3,859,304, U.S. Pat. No. 3,769,298, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1974, 74, 5495. The synthesis above can be extended to other anilines, e.g., 3,5-dichloroaniline, 3-chloroaniline, and 4-bromoaniline. Regioisomeric products, e.g., 5, may be obtained using N-substituted anilines, e.g., 4-chloro-N-methylaniline.
The compounds described herein can be separated from a reaction mixture and further purified by a method such as column chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography, or recrystallization. As can be appreciated by the skilled artisan, further methods of synthesizing the compounds of the formulae herein will be evident to those of ordinary skill in the art. Additionally, the various synthetic steps may be performed in an alternate sequence or order to give the desired compounds. Synthetic chemistry transformations and protecting group methodologies (protection and deprotection) useful in synthesizing the compounds described herein are known in the art and include, for example, those such as described in R. Larock, Comprehensive Organic Transformations, VCH Publishers (1989); T. W. Greene and P. G. M. Wuts, Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 2d. Ed., John Wiley and Sons (1991); L. Fieser and M. Fieser, Fieser and Fieser's Reagents for Organic Synthesis, John Wiley and Sons (1994); and L. Paquette, ed., Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, John Wiley and Sons (1995), and subsequent editions thereof.
The compounds of this invention may contain one or more asymmetric centers and thus occur as racemates and racemic mixtures, single enantiomers, individual diastereomers and diastereomeric mixtures. All such isomeric forms of these compounds are expressly included in the present invention. The compounds of this invention may also contain linkages (e.g., carbon-carbon bonds) or substituents that can restrict bond rotation, e.g. restriction resulting from the presence of a ring or double bond. Accordingly, all cis/trans and E/Z isomers are expressly included in the present invention. The compounds of this invention may also be represented in multiple tautomeric forms, in such instances, the invention expressly includes all tautomeric forms of the compounds described herein, even though only a single tautomeric form may be represented (e.g., alkylation of a ring system may result in alkylation at multiple sites, the invention expressly includes all such reaction products). All such isomeric forms of such compounds are expressly included in the present invention. All crystal forms of the compounds described herein are expressly included in the present invention.
Techniques useful for the separation of isomers, e.g., stereoisomers are within skill of the art and are described in Eliel, E. L.; Wilen, S. H.; Mander, L. N. Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds, Wiley Interscience, N Y, 1994. For example compound 3 or 4 can be resolved to a high enantiomeric excess (e.g., 60%, 70%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 99% or greater) via formation of diasteromeric salts, e.g. with a chiral base, e.g., (+) or (−) α-methylbenzylamine, or via high performance liquid chromatography using a chiral column. In some embodiments, the crude product 4, is purified directly on a chiral column to provide enantiomerically enriched compound.
For purposes of illustration, enantiomers of compound 4 are shown below.
In some instances, the compounds disclosed herein are administered where one isomer (e.g., the R isomer or S isomer) is present in high enantiomeric excess. In general, the isomer of compound 4 having a negative optical rotation, e.g., −14.1 (c=0.33, DCM) or [α]D25 −41.18° (c 0.960, CH3OH) has greater activity against the SirT1 enzyme than the enantiomer that has a positive optical rotation of +32.8 (c=0.38, DCM) or [α]D25 +22.72° (c 0.910, CH3OH). Accordingly, in some instances, it is beneficial to administer to a subject a compound 4 having a high enantiomeric excess of the isomer having a negative optical rotation to treat a disease.
While the enantiomers of compound 4 provide one example of a stereoisomer, other stereoisomers are also envisioned, for example as depicted in compounds 6 and 7 below.
As with the compound of formula 4, in some instances it is beneficial to administer to a subject an isomer of compounds 6 or 7 that has a greater affinity for SirT1 than its enantiomer. For example, in some instances, it is beneficial to administer a compound 7, enriched with the (−) optical rotamer, wherein the amide (or other substituent) has the same configuration as the negative isomer of compound 4.
In some instances, it is beneficial to administer a compound having the one of the following structures where the stereochemical structure of the amide (or other substituent) corresponds to the amide in compound 4 having a negative optical rotation.
(n is an integer from 0 to 4.)
The compounds of this invention include the compounds themselves, as well as their salts and their prodrugs, if applicable. A salt, for example, can be formed between an anion and a positively charged substituent (e.g., amino) on a compound described herein. Suitable anions include chloride, bromide, iodide, sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, citrate, methanesulfonate, trifluoroacetate, and acetate. Likewise, a salt can also be formed between a cation and a negatively charged substituent (e.g., carboxylate) on a compound described herein. Suitable cations include sodium ion, potassium ion, magnesium ion, calcium ion, and an ammonium cation such as tetramethylammonium ion. Examples of prodrugs include esters and other pharmaceutically acceptable derivatives, which, upon administration to a subject, are capable of providing active compounds.
The compounds of this invention may be modified by appending appropriate functionalities to enhance selected biological properties, e.g., targeting to a particular tissue. Such modifications are known in the art and include those which increase biological penetration into a given biological compartment (e.g., blood, lymphatic system, central nervous system), increase oral availability, increase solubility to allow administration by injection, alter metabolism and alter rate of excretion.
In an alternate embodiment, the compounds described herein may be used as platforms or scaffolds that may be utilized in combinatorial chemistry techniques for preparation of derivatives and/or chemical libraries of compounds. Such derivatives and libraries of compounds have biological activity and are useful for identifying and designing compounds possessing a particular activity. Combinatorial techniques suitable for utilizing the compounds described herein are known in the art as exemplified by Obrecht, D. and Villalgrodo, J. M., Solid-Supported Combinatorial and Parallel Synthesis of Small-Molecular-Weight Compound Libraries, Pergamon-Elsevier Science Limited (1998), and include those such as the “split and pool” or “parallel” synthesis techniques, solid-phase and solution-phase techniques, and encoding techniques (see, for example, Czarnik, A. W., Curr. Opin. Chem. Bio., (1997) 1, 60. Thus, one embodiment relates to a method of using the compounds described herein for generating derivatives or chemical libraries comprising: 1) providing a body comprising a plurality of wells; 2) providing one or more compounds identified by methods described herein in each well; 3) providing an additional one or more chemicals in each well; 4) isolating the resulting one or more products from each well. An alternate embodiment relates to a method of using the compounds described herein for generating derivatives or chemical libraries comprising: 1) providing one or more compounds described herein attached to a solid support; 2) treating the one or more compounds identified by methods described herein attached to a solid support with one or more additional chemicals; 3) isolating the resulting one or more products from the solid support. In the methods described above, “tags” or identifier or labeling moieties may be attached to and/or detached from the compounds described herein or their derivatives, to facilitate tracking, identification or isolation of the desired products or their intermediates. Such moieties are known in the art. The chemicals used in the aforementioned methods may include, for example, solvents, reagents, catalysts, protecting group and deprotecting group reagents and the like. Examples of such chemicals are those that appear in the various synthetic and protecting group chemistry texts and treatises referenced herein.Sirtuins
Sirtuins are members of the Silent Information Regulator (SIR) family of genes. Sirtuins are proteins that include a SIR2 domain as defined as amino acids sequences that are scored as hits in the Pfam family “SIR2”-PF02146. This family is referenced in the INTERPRO database as INTERPRO description (entry IPR003000). To identify the presence of a “SIR2” domain in a protein sequence, and make the determination that a polypeptide or protein of interest has a particular profile, the amino acid sequence of the protein can be searched against the Pfam database of HMMs (e.g., the Pfam database, release 9) using the default parameters (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Software/Pfam/HMM_search). The SIR2 domain is indexed in Pfam as PF02146 and in INTERPRO as INTERPRO description (entry IPR003000). For example, the hmmsf program, which is available as part of the HMMER package of search programs, is a family specific default program for MILPAT0063 and a score of 15 is the default threshold score for determining a hit. Alternatively, the threshold score for determining a hit can be lowered (e.g., to 8 bits). A description of the Pfam database can be found in “The Pfam Protein Families Database” Bateman A, Birney E, Cerruti L, Durbin R, Etwiller L, Eddy S R, Griffiths-Jones S, Howe K L, Marshall M, Sonnhammer E L (2002) Nucleic Acids Research 30(1):276-280 and Sonhammer et al. (1997) Proteins 28(3):405-420 and a detailed description of HMMs can be found, for example, in Gribskov et al. (1990) Meth. Enzymol. 183:146-159; Gribskov et al. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:4355-4358; Krogh et al. (1994) J. Mol. Biol. 235:1501-1531; and Stultz et al. (1993) Protein Sci. 2:305-314.
The proteins encoded by members of the SIR2 gene family may show high sequence conservation in a 250 amino acid core domain. A well-characterized gene in this family is S. cerevisiae SIR2, which is involved in silencing HM loci that contain information specifying yeast mating type, telomere position effects and cell aging (Guarente, 1999; Kaeberlein et al., 1999; Shore, 2000). The yeast Sir2 protein belongs to a family of histone deacetylases (reviewed in Guarente, 2000; Shore, 2000). The Sir2 protein is a deacetylase which can use NAD as a cofactor (Imai et al., 2000; Moazed, 2001; Smith et al., 2000; Tanner et al., 2000; Tanny and Moazed, 2001). Unlike other deacetylases, many of which are involved in gene silencing, Sir2 is relatively insensitive to histone deacetylase inhibitors like trichostatin A (TSA) (Imai et al., 2000; Landry et al., 2000a; Smith et al., 2000). Mammalian Sir2 homologs, such as SIRT1, have NAD-dependent deacetylase activity (Imai et al., 2000; Smith et al., 2000).
Exemplary mammalian sirtuins include SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT3, e.g., human SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT3. A compound described herein may inhibit one or more activities of a mammalian sirtuin, e.g., SIRT1, SIRT2, or SIRT3, e.g., with a Ki of less than 500, 200, 100, 50, or 40 nM. For example, the compound may inhibit deacetylase activity, e.g., with respect to a natural or artificial substrate, e.g., a substrate described herein, e.g., as follows.
Natural substrates for SIRT1 include histones, p53, and FoxO transcription factors such as FoxO1 and FoxO3. SIRT1 proteins bind to a number of other proteins, referred to as “SIRT1 binding partners.” For example, SIRT1 binds to p53 and plays a role in the p53 pathway, e.g., K370, K371, K372, K381, and/or K382 of p53 or a peptide that include one or more of these lysines. For example, the peptide can be between 5 and 15 amino acids in length. SIRT1 proteins can also deacetylate histones. For example, SIRT1 can deacetylate lysines 9 or 14 of histone H3 or small peptides that include one or more of these lysines. Histone deacetylation alters local chromatin structure and consequently can regulate the transcription of a gene in that vicinity. Many of the SIRT1 binding partners are transcription factors, e.g., proteins that recognize specific DNA sites. For example, SirT1 deacetylates and downregulates forkhead proteins (i.e., FoxO proteins). Interaction between SIRT1 and SIRT1 binding partners can deliver SIRT1 to specific regions of a genome and can result in a local manifestation of substrates, e.g., histones and transcription factors localized to the specific region.
Natural substrates for SIRT2 include tubulin, e.g., alpha-tubulin. See, e.g., North et al. Mol Cell. 2003 February; 11(2):437-44. Exemplary substrates include a peptide that includes lysine 40 of alpha-tubulin.
Still other exemplary sirtuin substrates include cytochrome c and acetylated peptides thereof.
The terms “SIRT1 protein” and “SIRT1 polypeptide” are used interchangeably herein and refer a polypeptide that is at least 25% identical to the 250 amino acid conserved SIRT1 catalytic domain, amino acid residues 258 to 451 of SEQ ID NO:1. SEQ ID NO: 1 depicts the amino acid sequence of human SIRT1. In preferred embodiments, a SIRT1 polypeptide can be at least 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 85, 90, 95, 99% homologous to SEQ ID NO: 1 or to the amino acid sequence between amino acid residues 258 and 451 of SEQ ID NO:1. In other embodiments, the SIRT1 polypeptide can be a fragment, e.g., a fragment of SIRT1 capable of one or more of: deacetylating a substrate in the presence of NAD and/or a NAD analog and capable of binding a target protein, e.g., a transcription factor. Such functions can be evaluated, e.g., by the methods described herein. In other embodiments, the SIRT1 polypeptide can be a “full length” SIRT1 polypeptide. The term “full length” as used herein refers to a polypeptide that has at least the length of a naturally-occurring SIRT1 polypeptide (or other protein described herein). A “full length” SIRT1 polypeptide or a fragment thereof can also include other sequences, e.g., a purification tag, or other attached compounds, e.g., an attached fluorophore, or cofactor. The term “SIRT1 polypeptides” can also include sequences or variants that include one or more substitutions, e.g., between one and ten substitutions, with respect to a naturally occurring Sir2 family member. A “SIRT1 activity” refers to one or more activity of SIRT1, e.g., deacetylation of a substrate (e.g., an amino acid, a peptide, or a protein), e.g., transcription factors (e.g., p53) or histone proteins, (e.g., in the presence of a cofactor such as NAD and/or an NAD analog) and binding to a target, e.g., a target protein, e.g., a transcription factor.
As used herein, a “biologically active portion” or a “functional domain” of a protein includes a fragment of a protein of interest which participates in an interaction, e.g., an intramolecular or an inter-molecular interaction, e.g., a binding or catalytic interaction. An inter-molecular interaction can be a specific binding interaction or an enzymatic interaction (e.g., the interaction can be transient and a covalent bond is formed or broken). An inter-molecular interaction can be between the protein and another protein, between the protein and another compound, or between a first molecule and a second molecule of the protein (e.g., a dimerization interaction). Biologically active portions/functional domains of a protein include peptides comprising amino acid sequences sufficiently homologous to or derived from the amino acid sequence of the protein which include fewer amino acids than the full length, natural protein, and exhibit at least one activity of the natural protein. Biological active portions/functional domains can be identified by a variety of techniques including truncation analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, and proteolysis. Mutants or proteolytic fragments can be assayed for activity by an appropriate biochemical or biological (e.g., genetic) assay. In some embodiments, a functional domain is independently folded. Typically, biologically active portions comprise a domain or motif with at least one activity of a protein, e.g., SIRT1. An exemplary domain is the SIRT1 core catalytic domain. A biologically active portion/functional domain of a protein can be a polypeptide which is, for example, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 or more amino acids in length. Biologically active portions/functional domain of a protein can be used as targets for developing agents which modulate SIRT1.
The following are exemplary SIR sequences:
>sp|Q96EB6|SIR1_HUMAN NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (EC 3.5.1.-) (hSIRT1) (hSIR2) (SIR2-like protein 1)—Homo sapiens (Human).
>sp|Q8IXJ6|SIR2_HUMAN NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 2 (EC 3.5.1.-) (SIR2-like) (SIR2-like protein 2)—Homo sapiens (Human).
>sp|Q9NTG7|SIR3_HUMAN NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 3, mitochondrial precursor (EC 3.5.1.-) (SIR2-like protein 3) (hSIRT3)—Homo sapiens (Human).
>sp|Q9Y6E7|SIR4_HUMAN NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 4 (EC 3.5.1.-) (SIR2-like protein 4)—Homo sapiens (Human).
>sp|Q9NXA8|SIR5_HUMAN NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 5 (EC 3.5.1.-) (SIR2-like protein 5)—Homo sapiens (Human).
>sp|Q8N6T7|SIR6_HUMAN NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 6 (EC 3.5.1.-) (SIR2-like protein 6)—Homo sapiens (Human).
>sp|Q9NRC8|SIR7_HUMAN NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 7 (EC 3.5.1.-) (SIR2-like protein 7)—Homo sapiens (Human).
Exemplary compounds described herein may inhibit activity of SIRT1 or a functional domain thereof by at least 10, 20, 25, 30, 50, 80, or 90%, with respect to a natural or artificial substrate described herein. For example, the compounds may have a Ki of less than 500, 200, 100, or 50 nM.
A compound described herein may also modulate a complex between a sirtuin and a transcription factor, e.g., increase or decrease complex formation, deformation, and/or stability. Exemplary sirtuin-TF complexes include Sir2-PCAF, SIR2-MyoD, Sir2-PCAF-MyoD, Sir2-p53, Sir2-FoxO1, and Sir2-FoxO3. A compound described herein may also modulate expression of a Sir2 regulated gene, e.g., a gene described in Table 1 of Fulco et al. (2003) Mol. Cell 12:51-62.In Vitro Assays
In some embodiments, interaction with, e.g., binding of, SIRT1 can be assayed in vitro. The reaction mixture can include a SIRT1 co-factor such as NAD and/or a NAD analog.
In other embodiments, the reaction mixture can include a SIRT1 binding partner, e.g., a transcription factor, e.g., p53 or a transcription factor other than p53 such as FoxO1 or FoxO3, and compounds can be screened, e.g., in an in vitro assay, to evaluate the ability of a test compound to modulate interaction between SIRT1 and a SIRT1 binding partner, e.g., a transcription factor. This type of assay can be accomplished, for example, by coupling one of the components, with a radioisotope or enzymatic label such that binding of the labeled component to the other can be determined by detecting the labeled compound in a complex. A component can be labeled with 125I, 35S, 14C, or 3H, either directly or indirectly, and the radioisotope detected by direct counting of radioemmission or by scintillation counting. Alternatively, a component can be enzymatically labeled with, for example, horseradish peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, or luciferase, and the enzymatic label detected by determination of conversion of an appropriate substrate to product. Competition assays can also be used to evaluate a physical interaction between a test compound and a target.
Cell-free assays involve preparing a reaction mixture of the target protein (e.g., SIRT1) and the test compound under conditions and for a time sufficient to allow the two components to interact and bind, thus forming a complex that can be removed and/or detected.
The interaction between two molecules can also be detected, e.g., using a fluorescence assay in which at least one molecule is fluorescently labeled. One example of such an assay includes fluorescence energy transfer (FET or FRET for fluorescence resonance energy transfer) (see, for example, Lakowicz et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,631,169; Stavrianopoulos, et al., U.S. Pat. No. 4,868,103). A fluorophore label on the first, ‘donor’ molecule is selected such that its emitted fluorescent energy will be absorbed by a fluorescent label on a second, ‘acceptor’ molecule, which in turn is able to fluoresce due to the absorbed energy. Alternately, the ‘donor’ protein molecule may simply utilize the natural fluorescent energy of tryptophan residues. Labels are chosen that emit different wavelengths of light, such that the ‘acceptor’ molecule label may be differentiated from that of the ‘donor’. Since the efficiency of energy transfer between the labels is related to the distance separating the molecules, the spatial relationship between the molecules can be assessed. In a situation in which binding occurs between the molecules, the fluorescent emission of the ‘acceptor’ molecule label in the assay should be maximal. A FET binding event can be conveniently measured through standard fluorometric detection means well known in the art (e.g., using a fluorimeter).
Another example of a fluorescence assay is fluorescence polarization (FP). For FP, only one component needs to be labeled. A binding interaction is detected by a change in molecular size of the labeled component. The size change alters the tumbling rate of the component in solution and is detected as a change in FP. See, e.g., Nasir et al. (1999) Comb Chem HTS 2:177-190; Jameson et al. (1995) Methods Enzymol 246:283; Seethala et al. (1998) Anal Biochem. 255:257. Fluorescence polarization can be monitored in multiwell plates, e.g., using the Tecan Polarion™ reader. See, e.g., Parker et al. (2000) Journal of Biomolecular Screening 5:77-88; and Shoeman, et al. (1999) 38, 16802-16809.
In another embodiment, determining the ability of the SIRT1 protein to bind to a target molecule can be accomplished using real-time Biomolecular Interaction Analysis (BIA) (see, e.g., Sjolander, S. and Urbaniczky, C. (1991) Anal. Chem. 63:2338-2345 and Szabo et al. (1995) Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 5:699-705). “Surface plasmon resonance” or “BIA” detects biospecific interactions in real time, without labeling any of the interactants (e.g., BIAcore). Changes in the mass at the binding surface (indicative of a binding event) result in alterations of the refractive index of light near the surface (the optical phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance (SPR)), resulting in a detectable signal which can be used as an indication of real-time reactions between biological molecules.
In one embodiment, SIRT1 is anchored onto a solid phase. The SIRT1/test compound complexes anchored on the solid phase can be detected at the end of the reaction, e.g., the binding reaction. For example, SIRT1 can be anchored onto a solid surface, and the test compound, (which is not anchored), can be labeled, either directly or indirectly, with detectable labels discussed herein.
It may be desirable to immobilize either the SIRT1 or an anti-SIRT1 antibody to facilitate separation of complexed from uncomplexed forms of one or both of the proteins, as well as to accommodate automation of the assay. Binding of a test compound to a SIRT1 protein, or interaction of a SIRT1 protein with a second component in the presence and absence of a candidate compound, can be accomplished in any vessel suitable for containing the reactants. Examples of such vessels include microtiter plates, test tubes, and micro-centrifuge tubes. In one embodiment, a fusion protein can be provided which adds a domain that allows one or both of the proteins to be bound to a matrix. For example, glutathione-S-transferase/SIRT1 fusion proteins or glutathione-S-transferase/target fusion proteins can be adsorbed onto glutathione sepharose beads (Sigma Chemical, St. Louis, Mo.) or glutathione derivatized microtiter plates, which are then combined with the test compound or the test compound and either the non-adsorbed target protein or SIRT1 protein, and the mixture incubated under conditions conducive to complex formation (e.g., at physiological conditions for salt and pH). Following incubation, the beads or microtiter plate wells are washed to remove any unbound components, the matrix immobilized in the case of beads, complex determined either directly or indirectly, for example, as described above. Alternatively, the complexes can be dissociated from the matrix, and the level of SIRT1 binding or activity determined using standard techniques.
Other techniques for immobilizing either a SIRT1 protein or a target molecule on matrices include using conjugation of biotin and streptavidin. Biotinylated SIRT1 protein or target molecules can be prepared from biotin-NHS (N-hydroxy-succinimide) using techniques known in the art (e.g., biotinylation kit, Pierce Chemicals, Rockford, Ill.), and immobilized in the wells of streptavidin-coated 96 well plates (Pierce Chemical).
In order to conduct the assay, the non-immobilized component is added to the coated surface containing the anchored component. After the reaction is complete, unreacted components are removed (e.g., by washing) under conditions such that any complexes formed will remain immobilized on the solid surface. The detection of complexes anchored on the solid surface can be accomplished in a number of ways. Where the previously non-immobilized component is pre-labeled, the detection of label immobilized on the surface indicates that complexes were formed. Where the previously non-immobilized component is not pre-labeled, an indirect label can be used to detect complexes anchored on the surface, e.g., using a labeled antibody specific for the immobilized component (the antibody, in turn, can be directly labeled or indirectly labeled with, e.g., a labeled anti-Ig antibody).
In one embodiment, this assay is performed utilizing antibodies reactive with a SIRT1 protein or target molecules but which do not interfere with binding of the SIRT1 protein to its target molecule. Such antibodies can be derivatized to the wells of the plate, and unbound target or the SIRT1 protein trapped in the wells by antibody conjugation. Methods for detecting such complexes, in addition to those described above for the GST-immobilized complexes, include immunodetection of complexes using antibodies reactive with the SIRT1 protein or target molecule, as well as enzyme-linked assays which rely on detecting an enzymatic activity associated with the SIRT1 protein or target molecule.
Alternatively, cell free assays can be conducted in a liquid phase. In such an assay, the reaction products are separated from unreacted components, by any of a number of standard techniques, including but not limited to: differential centrifugation (see, for example, Rivas, G., and Minton, A. P., (1993) Trends Biochem Sci 18:284-7); chromatography (gel filtration chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography); electrophoresis (see, e.g., Ausubel, F. et al., eds. Current Protocols in Molecular Biology 1999, J. Wiley: New York.); and immunoprecipitation (see, for example, Ausubel, F. et al., eds. (1999) Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, J. Wiley: New York). Such resins and chromatographic techniques are known to one skilled in the art (see, e.g., Heegaard, N. H., (1998) J Mol Recognit 11:141-8; Hage, D. S., and Tweed, S. A. (1997) J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 699:499-525). Further, fluorescence energy transfer may also be conveniently utilized, as described herein, to detect binding without further purification of the complex from solution.
In a preferred embodiment, the assay includes contacting the SIRT1 protein or biologically active portion thereof with a known compound which binds a SIRT1 to form an assay mixture, contacting the assay mixture with a test compound, and determining the ability of the test compound to interact with a SIRT1 protein, wherein determining the ability of the test compound to interact with the SIRT1 protein includes determining the ability of the test compound to preferentially bind to the SIRT1 or biologically active portion thereof, or to modulate the activity of a target molecule, as compared to the known compound.
An exemplary assay method includes a 1536 well format of the SirT1 enzymatic assay that is based on the commercial “Fluor-de-Lys” assay principle by Biomol, which is fluorogenic (www.biomol.com/store/Product_Data_PDFs/ak500.pdf). In this assay, deacetylation of the e-amino function of a lysyl residue is coupled to a fluorogenic “development step that is dependent on the unblocked e-amino functionality and generates fluorescent aminomethylcoumarin. Fluorescence can be read on a commercial macroscopic reader.Additional Assays
A compound or library of compounds described herein can also be evaluated using one of the following model systems for a disease or disorder, or other known models of a disease or disorder described herein.
Models for evaluating the effect of a test compound on muscle atrophy include, e.g., 1) rat medial gastrocnemius muscle mass loss resulting from denervation, e.g., by severing the right sciatic nerve at mid-thigh; 2) rat medial gastrocnemius muscle mass loss resulting from immobilization, e.g., by fixed the right ankle joint at 90 degrees of flexion; 3) rat medial gastrocnemius muscle mass loss resulting from hindlimb suspension; (see, e.g., U.S. 2003-0129686); 4) skeletal muscle atrophy resulting from treatment with the cachectic cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1) (R. N. Cooney, S. R. Kimball, T. C. Vary, Shock 7, 1-16 (1997)); and 5) skeletal muscle atrophy resulting from treatment with the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (A. L. Goldberg, J Biol Chem 244, 3223-9 (1969).). Models 1, 2, and 3 induce muscle atrophy by altering the neural activity and/or external load a muscle experiences to various degrees. Models 4 and 5 induce atrophy without directly affecting those parameters MS (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)), e.g., as described by Goverman et al., Cell. 72:551-60 (1993), and primate models as reviewed by Brok et al., Immunol. Rev., 183:173-85 (2001).
Exemplary animal models for AMD (age-related macular degeneration) include: laser-induced mouse model simulating exudative (wet) macular degeneration Bora et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 100:2679-84 (2003); a transgenic mouse expressing a mutated form of cathepsin D resulting in features associated with the “geographic atrophy” form ofAMD (Rakoczy et al., Am. J. Pathol., 161:1515-24 (2002)); and a transgenic mouse overexpressing VEGF in the retinal pigment epithelium resulting in CNV. Schwesinger et al., Am. J. Pathol. 158:1161-72 (2001).
Exemplary animal models of Parkinson's disease include primates rendered parkinsonian by treatment with the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4 phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (see, e.g., US Appl 20030055231 and Wichmann et al., Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 991:199-213 (2003); 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats (e.g., Lab. Anim. Sci., 49:363-71 (1999)); and transgenic invertebrate models (e.g., Lakso et al., J. Neurochem., 86:165-72 (2003) and Link, Mech. Ageing Dev., 122:1639-49 (2001)).
Exemplary molecular models of Type II diabetes include: a transgenic mouse having defective Nkx-2.2 or Nkx-6.1; (U.S. Pat. No. 6,127,598); Zucker Diabetic Fatty fa/fa (ZDF) rat. (U.S. Pat. No. 6,569,832); and Rhesus monkeys, which spontaneously develop obesity and subsequently frequently progress to overt type 2 diabetes (Hotta et al., Diabetes, 50:1126-33 (2001); and a transgenic mouse with a dominant-negative IGF-I receptor (KR-IGF-IR) having Type 2 diabetes-like insulin resistance.
Exemplary animal and cellular models for neuropathy include: vincristine induced sensory-motor neuropathy in mice (U.S. Pat. No. 5,420,112) or rabbits (Ogawa et al., Neurotoxicology, 21:501-11 (2000)); a streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rat for study of autonomic neuropathy (Schmidt et al., Am. J. Pathol., 163:21-8 (2003)); and a progressive motor neuropathy (pmn) mouse (Martin et al., Genomics, 75:9-16 (2001)).
Structure-Activity Relationships and Structure-Based Design.
It is also possible to use structure-activity relationships (SAR) and structure-based design principles to produce a compound that interact with a sirtuin, e.g., antagonizes or agonizes a sirtuin. SARs provide information about the activity of related compounds in at least one relevant assay. Correlations are made between structural features of a compound of interest and an activity. For example, it may be possible by evaluating SARs for a family of compounds related to a compound described herein to identify one or more structural features required for the agonist's activity. A library of compounds can then be chemically produced that vary these features. In another example, a single compound that is predicted to interact is produced and evaluated in vitro or in vivo.
Structure-based design can include determining a structural model of the physical interaction of a functional domain of a sirtuin and a compound. The structural model can indicate how the compound can be engineered, e.g., to improve interaction or reduce unfavorable interactions. The compound's interaction with the sirtuin can be identified, e.g., by solution of a crystal structure, NMR, or computer-based modeling, e.g., docking methods. See, e.g., Ewing et al. J Comput Aided Mol Des. 2001 May; 15(5):411-28.
Both the SAR and the structure-based design approach, as well as other methods, can be used to identify a pharmacophore. A pharmacophore is defined as a distinct three dimensional (3D) arrangement of chemical groups. The selection of such groups may be favorable for biological activity. Since a pharmaceutically active molecule must interact with one or more molecular structures within the body of the subject in order to be effective, and the desired functional properties of the molecule are derived from these interactions, each active compound must contain a distinct arrangement of chemical groups which enable this interaction to occur. The chemical groups, commonly termed descriptor centers, can be represented by (a) an atom or group of atoms; (b) pseudo-atoms, for example a center of a ring, or the center of mass of a molecule; (c) vectors, for example atomic pairs, electron lone pair directions, or the normal to a plane. Once formulated a pharmacophore can be used to search a database of chemical compound, e.g., for those having a structure compatible with the pharmacophore. See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 6,343,257; Y. C. Martin, 3D Database Searching in Drug Design, J. Med. Chem. 35, 2145(1992); and A. C. Good and J. S. Mason, Three Dimensional Structure Database Searches, Reviews in Comp. Chem. 7, 67(1996). Database search queries are based not only on chemical property information but also on precise geometric information.
Computer-based approaches can use database searching to find matching templates; Y. C. Martin, Database searching in drug design, J. Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 35, pp 2145-54 (1992), which is herein incorporated by reference. Existing methods for searching 2-D and 3-D databases of compounds are applicable. Lederle of American Cyanamid (Pearl River, N.Y.) has pioneered molecular shape-searching, 3D searching and trend-vectors of databases. Commercial vendors and other research groups also provide searching capabilities (MACSS-3D, Molecular Design Ltd. (San Leandro, Calif.); CAVEAT, Lauri, G. et al., University of California (Berkeley, Calif.); CHEM-X, Chemical Design, Inc. (Mahwah, N.J.)). Software for these searches can be used to analyze databases of potential drug compounds indexed by their significant chemical and geometric structure (e.g., the Standard Drugs File (Derwent Publications Ltd., London, England), the Bielstein database (Bielstein Information, Frankfurt, Germany or Chicago), and the Chemical Registry database (CAS, Columbus, Ohio)).
Once a compound is identified that matches the pharmocophore, it can be tested for activity in vitro, in vivo, or in silico, e.g., for binding to a sirtuin or domain thereof.
In one embodiment, a compound that is an agonist or a candidate agonist, e.g., a compound described in Nature. 2003 Sep. 11; 425(6954):191-196 can be modified to identify an antagonist, e.g., using the method described herein. For example, a library of related compounds can be prepared and the library can be screened in an assay described herein.
Pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the compounds of this invention include those derived from pharmaceutically acceptable inorganic and organic acids and bases. Examples of suitable acid salts include acetate, adipate, alginate, aspartate, benzoate, benzenesulfonate, bisulfate, butyrate, citrate, camphorate, camphorsulfonate, digluconate, dodecylsulfate, ethanesulfonate, formate, fumarate, glucoheptanoate, glycolate, hemisulfate, heptanoate, hexanoate, hydrochloride, hydrobromide, hydroiodide, 2-hydroxyethanesulfonate, lactate, maleate, malonate, methanesulfonate, 2-naphthalenesulfonate, nicotinate, nitrate, palmoate, pectinate, persulfate, 3-phenylpropionate, phosphate, picrate, pivalate, propionate, salicylate, succinate, sulfate, tartrate, thiocyanate, tosylate and undecanoate. Other acids, such as oxalic, while not in themselves pharmaceutically acceptable, may be employed in the preparation of salts useful as intermediates in obtaining the compounds of the invention and their pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts. Salts derived from appropriate bases include alkali metal (e.g., sodium), alkaline earth metal (e.g., magnesium), ammonium and N-(alkyl)4+ salts. This invention also envisions the quaternization of any basic nitrogen-containing groups of the compounds disclosed herein. Water or oil-soluble or dispersible products may be obtained by such quaternization. Salt forms of the compounds of any of the formulae herein can be amino acid salts of carboxy groups (e.g. L-arginine, -lysine, -histidine salts).
The compounds of the formulae described herein can, for example, be administered by injection, intravenously, intraarterially, subdermally, intraperitoneally, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously; or orally, buccally, nasally, transmucosally, topically, in an ophthalmic preparation, or by inhalation, with a dosage ranging from about 0.5 to about 100 mg/kg of body weight, alternatively dosages between 1 mg and 1000 mg/dose, every 4 to 120 hours, or according to the requirements of the particular drug. The methods herein contemplate administration of an effective amount of compound or compound composition to achieve the desired or stated effect. Typically, the pharmaceutical compositions of this invention will be administered from about 1 to about 6 times per day or alternatively, as a continuous infusion. Such administration can be used as a chronic or acute therapy. The amount of active ingredient that may be combined with the carrier materials to produce a single dosage form will vary depending upon the host treated and the particular mode of administration. A typical preparation will contain from about 5% to about 95% active compound (w/w). Alternatively, such preparations contain from about 20% to about 80% active compound.
Lower or higher doses than those recited above may be required. Specific dosage and treatment regimens for any particular patient will depend upon a variety of factors, including the activity of the specific compound employed, the age, body weight, general health status, sex, diet, time of administration, rate of excretion, drug combination, the severity and course of the disease, condition or symptoms, the patient's disposition to the disease, condition or symptoms, and the judgment of the treating physician.
Upon improvement of a patient's condition, a maintenance dose of a compound, composition or combination of this invention may be administered, if necessary. Subsequently, the dosage or frequency of administration, or both, may be reduced, as a function of the symptoms, to a level at which the improved condition is retained when the symptoms have been alleviated to the desired level. Patients may, however, require intermittent treatment on a long-term basis upon any recurrence of disease symptoms.
The compositions delineated herein include the compounds of the formulae delineated herein, as well as additional therapeutic agents if present, in amounts effective for achieving a modulation of disease or disease symptoms, including those described herein.
The term “pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or adjuvant” refers to a carrier or adjuvant that may be administered to a patient, together with a compound of this invention, and which does not destroy the pharmacological activity thereof and is nontoxic when administered in doses sufficient to deliver a therapeutic amount of the compound.
Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, adjuvants and vehicles that may be used in the pharmaceutical compositions of this invention include, but are not limited to, ion exchangers, alumina, aluminum stearate, lecithin, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) such as d-α-tocopherol polyethyleneglycol 1000 succinate, surfactants used in pharmaceutical dosage forms such as Tweens or other similar polymeric delivery matrices, serum proteins, such as human serum albumin, buffer substances such as phosphates, glycine, sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, partial glyceride mixtures of saturated vegetable fatty acids, water, salts or electrolytes, such as protamine sulfate, disodium hydrogen phosphate, potassium hydrogen phosphate, sodium chloride, zinc salts, colloidal silica, magnesium trisilicate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, cellulose-based substances, polyethylene glycol, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, polyacrylates, waxes, polyethylene-polyoxypropylene-block polymers, polyethylene glycol and wool fat. Cyclodextrins such as α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrin, or chemically modified derivatives such as hydroxyalkylcyclodextrins, including 2- and 3-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrins, or other solubilized derivatives may also be advantageously used to enhance delivery of compounds of the formulae described herein.
The pharmaceutical compositions of this invention may be administered orally, parenterally, by inhalation spray, topically, rectally, nasally, buccally, vaginally or via an implanted reservoir, preferably by oral administration or administration by injection. The pharmaceutical compositions of this invention may contain any conventional non-toxic pharmaceutically-acceptable carriers, adjuvants or vehicles. In some cases, the pH of the formulation may be adjusted with pharmaceutically acceptable acids, bases or buffers to enhance the stability of the formulated compound or its delivery form. The term parenteral as used herein includes subcutaneous, intracutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular, intraarticular, intraarterial, intrasynovial, intrasternal, intrathecal, intralesional and intracranial injection or infusion techniques.
The pharmaceutical compositions may be in the form of a sterile injectable preparation, for example, as a sterile injectable aqueous or oleaginous suspension. This suspension may be formulated according to techniques known in the art using suitable dispersing or wetting agents (such as, for example, Tween 80) and suspending agents. The sterile injectable preparation may also be a sterile injectable solution or suspension in a non-toxic parenterally acceptable diluent or solvent, for example, as a solution in 1,3-butanediol. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that may be employed are mannitol, water, Ringer's solution and isotonic sodium chloride solution. In addition, sterile, fixed oils are conventionally employed as a solvent or suspending medium. For this purpose, any bland fixed oil may be employed including synthetic mono- or diglycerides. Fatty acids, such as oleic acid and its glyceride derivatives are useful in the preparation of injectables, as are natural pharmaceutically-acceptable oils, such as olive oil or castor oil, especially in their polyoxyethylated versions. These oil solutions or suspensions may also contain a long-chain alcohol diluent or dispersant, or carboxymethyl cellulose or similar dispersing agents which are commonly used in the formulation of pharmaceutically acceptable dosage forms such as emulsions and or suspensions. Other commonly used surfactants such as Tweens or Spans and/or other similar emulsifying agents or bioavailability enhancers which are commonly used in the manufacture of pharmaceutically acceptable solid, liquid, or other dosage forms may also be used for the purposes of formulation.
The pharmaceutical compositions of this invention may be orally administered in any orally acceptable dosage form including, but not limited to, capsules, tablets, emulsions and aqueous suspensions, dispersions and solutions. In the case of tablets for oral use, carriers which are commonly used include lactose and corn starch. Lubricating agents, such as magnesium stearate, are also typically added. For oral administration in a capsule form, useful diluents include lactose and dried corn starch. When aqueous suspensions and/or emulsions are administered orally, the active ingredient may be suspended or dissolved in an oily phase is combined with emulsifying and/or suspending agents. If desired, certain sweetening and/or flavoring and/or coloring agents may be added.
The pharmaceutical compositions of this invention may also be administered in the form of suppositories for rectal administration. These compositions can be prepared by mixing a compound of this invention with a suitable non-irritating excipient which is solid at room temperature but liquid at the rectal temperature and therefore will melt in the rectum to release the active components. Such materials include, but are not limited to, cocoa butter, beeswax and polyethylene glycols.
Topical administration of the pharmaceutical compositions of this invention is useful when the desired treatment involves areas or organs readily accessible by topical application. For application topically to the skin, the pharmaceutical composition should be formulated with a suitable ointment containing the active components suspended or dissolved in a carrier. Carriers for topical administration of the compounds of this invention include, but are not limited to, mineral oil, liquid petroleum, white petroleum, propylene glycol, polyoxyethylene polyoxypropylene compound, emulsifying wax and water. Alternatively, the pharmaceutical composition can be formulated with a suitable lotion or cream containing the active compound suspended or dissolved in a carrier with suitable emulsifying agents. Suitable carriers include, but are not limited to, mineral oil, sorbitan monostearate, polysorbate 60, cetyl esters wax, cetearyl alcohol, 2-octyldodecanol, benzyl alcohol and water. The pharmaceutical compositions of this invention may also be topically applied to the lower intestinal tract by rectal suppository formulation or in a suitable enema formulation. Topically-transdermal patches are also included in this invention.
The pharmaceutical compositions of this invention may be administered by nasal aerosol or inhalation. Such compositions are prepared according to techniques well-known in the art of pharmaceutical formulation and may be prepared as solutions in saline, employing benzyl alcohol or other suitable preservatives, absorption promoters to enhance bioavailability, fluorocarbons, and/or other solubilizing or dispersing agents known in the art.
A composition having the compound of the formulae herein and an additional agent (e.g., a therapeutic agent) can be administered using an implantable device. Implantable devices and related technology are known in the art and are useful as delivery systems where a continuous, or timed-release delivery of compounds or compositions delineated herein is desired. Additionally, the implantable device delivery system is useful for targeting specific points of compound or composition delivery (e.g., localized sites, organs). Negrin et al., Biomaterials, 22(6):563 (2001). Timed-release technology involving alternate delivery methods can also be used in this invention. For example, timed-release formulations based on polymer technologies, sustained-release techniques and encapsulation techniques (e.g., polymeric, liposomal) can also be used for delivery of the compounds and compositions delineated herein.
Also within the invention is a patch to deliver active chemotherapeutic combinations herein. A patch includes a material layer (e.g., polymeric, cloth, gauze, bandage) and the compound of the formulae herein as delineated herein. One side of the material layer can have a protective layer adhered to it to resist passage of the compounds or compositions. The patch can additionally include an adhesive to hold the patch in place on a subject. An adhesive is a composition, including those of either natural or synthetic origin, that when contacted with the skin of a subject, temporarily adheres to the skin. It can be water resistant. The adhesive can be placed on the patch to hold it in contact with the skin of the subject for an extended period of time. The adhesive can be made of a tackiness, or adhesive strength, such that it holds the device in place subject to incidental contact, however, upon an affirmative act (e.g., ripping, peeling, or other intentional removal) the adhesive gives way to the external pressure placed on the device or the adhesive itself, and allows for breaking of the adhesion contact. The adhesive can be pressure sensitive, that is, it can allow for positioning of the adhesive (and the device to be adhered to the skin) against the skin by the application of pressure (e.g., pushing, rubbing,) on the adhesive or device.
When the compositions of this invention comprise a combination of a compound of the formulae described herein and one or more additional therapeutic or prophylactic agents, both the compound and the additional agent should be present at dosage levels of between about 1 to 100%, and more preferably between about 5 to 95% of the dosage normally administered in a monotherapy regimen. The additional agents may be administered separately, as part of a multiple dose regimen, from the compounds of this invention. Alternatively, those agents may be part of a single dosage form, mixed together with the compounds of this invention in a single composition.Neoplastic Disorders
The compounds of the invention can be used in the treatment of cancer. As used herein, the terms “cancer”, “hyperproliferative”, “malignant”, and “neoplastic” are used interchangeably, and refer to those cells an abnormal state or condition characterized by rapid proliferation or neoplasm. The terms include all types of cancerous growths or oncogenic processes, metastatic tissues or malignantly transformed cells, tissues, or organs, irrespective of histopathologic type or stage of invasiveness. “Pathologic hyperproliferative” cells occur in disease states characterized by malignant tumor growth.
The common medical meaning of the term “neoplasia” refers to “new cell growth” that results as a loss of responsiveness to normal growth controls, e.g. to neoplastic cell growth. A “hyperplasia” refers to cells undergoing an abnormally high rate of growth. However, as used herein, the terms neoplasia and hyperplasia can be used interchangeably, as their context will reveal, referring generally to cells experiencing abnormal cell growth rates. Neoplasias and hyperplasias include “tumors,” which may be benign, premalignant or malignant.
Examples of cancerous disorders include, but are not limited to, solid tumors, soft tissue tumors, and metastatic lesions. Examples of solid tumors include malignancies, e.g., sarcomas, adenocarcinomas, and carcinomas, of the various organ systems, such as those affecting lung, breast, lymphoid, gastrointestinal (e.g., colon), and genitourinary tract (e.g., renal, urothelial cells), pharynx, prostate, ovary as well as adenocarcinomas which include malignancies such as most colon cancers, rectal cancer, renal-cell carcinoma, liver cancer, non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, cancer of the small intestine and so forth. Metastatic lesions of the aforementioned cancers can also be treated or prevented using a compound described herein.
The subject method can be useful in treating malignancies of the various organ systems, such as those affecting lung, breast, lymphoid, gastrointestinal (e.g., colon), and genitourinary tract, prostate, ovary, pharynx, as well as adenocarcinomas which include malignancies such as most colon cancers, renal-cell carcinoma, prostate cancer and/or testicular tumors, non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, cancer of the small intestine and cancer of the esophagus. Exemplary solid tumors that can be treated include: fibrosarcoma, myxosarcoma, liposarcoma, chondrosarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma, chordoma, angiosarcoma, endotheliosarcoma, lymphangiosarcoma, lymphangioendotheliosarcoma, synovioma, mesothelioma, Ewing's tumor, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, colon carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, sweat gland carcinoma, sebaceous gland carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinomas, cystadenocarcinoma, medullary carcinoma, bronchogenic carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, hepatoma, bile duct carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, Wilms' tumor, cervical cancer, testicular tumor, lung carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, bladder carcinoma, epithelial carcinoma, glioma, astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, pinealoma, hemangioblastoma, acoustic neuroma, oligodendroglioma, meningioma, melanoma, neuroblastoma, and retinoblastoma.
The term “carcinoma” is recognized by those skilled in the art and refers to malignancies of epithelial or endocrine tissues including respiratory system carcinomas, gastrointestinal system carcinomas, genitourinary system carcinomas, testicular carcinomas, breast carcinomas, prostatic carcinomas, endocrine system carcinomas, and melanomas. Exemplary carcinomas include those forming from tissue of the cervix, lung, prostate, breast, head and neck, colon and ovary. The term also includes carcinosarcomas, e.g., which include malignant tumors composed of carcinomatous and sarcomatous tissues. An “adenocarcinoma” refers to a carcinoma derived from glandular tissue or in which the tumor cells form recognizable glandular structures.
The term “sarcoma” is recognized by those skilled in the art and refers to malignant tumors of mesenchymal derivation.
The subject method can also be used to inhibit the proliferation of hyperplastic/neoplastic cells of hematopoietic origin, e.g., arising from myeloid, lymphoid or erythroid lineages, or precursor cells thereof. For instance, the invention contemplates the treatment of various myeloid disorders including, but not limited to, acute promyeloid leukemia (APML), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) (reviewed in Vaickus, L. (1991) Crit Rev. in Oncol./Hemotol. 11:267-97). Lymphoid malignancies which may be treated by the subject method include, but are not limited to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which includes B-lineage ALL and T-lineage ALL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL), hairy cell leukemia (HLL) and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM). Additional forms of malignant lymphomas include, but are not limited to, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and variants thereof, peripheral T-cell lymphomas, adult T-cell leukemiallymphoma (ATL), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), large granular lymphocytic leukemia (LGF) and Hodgkin's disease.Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease that results in the irreversible loss of neurons and is an example of a neurodegenerative disease that has symptoms caused at least in part by protein aggregation. A compound described herein can be used to ameliorate at least one symptom of a subject that has AD.
Clinical hallmarks of Alzheimer's Disease include progressive impairment in memory, judgment, orientation to physical surroundings, and language. Neuropathological hallmarks of AD include region-specific neuronal loss, amyloid plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Amyloid plaques are extracellular plaques containing the β amyloid peptide (also known as Aβ, or Aβ42), which is a cleavage product of the β-amyloid precursor protein (also known as APP). Neurofibrillary tangles are insoluble intracellular aggregates composed of filaments of the abnormally hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein, tau. Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles may contribute to secondary events that lead to neuronal loss by apoptosis (Clark and Karlawish, Ann. Intern. Med. 138(5):400-410 (2003). For example, β-amyloid induces caspase-2-dependent apoptosis in cultured neurons (Troy et al. J. Neurosci. 20(4):1386-1392). The deposition of plaques in vivo may trigger apoptosis of proximal neurons in a similar manner.
Mutations in genes encoding APP, presenilin-1, and presenilin-2 have been implicated in early-onset AD (Lendon et al. JAMA 227:825 (1997)). Mutations in these proteins have been shown to enhance proteolytic processing of APP via an intracellular pathway that produces Aβ. Aberrant regulation of Aβ processing may be central to the formation of amyloid plaques and the consequent neuronal damage associated with plaques.
A variety of criteria, including genetic, biochemical, physiological, and cognitive criteria, can be used to evaluate AD in a subject. Symptoms and diagnosis of AD are known to medical practitioners. Some exemplary symptoms and markers of AD are presented below. Information about these indications and other indications known to be associated with AD can be used as an “AD-related parameter.” An AD-related parameter can include qualitative or quantitative information. An example of quantitative information is a numerical value of one or more dimensions, e.g., a concentration of a protein or a tomographic map. Qualitative information can include an assessment, e.g., a physician's comments or a binary (“yes”/“no”) and so forth. An AD-related parameter includes information that indicates that the subject is not diagnosed with AD or does not have a particular indication of AD, e.g., a cognitive test result that is not typical of AD or a genetic APOE polymorphism not associated with AD.
Progressive cognitive impairment is a hallmark of AD. This impairment can present as decline in memory, judgment, decision making, orientation to physical surroundings, and language (Nussbaum and Ellis, New Eng. J. Med. 348(14):1356-1364 (2003)). Exclusion of other forms of dementia can assist in making a diagnosis of AD.
Neuronal death leads to progressive cerebral atrophy in AD patients. Imaging techniques (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, or computed tomography) can be used to detect AD-associated lesions in the brain and/or brain atrophy.
AD patients may exhibit biochemical abnormalities that result from the pathology of the disease. For example, levels of tau protein in the cerebrospinal fluid is elevated in AD patients (Andreasen, N. et al. Arch Neurol. 58:349-350 (2001)). Levels of amyloid beta 42 (AP42) peptide can be reduced in CSF of AD patients (Galasko, D., et al. Arch. Neurol. 55:937-945 (1998)). Levels of AP342 can be increased in the plasma of AD patients (Ertekein-Taner, N., et al. Science 290:2303-2304 (2000)). Techniques to detect biochemical abnormalities in a sample from a subject include cellular, immunological, and other biological methods known in the art. For general guidance, see, e.g., techniques described in Sambrook & Russell, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 3rd Edition, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, N.Y. (2001), Ausubel et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (Greene Publishing Associates and Wiley Interscience, N.Y. (1989), (Harlow, E. and Lane, D. (1988) Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.), and updated editions thereof.
For example, antibodies, other immunoglobulins, and other specific binding ligands can be used to detect a biomolecule, e.g., a protein or other antigen associated with AD. For example, one or more specific antibodies can be used to probe a sample. Various formats are possible, e.g., ELISAs, fluorescence-based assays, Western blots, and protein arrays. Methods of producing polypeptide arrays are described in the art, e.g., in De Wildt et al. (2000). Nature Biotech. 18, 989-994; Lueking et al. (1999). Anal. Biochem. 270, 103-111; Ge, H. (2000). Nucleic Acids Res. 28, e3, I-VII; MacBeath, G., and Schreiber, S. L. (2000). Science 289, 1760-1763; and WO 99/51773A1. Proteins can also be analyzed using mass spectroscopy, chromatography, electrophoresis, enzyme interaction or using probes that detect post-translational modification (e.g., a phosphorylation, ubiquitination, glycosylation, methylation, or acetylation).
Nucleic acid expression can be detected in cells from a subject, e.g., removed by surgery, extraction, post-mortem or other sampling (e.g., blood, CSF). Expression of one or more genes can be evaluated, e.g., by hybridization based techniques, e.g., Northern analysis, RT-PCR, SAGE, and nucleic acid arrays. Nucleic acid arrays are useful for profiling multiple mRNA species in a sample. A nucleic acid array can be generated by various methods, e.g., by photolithographic methods (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,143,854; 5,510,270; and 5,527,681), mechanical methods (e.g., directed-flow methods as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,384,261), pin-based methods (e.g., as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,288,514), and bead-based techniques (e.g., as described in PCT US/93/04145).
Metabolites that are associated with AD can be detected by a variety of means, including enzyme-coupled assays, using labeled precursors, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). For example, NMR can be used to determine the relative concentrations of phosphate-based compounds in a sample, e.g., creatine levels. Other metabolic parameters such as redox state, ion concentration (e.g., Ca2+) (e.g., using ion-sensitive dyes), and membrane potential can also be detected (e.g., using patch-clamp technology).
Information about an AD-associated marker can be recorded and/or stored in a computer-readable format. Typically the information is linked to a reference about the subject and also is associated (directly or indirectly) with information about the identity of one or more nucleotides in a gene that encodes a sirtuin in the subject.
In one embodiment, a non-human animal model of AD (e.g., a mouse model) is used, e.g., to evaluate a compound or a therapeutic regimen, e.g., of a compound described herein. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 6,509,515 describes one such model animal which is naturally able to be used with learning and memory tests. The animal expresses an amyloid precursor protein (APP) sequence at a level in brain tissues such that the animal develops a progressive neurologic disorder within a short period of time from birth, generally within a year from birth, preferably within 2 to 6 months, from birth. The APP protein sequence is introduced into the animal, or an ancestor of the animal, at an embryonic stage, preferably the one cell, or fertilized oocyte, stage, and generally not later than about the 8-cell stage. The zygote or embryo is then developed to term in a pseudo-pregnant foster female. The amyloid precursor protein genes are introduced into an animal embryo so as to be chromosomally incorporated in a state which results in super-endogenous expression of the amyloid precursor protein and the development of a progressive neurologic disease in the cortico-limbic areas of the brain, areas of the brain which are prominently affected in progressive neurologic disease states such as AD. The gliosis and clinical manifestations in affected transgenic animals model neurologic disease. The progressive aspects of the neurologic disease are characterized by diminished exploratory and/or locomotor behavior and diminished 2-deoxyglucose uptake/utilization and hypertrophic gliosis in the cortico-limbic regions of the brain. Further, the changes that are seen are similar to those that are seen in some aging animals. Other animal models are also described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,387,742; 5,877,399; 6,358,752; and 6,187,992.Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease includes neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system that regulates motor function. This pathology, in turn, leads to motor dysfunctions. (see, e.g., and Lotharius et al., Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 3:932-42 (2002).) Exemplary motor symptoms include: akinesia, stooped posture, gait difficulty, postural instability, catalepsy, muscle rigidity, and tremor. Exemplary non-motor symptoms include: depression, lack of motivation, passivity, dementia and gastrointestinal dysfunction (see, e.g., Fahn, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 991:1-14 (2003) and Pfeiffer, Lancet Neurol., 2:107-16 (2003)) Parkinson's has been observed in 0.5 to 1 percent of persons 65 to 69 years of age and 1 to 3 percent among persons 80 years of age and older. (see, e.g., Nussbaum et al., N. Engl. J. Med., 348:1356-64 (2003)).
A compound described herein can be used to ameliorate at least one symptom of a subject that has Parkinson's disease.
Molecular markers of Parkinson's disease include reduction in aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). (see, e.g., US Appl 20020172664); loss of dopamine content in the nigrostriatal neurons (see, e.g., Fahn, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 991:1-14 (2003) and Lotharius et al., Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 3:932-42 (2002)). In some familial cases, PD is linked to mutations in single genes encoding alpha-synuclein and parkin (an E3 ubiquitin ligase) proteins. (e.g., Riess et al., J. Neurol. 250 Suppl 1:I3-10 (2003) and Nussbaum et al., N. Engl. J. Med., 348:1356-64 (2003)). A missense mutation in a neuron-specific C-terminal ubiquitin hydrolase gene is also associated with Parkinson's. (e.g., Nussbaum et al., N. Engl. J. Med., 348:1356-64 (2003))
A compound or library of compounds described herein can be evaluated in a non-human animal model of Parkinson's disease. Exemplary animal models of Parkinson's disease include primates rendered parkinsonian by treatment with the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4 phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (see, e.g., US Appl 20030055231 and Wichmann et al., Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 991:199-213 (2003); 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats (e.g., Lab. Anim. Sci., 49:363-71 (1999)); and transgenic invertebrate models (e.g., Lakso et al., J. Neurochem., 86:165-72 (2003) and Link, Mech. Ageing Dev., 122:1639-49 (2001)).Evaluating Polyglutamine Aggregation
A variety of cell free assays, cell based assays, and organismal assays are available for evaluating polyglutamine aggregation, e.g., Huntingtin polyglutamine aggregation. Some examples are described, e.g., in U.S. 2003-0109476.
Assays (e.g., cell free, cell-based, or organismal) can include a reporter protein that includes a polyglutamine repeat region which has at least 35 polyglutamines. The reporter protein can be easily detectable, e.g., by fluorescence. For example, the protein is conjugated to a fluorophore, for example, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), allophycocyanin (APC), R-phycoerythrin (PE), peridinin chlorophyll protein (PerCP), Texas Red, Cy3, Cy5, Cy7, or a fluorescence resonance energy tandem fluorophore such as PerCP-Cy5.5, PE-Cy5, PE-Cy5.5, PE-Cy7, PE-Texas Red, and APC-Cy7. In another example the protein is “intrinsically fluorescent” in that it has a chromophore is entirely encoded by its amino acid sequence and can fluoresce without requirement for cofactor or substrate. For example, the protein can include a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like chromophore. As used herein, “GFP-like chromophore” means an intrinsically fluorescent protein moiety comprising an 11-stranded β-barrel with a central a-helix, the central a-helix having a conjugated π-resonance system that includes two aromatic ring systems and the bridge between them.
The GFP-like chromophore can be selected from GFP-like chromophores found in naturally occurring proteins, such as A. victoria GFP (GenBank accession number AAA27721), Renilla reniformis GFP, FP583 (GenBank accession no. AF168419) (DsRed), FP593 (AF272711), FP483 (AF168420), FP484 (AF168424), FP595 (AF246709), FP486 (AF168421), FP538 (AF168423), and FP506 (AF168422), and need include only so much of the native protein as is needed to retain the chromophore's intrinsic fluorescence. Methods for determining the minimal domain required for fluorescence are known in the art. Li et al., J. Biol. Chem. 272:28545-28549 (1997).
Alternatively, the GFP-like chromophore can be selected from GFP-like chromophores modified from those found in nature. Typically, such modifications are made to improve recombinant production in heterologous expression systems (with or without change in protein sequence), to alter the excitation and/or emission spectra of the native protein, to facilitate purification, to facilitate or as a consequence of cloning, or are a fortuitous consequence of research investigation. The methods for engineering such modified GFP-like chromophores and testing them for fluorescence activity, both alone and as part of protein fusions, are well-known in the art. A variety of such modified chromophores are now commercially available and can readily be used in the fusion proteins of the present invention. For example, EGFP (“enhanced GFP”), Cormack et al., Gene 173:33-38 (1996); U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,090,919 and 5,804,387, is a red-shifted, human codon-optimized variant of GFP that has been engineered for brighter fluorescence, higher expression in mammalian cells, and for an excitation spectrum optimized for use in flow cytometers. EGFP can usefully contribute a GFP-like chromophore to the fusion proteins that further include a polyglutamine region. A variety of EGFP vectors, both plasmid and viral, are available commercially (Clontech Labs, Palo Alto, Calif., USA). Still other engineered GFP proteins are known. See, e.g., Heim et al., Curr. Biol. 6:178-182 (1996); Cormack et al., Gene 173:33-38 (1996), BFP2, EYFP (“enhanced yellow fluorescent protein”), EBFP, Ormo et al., Science 273:1392-1395 (1996), Heikal et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:11996-12001 (2000). ECFP (“enhanced cyan fluorescent protein”) (Clontech Labs, Palo Alto, Calif., USA). The GFP-like chromophore can also be drawn from other modified GFPs, including those described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,124,128; 6,096,865; 6,090,919; 6,066,476; 6,054,321; 6,027,881; 5,968,750; 5,874,304; 5,804,387; 5,777,079; 5,741,668; and 5,625,048.
In one embodiment, a reporter protein that includes a polyglutamine repeat region which has at least 35 polyglutamines is used in a cell-based assay.
In one example, PC12 neuronal cell lines that have a construct engineered to express a protein encoded by HD gene exon 1 containing alternating, repeating codons fused to an enhanced GFP (green fluorescent protein) gene can be used. See, e.g., Boado et al. J. Pharmacol. and Experimental Therapeutics 295(1): 239-243 (2000) and Kazantsev et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 11404-09 (1999). Expression of this gene leads to the appearance of green fluorescence co-localized to the site of protein aggregates. The HD gene exon 1-GFP fusion gene is under the control of an inducible promoter regulated by muristerone. A particular construct has approximately 46 glutamine repeats (encoded by either CAA or CAG). Other constructs have, for example, 103 glutamine repeats. PC12 cells are grown in DMEM, 5% Horse serum (heat inactivated), 2.5% FBS and 1% Pen-Strep, and maintained in low amounts on Zeocin and G418. The cells are plated in 24-well plates coated with poly-L-lysine coverslips, at a density of 5·105 cells/ml in media without any selection. Muristerone is added after the overnight incubation to induce the expression of HD gene exon 1-GFP. The cells can be contacted with a test compound, e.g., before or after plating and before or after induction. The data can be acquired on a Zeiss inverted 100M Axioskop equipped with a Zeiss 510 LSM confocal microscope and a Coherent Krypton Argon laser and a Helium Neon laser. Samples can be loaded into Lab-Tek II chambered coverglass system for improved imaging. The number of Huntingtin-GFP aggregations within the field of view of the objective is counted in independent experiments (e.g., at least three or seven independent experiments).
Other exemplary means for evaluating samples include a high throughput apparatus, such as the Amersham Biosciences IN Cell Analysis System and Cellomics™ ArrayScan HCS System which permit the subcellular location and concentration of fluorescently tagged moieties to be detected and quantified, both statically and kinetically. See also, U.S. Pat. No. 5,989,835.
Other exemplary mammalian cell lines include: a CHO cell line and a 293 cell line. For example, CHO cells with integrated copies of HD gene exon 1 with approximately 103Q repeats fused to GFP as a fusion construct encoding HD gene exon 1 Q103-GFP produce a visible GFP aggregation at the nuclear membrane, detectable by microscopy, whereas CHO cells with integrated copies of fusion constructs encoding HD gene exon 1 Q24-GFP in CHO cells do not produce a visible GFP aggregation at the nuclear membrane. In another example, 293 cells with integrated copies of the HD gene exon 1 containing 84 CAG repeats are used.
A number of animal model system for Huntington's disease are available. See, e.g., Brouillet, Functional Neurology 15(4): 239-251 (2000); Ona et al. Nature 399: 263-267 (1999), Bates et al. Hum Mol Genet. 6(10):1633-7 (1997); Hansson et al. J. of Neurochemistry 78: 694-703; and Rubinsztein, D. C., Trends in Genetics, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 202-209 (a review on various animal and non-human models of HD).
In one embodiment, the animal is a transgenic mouse that can express (in at least one cell) a human Huntingtin protein, a portion thereof, or fusion protein comprising human Huntingtin protein, or a portion thereof, with, for example, at least 36 glutamines (e.g., encoded by CAG repeats (alternatively, any number of the CAG repeats may be CAA) in the CAG repeat segment of exon 1 encoding the polyglutamine tract).
An example of such a transgenic mouse strain is the R6/2 line (Mangiarini et al. Cell 87: 493-506 (1996)). The R6/2 mice are transgenic Huntington's disease mice, which over-express exon one of the human HD gene (under the control of the endogenous promoter). The exon 1 of the R6/2 human HD gene has an expanded CAG/polyglutamine repeat lengths (150 CAG repeats on average). These mice develop a progressive, ultimately fatal neurological disease with many features of human Huntington's disease. Abnormal aggregates, constituted in part by the N-terminal part of Huntingtin (encoded by HD exon 1), are observed in R6/2 mice, both in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells (Davies et al. Cell 90: 537-548 (1997)). For example, the human Huntingtin protein in the transgenic animal is encoded by a gene that includes at least 55 CAG repeats and more preferably about 150 CAG repeats.
These transgenic animals can develop a Huntington's disease-like phenotype. These transgenic mice are characterized by reduced weight gain, reduced lifespan and motor impairment characterized by abnormal gait, resting tremor, hindlimb clasping and hyperactivity from 8 to 10 weeks after birth (for example the R6/2 strain; see Mangiarini et al. Cell 87: 493-506 (1996)). The phenotype worsens progressively toward hypokinesia. The brains of these transgenic mice also demonstrate neurochemical and histological abnormalities, such as changes in neurotransmitter receptors (glutamate, dopaminergic), decreased concentration of N-acetylaspartate (a marker of neuronal integrity) and reduced striatum and brain size. Accordingly, evaluating can include assessing parameters related to neurotransmitter levels, neurotransmitter receptor levels, brain size and striatum size. In addition, abnormal aggregates containing the transgenic part of or full-length human Huntingtin protein are present in the brain tissue of these animals (e.g., the R6/2 transgenic mouse strain). See, e.g., Mangiarini et al. Cell 87: 493-506 (1996), Davies et al. Cell 90: 537-548 (1997), Brouillet, Functional Neurology 15(4): 239-251 (2000) and Cha et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 6480-6485 (1998).
To test the effect of the test compound, e.g., a compound described herein or present in a library described herein, in an animal model, different concentrations of test compound are administered to the transgenic animal, for example by injecting the test compound into circulation of the animal. In one embodiment, a Huntington's disease-like symptom is evaluated in the animal. For example, the progression of the Huntington's disease-like symptoms, e.g. as described above for the mouse model, is then monitored to determine whether treatment with the test compound results in reduction or delay of symptoms. In another embodiment, disaggregation of the Huntingtin protein aggregates in these animals is monitored. The animal can then be sacrificed and brain slices are obtained. The brain slices are then analyzed for the presence of aggregates containing the transgenic human Huntingtin protein, a portion thereof, or a fusion protein comprising human Huntingtin protein, or a portion thereof. This analysis can includes, for example, staining the slices of brain tissue with anti-Huntingtin antibody and adding a secondary antibody conjugated with FITC which recognizes the anti-Huntingtin's antibody (for example, the anti-Huntingtin antibody is mouse anti-human antibody and the secondary antibody is specific for human antibody) and visualizing the protein aggregates by fluorescent microscopy. Alternatively, the anti-Huntingtin antibody can be directly conjugated with FITC. The levels of Huntingtin's protein aggregates are then visualized by fluorescent microscopy.
A Drosophila melanogaster model system for Huntington's disease is also available. See, e.g., Steffan et al., Nature, 413: 739-743 (2001) and Marsh et al., Human Molecular Genetics 9: 13-25 (2000). For example, a transgenic Drosophila can be engineered to express human Huntingtin protein, a portion thereof (such as exon 1), or fusion protein comprising human Huntingtin protein, or a portion thereof, with, for example, a polyglutamine region that includes at least 36 glutamines (e.g., encoded by CAG repeats (preferably 51 repeats or more) (alternatively, any number of the CAG repeats may be CAA)) The polyglutamine region can be encoded by the CAG repeat segment of exon 1 encoding the poly Q tract. These transgenic flies can also engineered to express human Huntingtin protein, a portion thereof (such as exon 1), or fusion protein comprising human Huntingtin protein, or a portion thereof, in neurons, e.g., in the Drosophila eye.
The test compound (e.g., different concentrations of the test compound) or a compound described herein can be administered to the transgenic Drosophila, for example, by applying the pharmaceutical compositions that include the compound into to the animal or feeding the compound as part of food. Administration of the compound can occur at various stages of the Drosophila life cycle. The animal can be monitored to determine whether treatment with the compound results in reduction or delay of Huntington's disease-like symptoms, disaggregation of the Huntingtin protein aggregates, or reduced lethality and/or degeneration of photoreceptor neurons are monitored.
Neurodegeneration due to expression of human Huntingtin protein, a portion thereof (such as exon 1), or fusion protein comprising human Huntingtin protein, or a portion thereof, is readily observed in the fly compound eye, which is composed of a regular trapezoidal arrangement of seven visible rhabdomeres (subcellular light-gathering structures) produced by the photoreceptor neurons of each Drosophila ommatidium. Expression of human Huntingtin protein, a portion thereof (such as exon 1), or fusion protein comprising human Huntingtin protein, or a portion thereof, leads to a progressive loss of rhabdomeres. Thus, an animal to which a test compound is administered can be evaluated for neuronal degeneration.
Morely et al. (2002) Proc. Nat. Acad. USA Vol. 99:10417 describes a C. elegans system for evaluating Huntington's disease related protein aggregation.Evaluating Huntington's Disease
A compound described herein can be used to ameliorate at least one symptom of Huntington's disease in a subject.
A variety of methods are available to evaluate and/or monitor Huntington's disease. A variety of clinical symptoms and indicia for the disease are known. Huntington's disease causes a movement disorder, psychiatric difficulties and cognitive changes. The degree, age of onset, and manifestation of these symptoms can vary. The movement disorder can include quick, random, dance-like movements called chorea.
One method for evaluating Huntington's disease uses the Unified Huntington's disease Rating Scale (UNDRS). It is also possible to use individual tests alone or in combination to evaluate if at least one symptom of Huntington's disease is ameliorated. The UNDRS is described in Movement Disorders (vol. 11:136-142, 1996) and Marder et al. Neurology (54:452-458, 2000). The UNDRS quantifies the severity of Huntington's Disease. It is divided into multiple subsections: motor, cognitive, behavioral, functional. In one embodiment, a single subsection is used to evaluate a subject. These scores can be calculated by summing the various questions of each section. Some sections (such as chorea and dystonia) can include grading each extremity, face, bucco-oral-ligual, and trunk separately.
Exemplary motor evaluations include: ocular pursuit, saccade initiation, saccade velocity, dysarthria, tongue protrusion, finger tap ability, pronate/supinate, a fist-hand-palm sequence, rigidity of arms, bradykinesia, maximal dystonia (trunk, upper and lower extremities), maximal chorea (e.g., trunk, face, upper and lower extremities), gait, tandem walking, and retropulsion. An exemplary treatment can cause a change in the Total Motor Score 4 (TMS-4), a subscale of the UHDRS, e.g., over a one-year period.Diabetes
The invention provides methods of treating and preventing diabetes. Examples of diabetes include insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and non-insulin dependent diabetes. For example the method includes administering to a patient having diabetes or at risk of diabetes a compound described herein. In some instances, a patient can be identified as being at risk of developing diabetes by having impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or fasting hyperglycemia.
For example, a compound described herein can be administered to a subject in a therapeutically effective amount to decrease gluconeogenesis, improve glycemic control (i.e., lower fasting blood glucose), or normalize insulin sensitivity. The compound can be administered to a subject suffering from diabetes or obesity.
Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1 diabetes) is an autoimmune disease, where insulitis leads to the destruction of pancreatic J-cells. At the time of clinical onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus, significant number of insulin producing b cells are destroyed and only 15% to 40% are still capable of insulin production (McCulloch et al. (1991) Diabetes 40:673-679). b-cell failure results in a life long dependence on daily insulin injections and exposure to the acute and late complication of the disease.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease of impaired glucose homeostasis characterized by hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, as a result of defective insulin action which manifests as insulin resistance, defective insulin secretion, or both. A patient with Type 2 diabetes mellitus has abnormal carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism associated with insulin resistance and/or impaired insulin secretion. The disease leads to pancreatic beta cell destruction and eventually absolute insulin deficiency. Without insulin, high glucose levels remain in the blood. The long term effects of high blood glucose include blindness, renal failure, and poor blood circulation to these areas, which can lead to foot and ankle amputations. Early detection is critical in preventing patients from reaching this severity. The majority of patients with diabetes have the non-insulin dependent form of diabetes, currently referred to as Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The invention also includes methods of treating disorders related to or resulting from diabetes, for example end organ damage, diabetic gastroparesis, diabetic neuropathy, cardiac dysrythmia, etc.
Exemplary molecular models of Type II diabetes include: a transgenic mouse having defective Nkx-2.2 or Nkx-6.1; (U.S. Pat. No. 6,127,598); Zucker Diabetic Fatty fa/fa (ZDF) rat. (U.S. Pat. No. 6,569,832); and Rhesus monkeys, which spontaneously develop obesity and subsequently frequently progress to overt type 2 diabetes (Hotta et al., Diabetes, 50:1126-33 (2001); and a transgenic mouse with a dominant-negative IGF-I receptor (KR-IGF-IR) having Type 2 diabetes-like insulin resistance.Metabolic Syndrome
The invention provides a method of treating metabolic syndrome, including administering to a subject an effective amount of a compound described herein.
The metabolic syndrome (e.g., Syndrome X) is characterized by a group of metabolic risk factors in one person. They include: central obesity (excessive fat tissue in and around the abdomen), atherogenic dyslipidemia (blood fat disorders—mainly high triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol—that foster plaque buildups in artery walls); insulin resistance or glucose intolerance (the body can't properly use insulin or blood sugar); prothrombotic state (e.g., high fibrinogen or plasminogen activator inhibitor [−1] in the blood); raised blood pressure (i.e., hypertension) (130/85 mmHg or higher); and proinflammatory state (e.g., elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in the blood).
The underlying causes of this syndrome are overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and genetic factors. People with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk of coronary heart disease, other diseases related to plaque buildups in artery walls (e.g., stroke and peripheral vascular disease) and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic syndrome is closely associated with a generalized metabolic disorder called insulin resistance, in which the body can't use insulin efficiently.Fat-Cell Related Disorders
The invention provides a method of enhancing adipogenesis comprising administering to a subject a compound described herein. For example, the subject can be underweight, have reduced fat content, or require additional fat cells, either locally (e.g., at a topical location such as the skin of the face) or systemically
The compounds may also be used to modulate a fat cell, e.g., an adipocyte, e.g., differentiation of the adipocyte. For example, a compound described herein can be administered in an amount effective to prevent fat accumulation in a normal or a pathological state. Disorders relating to adipocytes include obesity. “Obesity” refers to a condition in which a subject has a body mass index of greater than or equal to 30. “Over-weight” refers to a condition in which a subject has a body mass index of greater or equal to 25.0. The body mass index and other definitions are according to the “NIH Clinical Guidelines on the Identification and Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults” (1998). In particular, obesity can lead to type II diabetes in successive phases. Clinically, these phases can be characterized as normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemic diabetes, and hypoinsulinemic diabetes. Such a progressive impairment of glucose storage correlates with a rise in basal glycemia.
Examples of other fat-cell related disorders include) dislipidemia, and hyperlipidemia (including high triglycerides, high LDL, high fatty acid levels).
Exemplary models for the treatment of obesity include two primary animal model systems: 1) diet-induced obesity (DIO) caused by feeding rodents ˜60% fat content of caloric intake. Animals treated for up to 12-16 weeks on this type of diet gain substantial body weight (>50% increase), accumulate excessive fat mass, become hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic and insulin resistant. In this model compounds can be tested prior to the initiation of the diet or at any time during development of obesity. 2) db/db mutant mice (leptin receptor spontaneous mutant). These animals exhibit a similar phenotype as the DIO animals only more severe with regard to various readouts. Animals can be treated similar to the DIO model. As a surrogate readout of SirT1 inhibitor activity, sister animals can be sacrificed along the treatment regimen and assessed biochemically for increased acetylation status of FoxO1 proteins in various tissues, such as liver, muscle and white adipose tissue.
Compound described herein can be used to treat AMD. Macular degeneration includes a variety of diseases characterized by a progressive loss of central vision associated with abnormalities of Bruch's membrane and the retinal pigment epithelium. (see, e.g., US Appl 20030138798). AMD occurs in 1.2% of the population between 52 and 64 years of age and 20% of patients over the age of 75. (see, e.g., US Appl 20030087889) Macular degeneration occurs in two forms, “atrophic” (“non-exudative” or “dry” form) and “exudative” (“wet” form). A less common form of AMD is “atrophic AMD,” which is due to dead RPE cells. (US Application 20030093064).
Symptoms of AMD include: straight lines in the field of vision appear wavy; type in books, magazines and newspapers appears blurry; and dark or empty spaces block the center of vision. (see, e.g., US Appl 20030065020)
Exemplary molecular markers that can be used to evaluate an AMD status include: the nucleic acid sequence of a gene encoding FBNL or the amino acid sequence of the FBNL protein: 345Arg>Trp and 362 Arg>Gln; (see, e.g., US Appl 20030138798); increases in the pigment A2E, N-retinyl-N-retinylidene ethanolamine, ultimately leading to release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm (US Appl 20030050283); auto-antibodies against various macular degeneration-associated molecules including fibulin-3, vitronectin, β-crystallin A2, β-crystallin A3, β-crystallin A4, β-crystallin S, calreticulin, 14-3-3 protein epsilon, serotransferrin, albumin, keratin, pyruvate carboxylase, or villin 2 (see, e.g., U.S. Appl 20030017501); abnormal activity or level of complement pathway molecules including clusterin, C6 or C5b-9 complex (see, e.g., US Appl 20020015957); and accumulation of the pigment lipofuscin in lysosomes of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells (Suter et al., J Biol Chem. 275:39625-30 (2000)).Tissue Repair
A compound described herein may also be used to modulate tissue repair or tissue state. Exemplary implementations for tissue repair include wound healing, bums, ulcers (e.g., ulcers in a diabetic, e.g., diabetic foot ulcers), surgical wounds, sores, and abrasions. The method can decrease at least one symptom of the tissue. For example, the method includes administering (e.g., locally or systemically) an effective amount of a compound described herein.
A compound may be used for a dermatological disease or disorder.Skeletal Muscle Atrophy
Muscle atrophy includes numerous neuromuscular, metabolic, immunological and neurological disorders and diseases as well as starvation, nutritional deficiency, metabolic stress, diabetes, aging, muscular dystrophy, or myopathy. Muscle atrophy occurs during the aging process. Muscle atrophy also results from reduced use or disuse of the muscle. Symptoms include a decline in skeletal muscle tissue mass. In human males, muscle mass declines by one-third between the ages of 50 and 80.
Some molecular features of muscle atrophy include the upregulation of ubiquitin ligases, and the loss of myofibrillar proteins (Furuno et al., J. Biol. Chem., 265:8550-8557, 1990). The breakdown of these proteins can be followed, e.g., by measuring 3-methyl-histidine production, which is a specific constituent of actin, and in certain muscles of myosin (Goodman, Biochem. J, 241:121-12, 1987 and Lowell, et al., Metabolism, 35:1121-112, 1986; Stein and Schluter, Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 272: E688-E696, 1997). Release of creatine kinase (a cell damage marker) (Jackson, et al., Neurology, 41: 101 104, 1991) can also be indicative.Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuromuscular disease characterized by focal inflammatory and autoimmune degeneration of cerebral white matter. White matter becomes inflamed, and inflammation is followed by destruction of myelin (forming “lesions” which are marked by an infiltration of numerous immune cells, especially T-cell lymphocytes and macrophages. MS can cause a slowing or complete block of nerve impulse transmission and, thus, diminished or lost bodily function. A patient who has MS may have one of a variety of grade of MS (e.g., relapsing-remitting MS, primary progressive MS, secondary progressive, and Marburg's variant MS).
Symptoms can include vision problems such as blurred or double vision, red-green color distortion, or even blindness in one eye, muscle weakness in the extremities, coordination and balance problems, muscle spasticity, muscle fatigue, paresthesias, fleeting abnormal sensory feelings such as numbness, prickling, or “pins and needles” sensations, and in the worst cases, partial or complete paralysis. About half of the people suffering from MS also experience cognitive impairments, such as for example, poor concentration, attention, memory and/or judgment. (see, e.g., US 2003-0130357 and 2003-0092089)
Molecular markers of MS include a number of genetic factors, e.g., Caucasian haplotype DRB*1501-DQA1*0102-DQB 1*0602 (US Appl 20030113752), a point mutation in the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type C. (US Appl 20030113752), absence of wild-type SARG-1-protein, presence of mutated SARG-1-protein, or absence or mutation in the nucleic acids encoding wild-type SARG-1. (see, e.g., US Appl 20030113752) and protein indicators, e.g., Myelin Basic Protein auto-antibody in cerebrospinal fluid. (see, e.g., US Appl 20030092089)
Cellular and animal models of MS include transgenic mouse model for chronic MS (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)), e.g., as described by Goverman et al., Cell. 72:551-60 (1993), and primate models as reviewed by Brok et al., Immunol. Rev., 183:173-85 (2001).Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig's Disease)
A compound described herein can be used to modulate ALS. ALS refers to a class of disorders that comprise upper and lower motor neurons. The incidence of ALS increases substantially in older adults. These disorders are characterized by major pathological abnormalities include selective and progressive degeneration of the lower motor neurons in the spinal cord and the upper motor neurons in the cerebral cortex resulting in motor neuron death, which causes the muscles under their control to weaken and waste away leading to paralysis. Examples of ALS disorders include classical ALS (typically affecting both lower and upper motor neurons), Primary Lateral Sclerosis (PLS, typically affecting only the upper motor neurons), Progressive Bulbar Palsy (PBP or Bulbar Onset, a version of ALS that typically begins with difficulties swallowing, chewing and speaking), Progressive Muscular Atrophy (PMA, typically affecting only the lower motor neurons) or familial ALS (a genetic version of ALS), or a combination of these conditions. (see, e.g., US Appl 20020198236 and US Appl 20030130357).
The ALS status of an individual may be evaluated by neurological examination or other means, such as MRI, FVC, MUNE etc. (see, e.g., US Appl 20030130357). Symptoms include muscle weakness in the hands, arms, legs; swallowing or breathing difficulty; twitching (fasciculation) and cramping of muscles; and reduced use of the limbs. The invention includes administering an agent that modulates the IGF-1/GH axis in an amount effective to relieve one or more ALS symptoms, e.g., in an individual having, at risk to,
Methods for evaluating ALS status of an individual can include evaluating the “excitatory amino acid transporter type 2” (EAAT2) protein or gene, the Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) protein or gene, mitochondrial Complex I activity, levels of polyamines, such as putraceine, spermine and spermidine, ornithine decarboxylase activity, and a gene that encodes a putative GTPase regulator (see Nat. Genet., 29(2): 166-73 (2001)).
Cells and animals for evaluating the effect of a compound on ALS status include a mouse which has an altered SOD gene, e.g., a SOD1-G93A transgenic mouse which carries a variable number of copies of the human G93A SOD mutation driven by the endogenous promoter, a SOD1-G37R transgenic mouse (Wong et al., Neuron, 14(6):1105-16 (1995)); SOD1-G85R transgenic mouse (Bruijn et al., Neuron, 18(2):327-38 (1997)); C. elegans strains expressing mutant human SOD1 (Oeda et al., Hum Mol Genet., 10:2013-23 (2001)); and a Drosophila expressing mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). (Phillips et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 92:8574-78 (1995) and McCabe, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 92:8533-34 (1995)).Neuropathy
A compound described herein can be used to modulate a neuropathy. A neuropathy can include a central and/or peripheral nerve dysfunction caused by systemic disease, hereditary condition or toxic agent affecting motor, sensory, sensorimotor or autonomic nerves. (see, e.g., US App 20030013771).
Symptoms can vary depending upon the cause of the nerve damage and the particular types of nerves affected. For example, symptoms of motor neuropathy include clumsiness in performing physical tasks or as muscular weakness, exhaustion after minor exertion, difficulty in standing or walking and attenuation or absence of a neuromuscular reflex. (US App 20030013771) symptoms of autonomic neuropathy include constipation, cardiac irregularities and attenuation of the postural hypotensive reflex. (US App 20030013771), symptoms of sensory neuropathy include pain and numbness; tingling in the hands, legs or feet; and extreme sensitivity to touch, and symptoms of retinopathy include blurred vision, sudden loss of vision, black spots, and flashing lights.
Guillain-Barr syndrome is a type of motor neuropathy that usually occurs two to three weeks after a flu-like disease or other infection. Symptoms include ascending weakness wherein weakness begins in the lower extremities and ascends to the upper extremities. An elevation of the protein level in the spinal fluid without an increase in the number of white cells also results. (US Appl 20030083242)Disorders
Additional disorders for which the compounds described herein may be useful and definitions therefore include the following:
An “age-associated disorder” or “age-related disorder” is a disease or disorder whose incidence is at least 1.5 fold higher among human individuals greater than 60 years of age relative to human individuals between the ages of 30-40, at the time of filing of this application and in a selected population of greater than 100,000 individuals. A preferred population is a United States population. A population can be restricted by gender and/or ethnicity.
A “geriatric disorder” is a disease or disorder whose incidence, at the time of filing of this application and in a selected population of greater than 100,000 individuals, is at least 70% among human individuals that are greater than 70 years of age. In one embodiment, the geriatric disorder is a disorder other than cancer or a cardio-pulmonary disorder. A preferred population is a United States population. A population can be restricted by gender and/or ethnicity.
A disorder having an “age-associated susceptibility factor” refers to a disease or disorder whose causation is mediated by an externality, but whose severity or symptoms are substantially increased in human individuals over the age of 60 relative to human individuals between the ages of 30-40, at the time of filing of this application and in the United States population. For example, pneumonia is caused by pathogens, but the severity of the disease is greater in humans over the age of 60 relative to human individuals between the ages of 30-40.
A “neoplastic disorder” is a disease or disorder characterized by cells that have the capacity for autonomous growth or replication, e.g., an abnormal state or condition characterized by proliferative cell growth. An “age-associated neoplastic disorder” is a neoplastic disorder that is also an age-associated disorder.
A “non-neoplastic disorder” is a disease or disorder that is not characterized by cells that have the capacity for autonomous growth or replication. An “age-associated non-neoplastic disorder” is a non-neoplastic disorder that is also an age-associated disorder.
A “neurological disorder” is a disease or disorder characterized by an abnormality or malfunction of neuronal cells or neuronal support cells (e.g., glia or muscle). The disease or disorder can affect the central and/or peripheral nervous system. Exemplary neurological disorders include neuropathies, skeletal muscle atrophy, and neurodegenerative diseases, e.g., a neurodegenerative disease caused at least in part by polyglutamine aggregation or a neurodegenerative disease other than one caused at least in part by polyglutamine aggregation. Exemplary neurodegenerative diseases include: Alzheimer's, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson's disease. An “age-associated neurological disorder is a neurological disorder that is also an age-associated disorder.
A “cardiovascular disorder” is a disease or disorder characterized by an abnormality or malfunction of the cardiovascular system, e.g., heart, lung, or blood vessels. Exemplary cardiovascular disorders include: cardiac dysrhythmias, chronic congestive heart failure, ischemic stroke, coronary artery disease, elevated blood pressure (i.e., hypertension), and cardiomyopathy. An “age-associated cardiovascular disorder” is a cardiovascular disorder that is also an age-associated disorder.
A “metabolic disorder” is a disease or disorder characterized by an abnormality or malfunction of metabolism. One category of metabolic disorders are disorders of glucose or insulin metabolism An “age-associated metabolic disorder is a metabolic disorder that is also an age-associated disorder.
A “dermatological disorder” is a disease or disorder characterized by an abnormality or malfunction of the skin. A “dermatological tissue condition” refers to the skin and any underlying tissue (e.g., support tissue) which contributes to the skins function and/or appearance, e.g., cosmetic appearance.
Exemplary diseases and disorders that are relevant to certain implementations include: cancer (e.g., breast cancer, colorectal cancer, CCL, CML, prostate cancer); skeletal muscle atrophy; adult-onset diabetes; diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy (e.g., sensory neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, motor neuropathy, retinopathy); obesity; bone resorption; age-related macular degeneration, ALS, Alzheimer's, Bell's Palsy, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disorders (e.g., cardiac dysrhythmias, chronic congestive heart failure, ischemic stroke, coronary artery disease, high blood pressure (i.e., hypertension), and cardiomyopathy), chronic renal failure, type 2 diabetes, ulceration, cataract, presbiopia, glomerulonephritis, Guillan-Barre syndrome, hemorrhagic stroke, short-term and long-term memory loss, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, SLE, Crohn's disease, osteoarthritis, Parkinson's disease, pneumonia, and urinary incontinence. In addition, many neurodegenerative disorders and disorders associated with protein aggregation (e.g., other than polyglutamine aggregation) or protein misfolding can also be age-related. Symptoms and diagnosis of diseases are well known to medical practitioners. The compositions may also be administered to individuals being treated by other means for such diseases, for example, individuals being treated with a chemotherapeutic (e.g., and having neutropenia, atrophy, cachexia, nephropathy, neuropathy) or an elective surgery.Kits
A compound described herein described herein can be provided in a kit. The kit includes (a) a compound described herein, e.g., a composition that includes a compound described herein, and, optionally (b) informational material. The informational material can be descriptive, instructional, marketing or other material that relates to the methods described herein and/or the use of a compound described herein for the methods described herein.
The informational material of the kits is not limited in its form. In one embodiment, the informational material can include information about production of the compound, molecular weight of the compound, concentration, date of expiration, batch or production site information, and so forth. In one embodiment, the informational material relates to methods for administering the compound.
In one embodiment, the informational material can include instructions to administer a compound described herein in a suitable manner to perform the methods described herein, e.g., in a suitable dose, dosage form, or mode of administration (e.g., a dose, dosage form, or mode of administration described herein). In another embodiment, the informational material can include instructions to administer a compound described herein to a suitable subject, e.g., a human, e.g., a human having or at risk for a disorder described herein.
The informational material of the kits is not limited in its form. In many cases, the informational material, e.g., instructions, is provided in printed matter, e.g., a printed text, drawing, and/or photograph, e.g., a label or printed sheet. However, the informational material can also be provided in other formats, such as Braille, computer readable material, video recording, or audio recording. In another embodiment, the informational material of the kit is contact information, e.g., a physical address, email address, website, or telephone number, where a user of the kit can obtain substantive information about a compound described herein and/or its use in the methods described herein. Of course, the informational material can also be provided in any combination of formats.
In addition to a compound described herein, the composition of the kit can include other ingredients, such as a solvent or buffer, a stabilizer, a preservative, a flavoring agent (e.g., a bitter antagonist or a sweetener), a fragrance or other cosmetic ingredient, and/or a second agent for treating a condition or disorder described herein. Alternatively, the other ingredients can be included in the kit, but in different compositions or containers than a compound described herein. In such embodiments, the kit can include instructions for admixing a compound described herein and the other ingredients, or for using a compound described herein together with the other ingredients.
A compound described herein can be provided in any form, e.g., liquid, dried or lyophilized form. It is preferred that a compound described herein be substantially pure and/or sterile. When a compound described herein is provided in a liquid solution, the liquid solution preferably is an aqueous solution, with a sterile aqueous solution being preferred. When a compound described herein is provided as a dried form, reconstitution generally is by the addition of a suitable solvent. The solvent, e.g., sterile water or buffer, can optionally be provided in the kit.
The kit can include one or more containers for the composition containing a compound described herein. In some embodiments, the kit contains separate containers, dividers or compartments for the composition and informational material. For example, the composition can be contained in a bottle, vial, or syringe, and the informational material can be contained in a plastic sleeve or packet. In other embodiments, the separate elements of the kit are contained within a single, undivided container. For example, the composition is contained in a bottle, vial or syringe that has attached thereto the informational material in the form of a label. In some embodiments, the kit includes a plurality (e.g., a pack) of individual containers, each containing one or more unit dosage forms (e.g., a dosage form described herein) of a compound described herein. For example, the kit includes a plurality of syringes, ampules, foil packets, or blister packs, each containing a single unit dose of a compound described herein. The containers of the kits can be air tight, waterproof (e.g., impermeable to changes in moisture or evaporation), and/or light-tight.
The kit optionally includes a device suitable for administration of the composition, e.g., a syringe, inhalant, pipette, forceps, measured spoon, dropper (e.g., eye dropper), swab (e.g., a cotton swab or wooden swab), or any such delivery device. In a preferred embodiment, the device is a medical implant device, e.g., packaged for surgical insertion.Genetic Information
SIRT1 genetic information can be obtained, e.g., by evaluating genetic material (e.g., DNA or RNA) from a subject (e.g., as described below). Genetic information refers to any indication about nucleic acid sequence content at one or more nucleotides. Genetic information can include, for example, an indication about the presence or absence of a particular polymorphism, e.g., one or more nucleotide variations. Exemplary polymorphisms include a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), a restriction site or restriction fragment length, an insertion, an inversion, a deletion, a repeat (e.g., trinucleotide repeat, a retroviral repeat), and so forth.
Exemplary SIRT1 SNPs are listed in Table 2.
It is possible to digitally record or communicate genetic information in a variety of ways. Typical representations include one or more bits, or a text string. For example, a biallelic marker can be described using two bits. In one embodiment, the first bit indicates whether the first allele (e.g., the minor allele) is present, and the second bit indicates whether the other allele (e.g., the major allele) is present. For markers that are multi-allelic, e.g., where greater than two alleles are possible, additional bits can be used as well as other forms of encoding (e.g., binary, hexadecimal text, e.g., ASCII or Unicode, and so forth). In some embodiments, the genetic information describes a haplotype, e.g., a plurality of polymorphisms on the same chromosome. However, in many embodiments, the genetic information is unphased.
A decision about whether to administer a compound described herein can be made depending on the genetic information about SIRT1. For example, a method for administering a compound described herein can include evaluating nucleic acid from a subject to obtain genetic information about SIRT1 or another sirtuin, and administering a compound described herein.Databases
The invention also features a database that associates information about or identifying one or more of the compounds described herein with a parameter about a patient, e.g., a patient being treated with a disorder herein. The parameter can be a general parameter, e.g., blood pressure, core body temperature, etc., or a parameter related to a specific disease or disorder, e.g., as described herein.EXAMPLES
In all of the Examples below, compounds are referred to as they correspond to their designation in Table 1 (i.e., exemplified compounds).Example 1 HeLa Apoptosis Assay
The following exemplary compounds were evaluated for their effect on a HeLa cell apoptosis assay using the Cell Death Detection ELISA plus kit from Roche Applied Science.
In order to determine if the mammalian enzyme is inhibited by compound 8, 293T cells were transfected with a construct designed to express human SIRT1 fused to glutathione-S-transferase to allow for rapid purification from cell extracts. Following lysis cell extracts were incubated with glutathione-Sepharose beads followed by several washes in lysis buffer and a final wash in SIRT1 enzyme assay buffer. Beads with bound GST-SIRT1 were added to the Fleur-de-lys assay (Biomol) in the presence of a range of concentrations of compound 8. As can be seen in
As can be seen in
Enantiomers of compound 8 were tested, where each enantiomer had a purity of greater than 90% enantiomeric excess, to determine if a single enantiomer was more potent than a mixture of enantiomers. NCI-H460 cells were treated for 6 hours with compounds 8(+) and 8(−) in the presence of 20 micromolar etoposide followed by lysis and immunoprecipitaion of p53 using Ab-6 (Oncogene Science). Extracts were probed with an antibody that recognizes acetylated lysine 382 of p53 (Cell Signaling).
In the results of the experiment below, which is depicted in
The experiment depicted in
Compound 8 inhibits the SIRT1 enzyme in additional cells. Cell lines U2OS and MCF7 cell lines were treated with compound 8 in the presence of 20 micromolar etoposide (TOPO) for 6 hours followed by lysis and immunoprecipitation with p53 Ab-6 conjugated to agarose beads. Samples were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted with an antibody that recognizes acetylated lysine 382 of p53. The results depicted in
In order to assess whether the affects of compound 8 on p53 acetylation lead to changes in p53 function on experiment was performed to measure cell survival after DNA damage. NCI-H460 cells were damaged with varying concentrations of etoposide in the presence or absence of SIRT1 inhibitors. As depicted in
Cells were plated at a density of 800 per well in 96 well cytostar plates in the presence of a range of etoposide concentrations and 1 micromolar compound 8. Thymidine incorporation was measured at 24 hours intervals. As depicted in
HEK293 cells were serum starved in the presence or absence of compound 8 for 24 hrs followed by lysis and immunoblotting analysis of p27 protein. As can be seen in
HeLa cells were transfected with GFP-hSIRT2isoform 1 (green). At 36 hours post transfection 1 μM of TSA and either DMSO or 50 μM of compound 8 was added. The next morning cells were fixed, permeabilized, and stained for acetylated tubulin (red). In cells treated with DMSO there was very little acetylated tubulin in cells expressing SIRT2, in cells treated with compound 8 the tubulin is more highly acetylated indicating that the effect of SIRT2 was blocked.
It was also possible to observe the effect of the compounds using Western analysis. 293T cells were transfected with either eGFP (control) or with mouse SIRT2 Isoform 1 (mSIRT2). TSA was added to increase amount of acetylated tubulin and at the same time either DMSO or the compound listed below were added to 10 aM.
- 1 Prepare amount of 2× Substrates necessary for the number of wells to be assayed. 5 ul per well is needed
- 2 Dispense 5 ul 2× substrates to test wells
- 3 Dispense 1 ul of test compound to the test wells
- Dispense 1 ul of compound solvent/diluent to the positive control wells
- Dispense I ul of 1 mM nicotinamide to the 50% inhibition wells
- Dispense 1 ul of 10 mM nicotinamide to the 100% inhibition wells
- 4 Dispense 4 ul of assay buffer to negative control wells (no enzyme controls)
- 5 Prepare amount of enzyme necessary for number of wells to assay. 4 ul enzyme mix needed per well
- 6 Dispense 4 ul of enzyme mix to the test wells and positive control wells
- 7 Cover and incubate at 37 C for 45 minutes
- 8 Less then 30 minutes before use, prepare amount of 1× developer/stop reagent for the number of wells being assayed
- 9 Dispense 10 ul 1× developer/stop reagent to all wells
- 1 Incubate at room temperature for at least 15 minutes
- 1 Read in fluorescence plate reader, excitation=350-380 nm, emission=440-460
- 1 Fluor de Lys in the substrate has an intrinsic fluorescence that needs to be subtracted
- 2 as background before any calculations are to be done on the data. These values can be found in the negative control wells.
- 1 Determine the concentration range of deacetylated standard to use in conjunction with the above assay by making a 1 uM dilution of the standard. Mix 10 ul of the 1 uM dilution with 10 ul developer and read at the same wavelengths and sensitivity settings that the assay is read at. Use this estimate of AFU (arbitrary fluorescence units)/uM to determine the range of concentrations to test in the standard curve.
- 2 Prepare, in assay buffer, a series of dilutions of the Fluor de Lys deactylated standard that span the desired concentration range
- 3 Pipet 10 ul assay buffer to the ‘zero’ wells
- 4 Pipet 10 ul of the standard dilutions into wells
- 5 Pipet 10 ul developer to the wells and incubate 15 minutes at RT
- 6 Read plate at above wavelengths
- 7 Plot fluorescence signal (y) versus concentration of the Fluor de Lys deacetylated standard (x) and determine the slope as AFU/uM
Protocol for Testing for Inhibitors of the Developer Reaction
- 1 From the standard curve select concentration of deacetylated standard that gives a fluorescence signal equivalent to positive controls in assay (eg. 5 uM)
- 2 Dispense 5 ul 2× deacetylated standard (eg. 10 uM)
- 3 Dispense 1 ul compound, 4 ul assay buffer
- 4 Dispense 10 ul developer
- 5 Incubate at room temp 15 minutes (or equivalent time as in screen) and read at same settings as screen
Methyl 2-oxo-1-cycloheptanecarboxylate (50 g, 294 mmole) was dissolved in carbon tetrachloride (200 mL) and chilled to 0° C. Bromine (46.8 g, 294 mmole) was added via addition funnel over −30 minutes. The cooling bath was then removed and the reaction was allowed to warm to rt. The reaction was stirred under nitrogen at room temperature for 4 days. After 4 days the solution was poured into a separatory funnel containing water (IL). The organic was washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. Removal of the solvent in vacuo gave (72.4 g, 291 mmole, 99% crude yield). The material was carried on without further purification.Preparation of methyl 2-chloro-5,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydrocyclohepta[b]indole-6-carboxylate
Methyl 3-bromo-2-oxocycloheptanecarboxylate (16.8 g, 67.4 mmol) and 4-chloroaniline (18.4 g, 98%, 2.13 eq, 143.6 mmol) were added to flask with thermometer, nitrogen inlet and mechanical stirring machine. As the temperature of the mixture passed 140° C. a relatively rapid exotherm and vigorous evolution of gas occurred. The reaction was cooled with water immediately. The reaction mixture was dissolved in DCM (200 mL). The material was transferred into a separatory funnel and washed with water (2×50 mL), 3 HCl (3×50 mL), water (2×50 mL), brine, dried over Na2SO4, and the solvent was removed by vacuo. The crude residue was applied to a Biotage and eluted with 9/1 heptane/ethyl acetate to afford product 10 g (53%) as an off white solid, which was used for next reaction without further purification.Preparation of 2-chloro-5,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydrocyclohepta[b]indole-6-carboxamide
Methyl 2-chloro-5,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydrocyclohepta[b]indole-6-carboxylate (10 g, 36 mmol) was dissolved in 7 N ammonia in methanol (350 mL) and transferred to Parr pressure reactor. The reaction vessel was purged briefly to displace any air with Nitrogen. The reaction was then heated to 90° C. for 48 h. The reaction was cooled to r.t. and the solvent removed in vacuo, the crude residue was applied to a Biotage and eluted with grading (1/1 heptane/ethyl acetate to 0/1 heptane/ethyl acetate) to afford product as an off white foam, which was triturated with DCM to afford pure product 2 g (21%) as an off white solid.
A number of embodiments of the invention have been described. Nevertheless, it will be understood that various modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Other embodiments are in the claims.
1. A method of treating a neurodegenerative disease or disorder in which the neurodegenerative disorder can be mediated at least in part by polyglutamine aggregation, the method comprising administering a compound of formula (XI):
- R6 is halo, hydroxy, C1-C10 alkyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, C1-C10 alkoxy, C1-C6 haloalkoxy, C6-C10 aryl, C5-C10 heteroaryl, C7-C12 aralkyl, C7-C12 heteroaralkyl, C3-C8 heterocyclyl, C2-C12 alkenyl, C2-C12 alkynyl, C5-C10 cycloalkenyl, C5-C10 heterocycloalkenyl, carboxy, carboxylate, cyano, nitro, amino, C1-C6 alkyl amino, C1-C6 dialkyl amino, mercapto, SO3H, sulfate, S(O)NH2, S(O)2NH2, phosphate, C1-C4 alkylenedioxy, oxo, acyl, aminocarbonyl, C1-C6 alkyl aminocarbonyl, C1-C6 dialkyl aminocarbonyl, C1-C10 alkoxycarbonyl, C1-C10 thioalkoxycarbonyl, hydrazinocarbonyl, C1-C6 alkyl hydrazinocarbonyl, C1-C6 dialkyl hydrazinocarbonyl, hydroxyaminocarbonyl; or alkoxyaminocarbonyl; and
- p is 0, 1, or 2.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein R6 is halo, C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl or C1-C6 haloalkoxy.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein R6 is halo or C1-C6 alkyl.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein R6 is chloro or methyl.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the compound is 6-Chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxylic acid amide.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein the disease is Huntington's disease, Spinalbulbar Muscular Atrophy (SBMA or Kennedy's Disease) Dentatorubropallidoluysian Atrophy (DRPLA), Spinocerebellar Ataxia 1 (SCA1), Spinocerebellar Ataxia 2 (SCA2), Machado-Joseph Disease (MJD; SCA3), Spinocerebellar Ataxia 6 (SCA6), Spinocerebellar Ataxia 7 (SCA7), or Spinocerebellar Ataxia 12 (SCA12).
7. The method of claim 1, wherein the disease is Huntington's disease.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein the compound is present in a composition comprising a racemic mixture of a compound of formula (XI).
Filed: Jun 4, 2015
Publication Date: Apr 28, 2016
Applicant: ELIXIR PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. (Cambridge, MA)
Inventors: Andrew D. Napper (Chadds Ford, PA), Peter DiStefano (Cambridge, MA), Rory Curtis (Ashland, MA), Jeffrey Hixon (Salisbury, MA), Thomas E. McDonagh (Acton, MA), L. Julie Huber (Newton, MA), Jonathan M. Solomon (Somerville, MA), Russel J. Thomas (Wootton), Jean-francois Pons (Abingdon)
Application Number: 14/730,398