Diagnosis of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias (HSP) by Identification of a Mutation in the ZFYVE26 Gene or Protein
The Invention relates to an ex vivo method of diagnosing or predicting a hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP), in a subject, which method comprises detecting a mutation in the ZFYVE26 gene or protein (spastizin), wherein said mutation is indicative of a hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP).
This application is a continuation of U.S. Ser. No. 13/664,868 filed Oct. 31, 2012, now U.S. Pat. No. 9,522,933, which itself was a continuation of U.S. Ser. No. 12/934,841, now abandoned, which was a Rule 371 national stage application of PCT/EP2009/053838 filed Mar. 31, 2009.FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The invention relates to the identification of mutations in the ZFYVE26 gene or protein, associated with a hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP), and to diagnostic applications that benefit from this identification.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION:
Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are genetically heterogeneous Mendelian disorders characterized by weakness, spasticity and loss of vibratory sense in the lower limbs (Harding et al. 1983; Tallaksen et al. 2001; Fink et al, 2006; Depienne et al, 2007; Stevanin et al, 2008). They reveal themselves clinically through difficulties in walking possibly evolving into total paralysis of both legs. The physiopathology of this set of diseases is, to date, relatively undocumented; however, anatomopathological data make it possible to conclude that the attack in pure forms of the disease is limited to the pyramidal tracts responsible for voluntary motricity in the spinal cord. The incidence of HSPs, which remains difficult to estimate because of rare epidemiological studies and the considerable clinical variability, varies from 0.9:100000 in Denmark, 3 to 9.6:100000 in certain regions of Spain (Polo et al., 1991) 5:100000 in South-Tunisia (Boukrhis et al, 2009) or 14:100000 in Norway (Skre, 1974) (approximately 3:100000 in France). Various clinical and genetic forms of HSP exist. The so-called “pure” HSPs, which correspond to isolated spasticity of the lower limbs, are clinically distinguished from the “complex” HSPs, for which the spasticity of the legs is associated with other clinical signs of neurological or non-neurological type.
Although forms of HSP have been recognized for over a century, new phenotypes are regularly described, demonstrating wide clinical heterogeneity. Genetically, autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR) and X-linked inheritance are observed and almost 34 genetic loci have been identified, but only 17 genes have been cloned (Depienne et al, 2007; Stevanin et al, 2008a). According to the putative roles of these genes, mitochondrial function, protein folding, abnormal development, cholesterol/neurosteroid metabolism and axonal transport have been implicated in the dying back of pyramidal tract axons in these disorders (Stevanin et al, 2008a).
The most common forms of AD-HSP, accounting for about 40-50% of cases (Depienne et al, 2007; Stevanin et al, 2008a), are caused by mutations in the SPG4 and SPG3A genes that encode for spartin and atlastin, respectively (Hazan et al. 1990, Zhao et al. 2001 and international patent application WO 01/18198). In AR-HSP, which is less common and more varied in clinical presentation, greater genetic heterogeneity is expected but SPG11 (patent application N° 06 291 433.8) was found to be frequently mutated, accounting for ˜21% of all ARHSP, but up to 59% of ARHSP with thin corpus callosum and mental impairment (Stevanin et al, 2007 and 2008b). The five other AR-HSP genes cloned so far (details are available on the “Online Mendelien Inheritance in Man” database at http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=0MIM), encoding for CYP7B1 (SPG5, MIM#270800, Tsaousidou et al. 2008), paraplegin (SPG7, MIM#607259, Casari et al. 1998), spartin (SPG20; MIM#275900, Patel et al. 2002) and maspardin (SPG21, MIM 248900, Simpson et al. 2003) as well as the gene responsible for the related spastic ataxia of Charlevoix Saguenay (ARSACS, MIM#270550, Engert et al. 2000) probably represent less than 10% of all cases (Depienne et al, 2007; Stevanin et al, 2008a).
In a clinical point of view, a very common form of AR-HSP associates spastic paraplegia, mental or cognitive deficit and thin corpus callosum (Martinez et al 1999, Shibasaki et al. 2000, Casali et al. 2004, Winner et al. 2004 and 2005, Lossos et al. 2006, Stevanin et al. 2006, Franca et al, 2007, Boukhris et al 2008a). The majority of the families appear to be linked to the SPG11 gene (Stevanin et al, 2007, Stevanin et al, 2008b). In the patent application N° 06 291 433.8 related to this SPG11 gene, the inventors claimed to have identified a gene responsible for a frequent form of Autosomal Recessive Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (AR-HSP). They have indeed demonstrated that the disease is caused by mutations in the KIAA1840 gene (also known as FLJ21439), affecting the spatacsin protein expression, which was further confirmed independently by other groups (for review, see Stevanin et al, 2008a). The typical clinical features of this disease consist of early-onset spastic paraplegia (usually <20 years), urinary bladder dysfunction, deep sensory deficits in the legs and cognitive impairment that progress insidiously to severe functional disability over a period of 10-20 years (Winner et al, 2005; Franca et al, 2007, Boukhris et al 2008a). Some patients also develop arm involvement, dysarthria, contractures and muscle atrophy. Auxiliary studies frequently identify a thin corpus callosum (TCC) with white matter lesions and variable cerebral cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), variable cortical and thalamic glucose hypometabolism on positron emission tomography and predominantly axonal motor or sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy on nerve conduction studies (Winner et al. 2004).
Other loci have been found associated with this phenotype however: SPG15 (Hughes et al 2000), SPG21 (Simpson et al, 2003), HSP with epilespy (Al-Yahyaee, 2006) and occasionally SPG7 (Coutinho et al, 1999) or SPG4 (Orlacchio et al, 2004). More particularly, SPG15 was thought to be a rare form of spastic paraplegia associated with pigmentary maculopathy, also known as the Kjellin syndrome (MIM 270700, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim/), when it was mapped in two Irish families to a region of 16 Mb on chromosome 14q (Hughes et al, 2000). Recently, the inventors identified 7 families linked to SPG15 locus (Elleuch et al, 2007; Boukhris et al, 2008a and 2008b); Muglia et al, submitted), reduced its size to 5.3 Mb between markers D14S981 and rs8688 (Elleuch et al, 2007) then between markers VNTR25TG (identified in the human genome sequence by the inventors, primers in the table 4) and D14S1029 (
The inventors have now identified a new gene responsible for a complicated Autosomal Recessive Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (AR-HSP). They have indeed demonstrated that the disease is caused by mutations in the ZFYVE26 gene (also known as KIAA0321), which are located at various positions along the gene (
The invention therefore provides the identification of a frequent gene responsible of AR-HSPs and opens thereby new opportunities to improve diagnosis and genetic counselling of said disease. Moreover, the invention also provides a mean to improve the medical care management of patient affected with said disease. In addition, since most patients with spastic paraplegia have isolated forms, it is conceivable that this new gene could account for a small proportion of these patients as well. Indeed, in Europe, due to the small size of the families, recessively inherited diseases are often found in apparently isolated cases.
A first aspect of the invention thus relates to an ex vivo method of diagnosing or predicting a hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP), in a subject, which method comprises detecting a mutation in the ZFYVE26 gene or protein (spastizin), wherein said mutation is indicative of a hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP).
A second aspect of the invention relates to an isolated nucleic acid specifically hybridizable to a region of ZFYVE26 gene that contains a mutation selected from the group consisting of:
- the substitutions: c.307G>T, c.427G>T, c.1240G>T, c.1477C>T, c.2182C>T, c.4312C>T, c.5422C>T, c.5791 −6G>A/ r.5791_5792ins5791-4_5791-1, c.5485 −1G>A (predicted to alter splicing), c.7128+2T>A/ r.6987_7128del, c.6011G>C (predicated to alter splicing),
- the deletions: c.2049delT, c.4068_4069deITG, c.5036delT, c.6702_6771del,
- the insertions: c.2331_2332insA, c.6296_6297insT,
- the complex rearrangement: g.67316025_67319414del/g.67316025_67316026insTCTA/g.67319319_67319414inv. Such an isolated nucleic acid can be used as a primer or probe.
More preferentially the invention relates to an isolated nucleic acid, which comprises a ZFYVE26 gene or cDNA or mRNA sequence that contains one or several mutation(s) selected from the group consisting of
- the substitutions: c.307G>T, c.427G>T, c.1240G>T, c.1477C>T, c.2182C>T, c.4312C>T, c.5422C>T, c.5791 −6G>A/ r.5791_5792ins5791-4_5791-1, c.5485 −1G>A (predicted to alter splicing), c.7128+2T>A/ r.6987_7128del, c.6011G>C (predicated to alter splicing),
- the deletions: c.2049delT, c.4068_4069deITG, c.5036delT, c.6702_6771del,
- the insertions: c.2331_2332insA, c.6296_6297insT,
- the complex rearrangement: g.67316025_67319414del/g.67316025_67316026 insTCTA/g.67319319_67319414inv.
Another aspect of the invention relates to an isolated polypeptide which comprises the amino acid sequence of the spastizin or ZFYVE26 protein containing one or several mutation(s) selected from the group consisting of p.E103X, p.E143X, p.E414X, p.Q493X, p.F683LfsX685, p.R728X, p.D778RfsX793, p.R1209fsX1220, p.C1356fsX1356, p.R1438X, p.L1679RfsX1687, p.Q1808X, p.A1931PfxX1957X, p.S2004T, p.L2099LfsX2111, p.W2234CfsX2238, p.R2329RfsX2337 and those resulting from aberrant splicing identified by the inventors but for which the consequence on the protein, although clearly deleterious in silico since affecting splicing consensus sequences, could not be verified because of the absence of patient's cells for their analysis up to now (c.5485 −1G>A, c.6011G>C). In addition, it should be noted that the consequence of the 6011G>C mutation might result in a missense substitution (p.S2004T) and/or of aberrant splicing (since affecting the last codon of an exon and predicted in silico to strongly alter splicing) or both.
Another aspect of the invention relates to an isolated monoclonal or polyclonal antibody that specifically recognizes a ZFYVE26 protein containing a mutation selected from the group consisting of p.E103X, p.E143X, p.E414X, p.Q493X, p.F683LfsX685, p.R728X, p.D778RfsX793, p.R1209fsX1220, p.C1356fsX1356, p.R1438X, p.L1679RfsX1687, p.Q1808X, p.A1931PfxX1957X, p.S2004T, p.L2099LfsX2111, p.W2234CfsX2238, p.R2329RfsX2337 and those resulting from aberrant splicing identified by the inventors but for which the consequence on the protein, although clearly deleterious in silico since affecting splicing consensus sequences, could not be verified because of the absence of patient's cells for their analysis up to now (c.5485 −1G>A, c.6011 G>C).
Another aspect of the present invention relates to the use of a monoclonal or polyclonal antibody recognizing the wild type protein to identify truncated forms of the protein spastizin.DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Definitions
A “coding sequence” or a sequence “encoding” an expression product, such as a RNA, polypeptide, protein, or enzyme, is a nucleotide sequence that, when expressed, results in the production of that RNA, polypeptide, protein, or enzyme, i.e., the nucleotide sequence encodes an amino acid sequence for that polypeptide, protein or enzyme. A coding sequence for a protein may include a start codon (usually ATG) and a stop codon.
The term “gene” means a DNA sequence that codes for or corresponds to a particular sequence of amino acids which comprise all or part of one or more proteins or enzymes, and may or may not include regulatory DNA sequences, such as promoter sequences, which determine for example the conditions under which the gene is expressed. Some genes, which are not structural genes, may be transcribed from DNA to RNA, but are not translated into an amino acid sequence. Other genes may function as regulators of structural genes or as regulators of DNA transcription. In particular, the term gene may be intended for the genomic sequence encoding a protein, i.e. a sequence comprising regulator, promoter, intron and exon sequences.
As used herein, the term “oligonucleotide” refers to a nucleic acid, generally of at least 10, preferably at least 15, and more preferably at least 20 nucleotides, preferably no more than 100 nucleotides, still preferably no more than 70 nucleotides, and which is hybridizable to a ZFYVE26 genomic DNA, cDNA, or mRNA. Oligonucleotides can be labelled according to any technique known in the art, such as with radiolabels, fluorescent labels, enzymatic labels, sequence tags, etc. A labelled oligonucleotide may be used as a probe to detect the presence of a mutated ZFYVE26 nucleic acid. Alternatively, oligonucleotides (one or both of which may be labelled) can be used for amplifying a ZFYVE26 nucleic acid, for instance by PCR (Saiki et al., 1988), to detect the presence of a mutation. Generally, oligonucleotides are prepared synthetically, preferably on a nucleic acid synthesizer. Accordingly, oligonucleotides can be prepared with non-naturally occurring phosphoester analog bonds, such as thioester bonds, etc.
A nucleic acid molecule is “hybridizable” or “hybridizes” to another nucleic acid molecule, such as a cDNA, genomic DNA, or RNA, when a single stranded form of the nucleic acid molecule can anneal to the other nucleic acid molecule under the appropriate conditions of temperature and solution ionic strength (Sambrook et al., 1989).
The conditions of temperature and ionic strength determine the “stringency” of the hybridization. For preliminary screening for homologous nucleic acids, low stringency hybridization conditions, corresponding to a Tm (melting temperature) of 55° C., can be used, e.g., 5×SSC, 0.1% SDS, 0.25% milk, and no formamide; or 30% formamide, 5×SSC, 0.5% SDS). Moderate stringency hybridization conditions correspond to a higher Tm, e.g., 40% formamide, with 5× or 6×SCC. High stringency hybridization conditions correspond to the highest Tm, e.g., 50% formamide, 5× or 6×SCC. SCC is a 0.15 M NaCl, 0.015 M Na-citrate. Hybridization requires that the two nucleic acids contain complementary sequences, although depending on the stringency of the hybridization, mismatches between bases are possible. The appropriate stringency for hybridizing nucleic acids depends on the length of the nucleic acids and the degree of complementation, variables well known in the art. The greater the degree of similarity or homology between two nucleotide sequences, the greater the value of Tm for hybrids of nucleic acids having those sequences. The relative stability (corresponding to higher Tm) of nucleic acid hybridizations decreases in the following order: RNA:RNA, DNA:RNA, DNA:DNA. For hybrids of greater than 100 nucleotides in length, equations for calculating Tm have been derived (see Sambrook et al., 1989, 9.50-9.51). For hybridization with shorter nucleic acids, i.e., oligonucleotides, the position of mismatches becomes more important, and the length of the oligonucleotide determines its specificity (see Sambrook et al., 1989 11.7-11.8). A minimum length for a hybridizable nucleic acid is at least about 10 nucleotides, preferably at least about 15 nucleotides, and more preferably the length is at least about 20 nucleotides.
In a specific embodiment, the term “standard hybridization conditions” refers to a Tm of 55° C., and utilizes conditions as set forth above. In a preferred embodiment, the Tm is 60° C. In a more preferred embodiment, the Tm is 65° C. In a specific embodiment, “high stringency” refers to hybridization and/or washing conditions at 68° C. in 0.2×SSC, at 42° C. in 50% formamide, 4×SSC, or under conditions that afford levels of hybridization equivalent to those observed under either of these two conditions.
As used herein, an “amplification primer” is an oligonucleotide for amplification of a target sequence by extension of the oligonucleotide after hybridization to the target sequence or by ligation of multiple oligonucleotides, which are adjacent when hybridized to the target sequence. At least a portion of the amplification primer hybridizes to the target. This portion is referred to as the target binding sequence and it determines the target-specificity of the primer. In addition to the target binding sequence, certain amplification methods require specialized non-target binding sequences in the amplification primer. These specialized sequences are necessary for the amplification reaction to proceed and typically serve to append the specialized sequence to the target. For example, the amplification primers used in Strand Displacement Amplification (SDA) include a restriction endonuclease recognition site 5′ to the target binding sequence (U.S. Pat. No. 5,455,166 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,270,184). Nucleic Acid Based Amplification (NASBA), self-sustaining sequence replication (3SR) and transcription based amplification primers require an RNA polymerase promoter linked to the target binding sequence of the primer. Linking such specialized sequences to a target binding sequence for use in a selected amplification reaction is routine in the art. In contrast, amplification methods such as PCR, which do not require specialized sequences at the ends of the target, generally employ amplification primers consisting of only target binding sequence.
As used herein, the terms “primer” and “probe” refer to the function of the oligonucleotide. A primer is typically extended by polymerase or ligation following hybridization to the target but a probe typically is not. A hybridized oligonucleotide may function as a probe if it is used to capture or detect a target sequence, and the same oligonucleotide may function as a primer when it is employed as a target binding sequence in an amplification primer. It will therefore be appreciated that any of the target binding sequences disclosed herein for amplification, detection or quantisation of ZFYVE26 may be used either as hybridization probes or as target binding sequences in primers for detection or amplification, optionally linked to a specialized sequence required by the selected amplification reaction or to facilitate detection.
As used herein, the terms “ZFYVE26 gene” (or its synonyms: SPG15, KIAA0321) denotes the ZFYVE26 gene of any species, especially human, but also other mammals or vertebrates to which the methods of the invention can apply. The human ZFYVE26 gene encodes a large protein of 2539 amino-acids (aa) of unknown function that the inventors have named Spastizin (SPASTIcity due to the ZFYVE26 proteIN) (SEQ ID NO: 2). Homo sapiens ZFYVE26 gene consists of 42 exons (Table 1) covering a genomic region of 70,064 bp (deposited in Genbank under accession number NC——000014, see Table 1) localized on chromosome 14q24.1 (
The ZFYVE26 protein, belongs to the FYVE-finger family, which includes more than 30 different members in mammals, including ZFYVE27 (Gillooly et al. 2001, Seet et al, 2001; Mannan et al, 2006). The FYVE domain is a highly conserved zinc-finger binding domain characterized by the presence of eight conserved cysteine residues, the third of which is flanked by characteristic basic amino acids: CX2CX9-39RRHHCRXCX4CX2-6CX4-48CX2C (where X represents non-conserved amino acid residues) and is suggested to bind the FYVE-finger proteins to endosomes. The majority of FYVE-finger proteins is involved in interactions with different forms of phosphoinositides and serve as regulators of endocytic membrane trafficking (Gillooly et al, 2001). All mutations identified by the inventors in the SPG15 families (
As used herein, the term “Spastizin” denotes the “SPASTIcity due to the ZFYVE26 proteIN”, which is encoded by the ZFYVE26 gene. The amino-acid sequence of the human form is shown in SEQ ID NO:2.
The terms “mutant” and “mutation” mean any detectable change in genetic material, e.g. DNA, RNA, cDNA, or any process, mechanism, or result of such a change. This includes gene mutations, in which the structure (e.g. DNA sequence) of a gene is altered, any gene or DNA arising from any mutation process, and any expression product (e.g. protein or enzyme) expressed by a modified gene or DNA sequence. Generally a mutation is identified in a subject by comparing the sequence of a nucleic acid or polypeptide expressed by said subject with the corresponding nucleic acid or polypeptide expressed in a control population. A mutation in the genetic material may also be “silent”, i.e. the mutation does not result in an alteration of the amino acid sequence of the expression product.
In the context of the instant application, mutations identified in ZFYVE26 gene are designated pursuant to the nomenclature of Den Dunnen et al. 2001 approved by the Human Genome Variation Society (http://www.genomic.unimelb.edu.au/mdi/mutnomen/). According to the invention, the position +1 in ZFYVE26 gene is the A of the start codon ATG of the cDNA sequence (see
As defined by Dunnen and Antonarakis at the nucleic acid level, substitutions are designated by “c.position(nt)>(nt)”, e.g. “c.1240G>T denotes that at nucleotide 1240 of the reference sequence G is changed to a T. The mutation at the protein level is denoted p.E414X: which means that a glutamic acid (E or Glu) at position 414 encoded by GAG is replaced by a STOP (TAG). Deletions are designated by “del” after the deleted interval (following the deleted nucleotides). For instance c.2049delT denotes a T deletion at nucleotide 2049. The consequence of this deletion, p.F683LfsX3, is a frameshift (“fs”) leading to the replacement of aminoacid phenylalanine (F or Phe) at position 683 by a Leucine (L or Leu) and appearance of a premature STOP codon (“X”) 2 codons after (F683 considered at position 1), at codon 685. An alternative nomenclature is to indicate the position of the stop codon in the resulting protein after the X; p.Phe683LeufsX685 indicates that the stop codon resulting from the mutation is at codon 685. Insertions are designated by “ins,” followed by the inserted nucleotides. For example, c. 6296_6297insT denotes that a T was inserted between nucleotides 6296 and 6297. This leads to a frameshift maintaining the Leucine at position 2099 but leading to a premature STOP codon at position 2111: p.L2099LfsX2111. Inversions are designated by “inv”, after positions of the inverted nucleotides. For example g.67319319-67319414inv denotes that nucleotides from positions 67319319 to 67319414 have been inverted. This inversion occurred at the genomic level and is not purely affecting the coding sequence as indicated by “g.”
Sometimes, complex rearrangements are observed and their exact mechanism of origin is unknown: for example, the mutation g.67316025 67319414del/g.67316025 67316026insTCTA/g.67319319_67319414inv likely combines at least three events which are a large deletion, a small insertion and the inversion of a small motif (
Another class of mutations affects the correct splicing of a gene either directly by altering the splicing consensus sequences at intron-exon junctions or indirectly by alteration of exonic sequences responsible for the binding of enhancers of splicing elements (ESE: http://rulai.cshl.edu/cgi-bin/tools/ESE3/esefinder.cgi?process=home). More frequently and easily, splicing mutations are found at exon-intron junctions. For example the c.6011G>C mutation in ZFYVE26 is located at the end of exon 32 in the splicing consensus sequence and its splice site score (see legend of table 2), which represent the probability of a given site to be cognized by the splicing machinery, decreases from +4.5 to +0.7. In that case, because mRNA of patients was not available, the effect of the mutation, although likely, could not be verified and is therefore indicated “r.?” (r for RNA level) by convention. However, since the mutation is present in the exon, it can also alter the protein if synthesized and this fact is indicated too: p.S2004T so that the full description of the mutation is: c.6011G>C, r.?, p.S2004T. In another example, the mutation c.5791-6G>A is found in intron 31, again in a splicing consensus sequence. While there is no direct effect of the mutation in the coding sequence, in silico predictions indicate that there is creation of a novel splicing site with a better splice score of +4.2 versus +3.7. This was validated on mRNA of patients after PCR using flanking primers followed by direct sequencing of the PCR product allowing to precise the exact mutational effect which is a misplaced splicing leading to incorporation of 4 intronic bases to the mRNA (r.5791_5792ins5791-4_5791-1) and subsequent protein modification with frameshift and premature stop codon (p.A1931PfsX1957X).
Thus, the ZFYVE26 mutations according to the invention are as follows:
- c.307G>T which denotes that at nucleotide 307 (which corresponds to the position 442 in SEQ ID NO:1) of the ZFYVE26 sequence (coding sequence) G is changed to a T,
- c.427G>T which denotes that at nucleotide 427 (which corresponds to the position 562 in SEQ ID NO:1) of the ZFYVE26 sequence (coding sequence) G is changed to a T,
- c.1240G>T which denotes that at nucleotide 1240 (which corresponds to the position 1375 in SEQ ID NO:1) of the ZFYVE26 sequence (coding sequence) G is changed to a T,
- c.1477C>T which denotes that at nucleotide 1477 (which corresponds to the position 1612 in SEQ ID NO:1) of the ZFYVE26 sequence (coding sequence) C is changed to a T,
- c.2182C>T which denotes that at nucleotide 2182 (which corresponds to the position 2317 in SEQ ID NO:1) of the ZFYVE26 sequence (coding sequence) C is changed to a T,
- c.4312C>T which denotes that at nucleotide 4312 (which corresponds to the position 4447 in SEQ ID NO:1) of the ZFYVE26 sequence (coding sequence) C is changed to a T,
- c.5422C>T which denotes that at nucleotide 5422 (which corresponds to the position 5557 in SEQ ID NO:1) of the ZFYVE26 sequence (coding sequence) C is changed to a T,
- c.5791 −6G>A/r.5791_5792ins579I -4 5791-1, which denotes that at the intronic nucleotide −6 before the exonic nucleotide 5791, the G is changed to A and which causes an insertion between nucleotide 5791 and 5792 of 4 intronic bases positioned at −4 to −1 relative to position 5791(see table 1 for the position of the nucleotides).
- c.5485 −1G>A which denotes that at intronic nucleotide −1 before the exonic nucleotide 5485 the G is changed to A (see table 1 for the position of the nucleotides).
- c.7128+2T>A/ r.6987 7128del which denotes that at intronic nucleotide +2 after the exonic nucleotide 7128, the T is changed to A and which causes a deletion of the nucleotide between 6987 and 7128 in the RNA (see table 1 for the position of the nucleotides).
- c.6011G>C which denotes that at nucleotide 6011 (which corresponds to the position 6146 in SEQ ID NO:1) of the ZFYVE26 sequence (coding sequence) G is changed to a C,
- c.2049delT which denotes that at nucleotide 2049 (which corresponds to the position 2184 in SEQ ID NO:1) of the ZFYVE26 sequence (coding sequence) T is deleted,
- c.4068_4069delTG which denotes that at nucleotide 4068 and 4069 (which corresponds to the position 4203 and 4204 in SEQ ID NO:1) of the ZFYVE26 sequence (coding sequence) T and G are deleted,
- c.5036delT which denotes that at nucleotide 5036 (which corresponds to the position 5171 in SEQ ID NO:1) of the ZFYVE26 sequence (coding sequence) T is deleted,
- c.6702_6771del which denotes that between nucleotide 6702 and 6771 (which corresponds to the position 6837 and 6906 in SEQ ID NO:1) the nucleotides are deleted,
- c.2331_2332insA which denotes that between nucleotide 2331 and 2332 (which corresponds to the position 2466 and 2467 in SEQ ID NO:1) the nucleotide A is inserted,
- c.6296_6297insT which denotes that between nucleotide 6296 and 6297 (which corresponds to the position 6431 and 6432 in SEQ ID NO:1) the nucleotide T is inserted,
- g.67316025_67319414del/g.67316025_67316026insTCTA/ g.67319319_67319414inv which denotes that there is a large genomic deletion between nucleotide 67316025 and 67319414 associated with a TCTA insertion between nucleotide 67316025 and 67316026 and inversion of the genomic sequence between nucleotide 67319319 and 67319414 (positions are here indicated relative to the chromosome 14 assembly NC000014 at Genbank) (see
The term “hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP)” denotes genetically heterogeneous Mendelian disorders characterized by weakness, spasticity and loss of vibratory sense in the lower limbs (Fink 2006, Depienne et al. 2007, Stevanin et al. 2008). The term “Autosomal Recessive Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia” or “AR-HSP” denotes spastic paraplegia that is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. In non-consanguineous populations, this mode of inheritance can account for “apparently” sporadic cases. Patients with HSP or AR-HSP can have a pure phenotype, or, more often, a complex phenotype that associates various neurological signs (cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, peripheral neuropathy, etc). The term “AR-HSP-TCC” denotes an AR-HSP with Thin Corpus Callosum (TCC) usually associated with, mental or cognitive deficit and peripheral neuropathy (Winner et al. 2005, Franca et al. 2007; Boukhris et al. 2008a). Families without proved TCC can also be mutated in this gene either because of slow progression of the disease in the patient or because magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) couldn't be performed due to patient refusal or impossibility (patients leaving far from cities in North-Africa). Alternatively, clinical heterogeneity has already been proved in families mutated in the same gene (Depienne et al. 2007, Stevanin et al. 2008b) and the clinical presentation of the patients linked and mutated in SPG15 can perfectly fit with this AR-HSP-TCC phenotype but sometimes not (Elleuch et al. 2007, Boukhris et al. 2008a and 2008b). The full spectrum of the phenotypes linked to SPG15 remains to be determined and other HSP phenotypes could be caused by mutations in this gene.
As used herein, the term “subject” denotes a mammal, such as a rodent, a feline, a canine, and a primate. Preferably a subject according to the invention is a human.Mutations in the ZFYVE26 Gene and Spastizin Protein
The inventors identified various mutations in the ZFYVE26 gene. Eighteen different mutations on human ZFYVE26 gene were indeed identified in 16 families. They were either nonsense mutations (n=7), deletions (n=4), insertions (n=2), splice site mutations (n=4) and genomic rearrangements (n=1) and resulted in an abnormally truncated protein in all cases. The mutations identified by the inventors are presented on the following Table 2.
Each mutation are herein numbered according to human ZFYVE26 CDS using the A of first coding ATG in exon 2 (see table 1) for nucleotide +1 (position +136 in the SEQ ID NO: 1), and amino acid sequence.
Accordingly, the invention relates to an isolated nucleic acid specifically hybridizable to a region of ZFYVE26 gene coding sequence that contains a mutation selected from the group consisting of:
- the substitutions: c.307G>T, c.427G>T, c.1240G>T, c.1477C>T, c.2182C>T, c.4312C>T, c.5422C>T, c.5791 −6G>A/r.5791_5792ins5791-4_5791-1 (proved splice site effect), c.5485 −1G>A (predicted to affect splicing), c.7128+2T>A/r.6987 7128del (proved splice site effect), c.6011G>C (predicted to affect splicing),
- the deletions: c.2049delT, c.4068_4069delTG, c.5036delT, c.6702_6771del,
- the insertions: c.2331_2332insA, c.6296_6297insT,
- the complex rearrangement: g.67316025_67319414del/g.67316025_67316026insTCTA/g.67319319_67319414inv.
- Said nucleic acid may be an oligonucleotide. Preferably, said nucleic acid or oligonucleotide is complementary to a region of the ZFYVE26 gene that contains at least one of the identified mutations. Such nucleic acid may advantageously be used as a primer or probe.
The invention also relates to an isolated nucleic acid, which comprises or consists in a ZFYVE26 gene coding sequence that contains one or several mutation(s) selected from the group consisting of:
- the substitutions: c.307G>T, c.427G>T, c.1240G>T, c.1477C>T, c.2182C>T, c.4312C>T, c.5422C>T, c.5791 −6G>A, c.5485 −1G>A, c.7128+2T>A, c.6011G>C,
- the deletions: c.2049delT, c.4068_4069delTG, c.5036delT, c.6702_6771del,
- the insertions: c.2331_2332insA, c.6296_6297insT,
- the complex rearrangement: g.67316025_67319414del/g.67316025_67316026insTCTA/ g.67319319_67319414inv or a sequence complementary thereto.
In another embodiment, the invention relates to an isolated polypeptide which comprises the polypeptide sequence of ZFYVE26 containing one or several mutation(s) selected from the group consisting of p.E103X, p.E143X, p.E414X, p.Q493X, p.F683LfsX685, p.R728X, p.D778RfsX793, p.R1209fsX1220, p.C1356fsX1356, p.R1438X, p.L1679RfsX1687, p.Q1808X, p.A1931PfxX1957X, p.S2004T, p.L2099LfsX2111, p.W2234CfsX2238, p.R2329RfsX2337 and those resulting from aberrant splicing identified by the inventors but for which the consequence on the protein, although clearly deleterious in silico since affecting splicing consensus sequences, could not be verified because of the absence of patient's cells for their analysis up to now (c.5485 −1G>A, c.6011G>C). In the latter case, c.6011G>C is affecting the last codon of an exon, then probably affecting the splicing but also replacing the corresponding amino-acid as: p.S2004T.Diagnostic Methods of the Invention
The inventors have further shown that ZFYVE26 mutations are associated with a hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), which is characterized by weakness, spasticity and often loss of vibration sense in the lower limbs. More particularly, the inventors have shown that ZFYVE26 mutations as above described in a subset of 22 affected patients correlated with early-onset spastic paraplegia (range: 5 to 19 years) associated with additional neurological symptoms that varied among patients and families: cognitive deterioration or mental retardation (73%, 16/22), axonal neuropathy (67%, 8/12), mild cerebellar signs (36%, 8/22) and, less frequently, a central hearing deficit, decreased visual acuity or retinal degeneration. A thin corpus callosum and white matter hyperintensities were found on brain MRI in 64% (7/11) and 36% (4/11) of the patients, respectively, independently of disease duration (see Table 5 in EXAMPLE).
Therefore the invention provides an ex vivo method of diagnosing or predicting a hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) in a subject, which method comprises detecting a mutation in the ZFYVE26 gene or protein (spastizin), as compared to a control population, wherein the presence of a mutation is indicative of a hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP).Nucleic Acids Assays:
According to a first embodiment the mutations may be detected by analysing a ZFYVE26 nucleic acid molecule. In the context of the invention, ZFYVE26 nucleic acid molecules include mRNA, genomic DNA and cDNA derived from mRNA. DNA or RNA can be single stranded or double stranded. These may be utilized for detection by amplification and/or hybridization with a probe, for instance.
Thus the invention provides an ex vivo method of diagnosing or predicting a hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP), in a subject, which method may comprise the step consisting of detecting a ZFYVE26 mutation in a nucleic acid sample obtained from the subject, wherein the presence of a mutation is indicative of a hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP).
The nucleic acid sample may be obtained from any cell source or tissue biopsy. Non-limiting examples of cell sources available include without limitation blood cells, buccal cells, epithelial cells, fibroblasts, or any cells present in a tissue obtained by biopsy or post-mortem. Cells may also be obtained from body fluids, such as blood, plasma, serum, lymph, etc. DNA may be extracted using any methods known in the art, such as described in Sambrook et al., 1989 or using new isolation method on purification column (Quiagen . . . ). RNA may also be isolated, for instance from tissue biopsy, using standard methods well known to the one skilled in the art such as guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction (Chomocyznski et al., 1987).
A ZFYVE26 mutation according to the invention may be found and located in many exons or introns, including exon 4 and intron 38 (
The ZFYVE26 mutations according to the invention are selected from the group consisting of:
- the substitutions: c.307G>T, c.427G>T, c.1240G>T, c.1477C>T, c.2182C>T, c.4312C>T, c.5422C>T, c.5791 −6G>A/r.5791_5792ins5791-4_5791-1 (proved splice site effect), c.5485 −1G>A (predicted to affect splicing), c.7128+2T>A/r.6987_7128del (proved splice site effect), c.6011G>C (predicted to affect splicing),
- the deletions: c.2049delT, c.4068_4069deITG, c.5036delT, c.6702_6771del,
- the insertions: c.2331_2332insA, c.6296_6297insT,
- the complex rearrangement: g.67316025_67319414del/g.67316025_67316026insTCTA/g.67319319_67319414inv.
ZFYVE26 mutations may be detected in a RNA or DNA sample, preferably after amplification. For instance, the isolated RNA may be subjected to coupled reverse transcription and amplification, such as reverse transcription and amplification by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), using specific oligonucleotide primers that are specific for a mutated site or that enable amplification of a region containing the mutated site. According to a first alternative, conditions for primer annealing may be chosen to ensure specific reverse transcription (where appropriate) and amplification; so that the appearance of an amplification product be a diagnostic of the presence of a particular ZFYVE26 mutation. Otherwise, RNA may be reverse-transcribed and amplified, or DNA may be amplified, after which a mutated site may be detected in the amplified sequence by hybridization with a suitable probe or by direct sequencing, or any other appropriate method known in the art. For instance, a cDNA obtained from RNA may be cloned and sequenced to identify a mutation in ZFYVE26 sequence.
Actually numerous strategies for genotype analysis are available (Antonarakis et al., 1989; Cooper et al., 1991; Grompe, 1993). Briefly, the nucleic acid molecule may be tested for the presence or absence of a restriction site. When a base substitution mutation creates or abolishes the recognition site of a restriction enzyme, this allows a simple direct enzymatic test for the mutation. Further strategies include, but are not limited to, direct sequencing, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis; hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotides (ASO) that are short synthetic probes which hybridize only to a perfectly matched sequence under suitably stringent hybridization conditions; allele-specific PCR; PCR using mutagenic primers; ligase-PCR, HOT cleavage; denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), temperature denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP), high-resolution-melting (HRM) analysis, primer extension (Snapshot), and denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) (Kuklin et al., 1997). Direct sequencing may be accomplished by any method, including without limitation chemical sequencing, using the Maxam-Gilbert method; by enzymatic sequencing, using the Sanger method; mass spectrometry sequencing; sequencing using a chip-based technology; and real-time quantitative PCR. Preferably, DNA from a subject is first subjected to amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific amplification primers. However several other methods are available, allowing DNA to be studied independently of PCR, such as the rolling circle amplification (RCA), the Invader™assay, or oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA). OLA may be used for revealing base substitution mutations. According to this method, two oligonucleotides are constructed that hybridize to adjacent sequences in the target nucleic acid, with the join sited at the position of the mutation. DNA ligase will covalently join the two oligonucleotides only if they are perfectly hybridized (Nickerson et al., 1990).
The inventors designed a series of primers, manually or using Oligo6 (MBI, Cascade, Colo.), in order to amplify all coding exons of 6 genes from the candidate interval (primers and conditions available on request), including the mutated ZFYVE26 gene (see Table 4 in EXAMPLE). PCR-amplified fragments of genomic DNA were then sequenced using the fluorescent dideoxy-terminator method (BigDye v3, Applied Biosystem) on an automated ABI-3730 sequencer according to the manufacturer's recommendations. With the use of the software package SeqScape 2.5 (Applied Biosystems), sequences were aligned and compared to consensus sequences.
According to a second embodiment said mutation may be detected in ZFYVE26 protein.
All of the identified mutations of the ZFYVE26 gene create some deletions of the C-terminal part of the spastizin protein either because of a premature STOP codon or because of abnormal splicing, both likely resulting in non-sense mediated mRNA decay. These deletions result in truncated proteins of sequences SEQ ID NO: 105 to SEQ ID NO:119 and SEQ ID NO: 130 and 131, respectively. It can not be excluded, however, that a shorten protein fragment may be synthesized due to the activation of new ATGs after the stop codon. Because mRNA couldn't be obtained yet from patients with two of the identified splicing mutations (n=4), the precise mutations at the protein level could not be established, although predicted in silico to strongly result in all cases on premature stop codons and likely on mRNA degradation.
Said mutation may be detected according to any appropriate method known in the art. In particular, a sample, such as a tissue biopsy, obtained from a subject may be contacted with antibodies specific of the mutated form of ZFYVE26 protein, i.e. antibodies that are capable of distinguishing between a mutated form of ZFYVE26 and the wild-type protein (or any other protein), to determine the presence or absence of a ZFYVE26 specified by the antibody. An antibody recognizing the wild type protein could also be used to check the presence of the protein or its abnormal location or size and could then be used as a diagnostic tool as well.
Antibodies that specifically recognize a mutated ZFYVE26 protein also make part of the invention. The antibodies are specific of mutated ZFYVE26 protein that is to say they do not cross-react with the wild-type ZFYVE26 protein. Such antibodies could detect an epitope modified by the mutation (ex: p.S2004T) and not the wild type protein. In addition, a truncated protein obtained because of premature stop codon could, if not degraded, adopt a different conformation that could be recognized by a specific antibody. In this latter case, whole protein injection in rabbits instead of peptides would probably be necessary to obtain a specific response.
A monoclonal or polyclonal antibody recognizing the wild-type ZFYVE26 protein may be used to detect the presence of the wild-type protein or one of its truncated forms. For instance, an antibody recognizing the N-terminal part of the wild-type ZFYVE26 protein may also recognize one or several truncated forms and can be used to reveal by immunoblotting, the different forms, wild-type and truncated, according to their molecular weights. An antibody recognizing the wild-type ZFYVE26 protein, but not recognizing the truncated forms, can be used for immunoblotting or in immunoassay as ELISA; in that case, an absence of signal reveals the presence of a truncated form in the sample or the absence of synthesis of a stable protein as compared with a positive control comprising the wild-type ZFYVE26 protein.
The antibodies of the present invention may be monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies, single chain or double chain, chimeric antibodies, humanized antibodies, or portions of an immunoglobulin molecule, including those portions known in the art as antigen binding fragments Fab, Fab′, F(ab′)2 and F(v). They can also be irnmunoconjugated, e.g. with a toxin, or labelled antibodies.
Whereas polyclonal antibodies may be used, monoclonal antibodies are preferred for since they are more reproducible in the long run.
Procedures for raising “polyclonal antibodies” are also well known. Polyclonal antibodies can be obtained from serum of an animal immunized against spastizin, which may be produced by genetic engineering for example according to standard methods well-known by one skilled in the art. Typically, such antibodies can be raised by administering mutated ZFYVE26 protein or peptides of this protein subcutaneously to New Zealand white rabbits which have first been bled to obtain pre-immune serum. The antigens can be injected at a total volume of 100 μl per site at six different sites. Each injected material may contain adjuvants with or without pulverized acrylamide gel containing the protein or polypeptide after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The rabbits are then bled two weeks after the first injection and periodically boosted with the same antigen three times every six weeks. A sample of serum is then collected 10 days after each boost. Polyclonal antibodies are then recovered from the serum by affinity chromatography using the corresponding antigen to capture the antibody. This and other procedures for raising polyclonal antibodies are disclosed by Harlow et al. (1988).
A “monoclonal antibody” in its various grammatical forms refers to a population of antibody molecules that contains only one species of antibody combining site capable of immunoreacting with a particular epitope. A monoclonal antibody thus typically displays a single binding affinity for any epitope with which it immunoreacts. A monoclonal antibody may therefore contain an antibody molecule having a plurality of antibody combining sites, each immunospecific for a different epitope, e.g. a bispecific monoclonal antibody. Although historically a monoclonal antibody was produced by immortalization of a clonally pure immunoglobulin secreting cell line, a monoclonally pure population of antibody molecules can also be prepared by the methods of the present invention.
Laboratory methods for preparing monoclonal antibodies are well known in the art (see, for example, Harlow et al., 1988). Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) may be prepared by immunizing purified mutated ZFYVE26 protein into a mammal, e.g. a mouse, rat, human and the like mammals. The antibody-producing cells in the immunized mammal are isolated and fused with myeloma or heteromyeloma cells to produce hybrid cells (hybridoma). The hybridoma cells producing the monoclonal antibodies are utilized as a source of the desired monoclonal antibody. This standard method of hybridoma culture is described in Kohler and Milstein (1975).
While mAbs can be produced by hybridoma culture the invention is not to be so limited. Also contemplated is the use of mAbs produced by an expressing nucleic acid cloned from a hybridoma of this invention. That is, the nucleic acid expressing the molecules secreted by a hybridoma of this invention can be transferred into another cell line to produce a transformant. The transformant is genotypically distinct from the original hybridoma but is also capable of producing antibody molecules of this invention, including immunologically active fragments of whole antibody molecules, corresponding to those secreted by the hybridoma. See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,642,334 to Reading; PCT Publication No.; European Patent Publications No. 0239400 to Winter et al. and No. 0125023 to Cabilly et al.
Antibody generation techniques not involving immunisation are also contemplated such as for example using phage display technology to examine naive libraries (from non-immunised animals); see Barbas et al. (1992), and Waterhouse et al. (1993).
Antibodies raised against mutated ZFYVE26 protein may be cross reactive with wild-type ZFYVE26 protein. Accordingly a selection of antibodies specific for mutated ZFYVE26 protein is required. This may be achieved by depleting the pool of antibodies from those that are reactive with the wild-type ZFYVE26 protein, for instance by submitting the raised antibodies to an affinity chromatography against wild-type ZFYVE26 protein.
Alternatively, binding agents other than antibodies may be used for the purpose of the invention. These may be for instance aptamers, which are a class of molecule that represents an alternative to antibodies in term of molecular recognition. Aptamers are oligonucleotide or oligopeptide sequences with the capacity to recognize virtually any class of target molecules with high affinity and specificity. Such ligands may be isolated through Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX) of a random sequence library. The random sequence library is obtainable by combinatorial chemical synthesis of DNA. In this library, each member is a linear oligomer, eventually chemically modified, of a unique sequence. Peptide aptamers consists of a conformationally constrained antibody variable region displayed by a platform protein, such as E. coli Thioredoxin A that are selected from combinatorial libraries by two hybrid methods (Colas et al., 1996).Kits of the Invention
According to another aspect of the invention, the ZFYVE26 mutation is detected by contacting the DNA of the subject with a nucleic acid probe, which is optionally labelled.
Primers may also be useful to amplify, analyse (dHPLC, Southern . . . ) or sequence the portion of the ZFYVE26 gene containing the mutated positions of interest.
Such probes or primers are nucleic acids that are capable of specifically hybridizing with a portion of the ZFYVE26 gene sequence containing the mutated positions of interest. That means that they are sequences that hybridize with the portion mutated ZFYVE26 nucleic acid sequence to which they refer under conditions of high stringency.
The present invention further provides kits suitable for determining at least one of the mutations of the ZFYVE26 gene.
The kits may include the following components:
(i) a probe, usually made of DNA, and that may be pre-labelled. Alternatively, the probe may be unlabelled and the ingredients for labelling may be included in the kit in separate containers; and
(ii) hybridization reagents: the kit may also contain other suitably packaged reagents and materials needed for the particular hybridization protocol, including solid-phase matrices, if applicable, and standards.
In another embodiment, the kits may include:
(i) sequence determination or amplification primers: sequencing primers may be pre-labelled or may contain an affinity purification or attachment moiety; and
(2) sequence determination or amplification reagents : the kit may also contain other suitably packaged reagents and materials needed for the particular sequencing amplification protocol. In one preferred embodiment, the kit comprises a panel of sequencing or amplification primers, whose sequences correspond to sequences adjacent to at least one of the polymorphic positions, as well as a means for detecting the presence of each polymorphic sequence.
In a particular embodiment, it is provided a kit which comprises a pair of oligonucleotide primers specific for amplifying all or part of the ZFYVE26 gene comprising at least one of the mutated positions that are identified above (see Table 2).
More preferably, the kits of the invention comprise a pair of primers as shown in Table 3 either for detection by direct sequencing or by screening by other techniques such as dHPLC.
The inventors have demonstrated that all mutations identified in the ZFYVE26 gene cause or highly likely cause truncation of the protein, suggesting that pathogenicity results from loss of function. Any method leading to the replacement or overexpression of endogenous or exogenous ZFYVE26 is expected to be beneficial. It can not be excluded however that inhibiting specifically certain mutant alleles will be beneficial too, or at least less deleterious: this may be the case if a truncating protein is still or de novo produced and has stronger toxic effects than the loss of the wild type protein.
These results identify mutated ZFYVE26 gene as target for the preventive or curative treatment of a hereditary spastic paraplegia.
Thus the invention further relates to a method of treatment of an HSP which comprises the step of administering a subject in need thereof with a ZFYVE26 nucleic acid, i.e. a nucleic acid sequence that encodes a wild-type ZFYVE26 protein, so that spastizin is expressed in vivo by the cells of the subject that have been transfected with said nucleic acid, or alternatively a construction of exogenous ZFYVE26 gene that will modify or replace or inhibit the endogenous mutated ZFYVE26 gene. Accordingly, said method leads to an overexpression of wild-type spastizin that compensates expression of defective mutated ZFYVE26 protein, or alternatively, to a modification of its abnormal splicing, or inhibition of its expression, or modification of it's structure so that it will loss part of its toxicity if such demonstrated.
The invention also relates to the use of a ZFYVE26 nucleic acid for the manufacture of a medicament intended for the treatment of an HSP.
In the context of the invention, the term “treating” or “treatment”, as used herein, means reversing, alleviating, inhibiting the progress of, or preventing the disorder or condition to which such term applies, or one or more symptoms of such disorder or condition.
Preferably said ZFYVE26 nucleic acid is administered in a therapeutically effective amount. A “therapeutically effective amount” is intended for a minimal amount of active agent (e.g., ZFYVE26 nucleic acid) which is necessary to impart therapeutic benefit to a subject. For example, a “therapeutically effective amount” to a mammal is such an amount which induces, ameliorates or otherwise causes an improvement in the pathological symptoms, disease progression or physiological conditions associated with or resistance to succumbing to a disorder.
The administered polynucleotide comprises the nucleotide sequence SEQ ID NO:1, or any homologous or similar sequence as defined below:
a) a sequence showing at least 70%, preferably at least 75% or 80% or 85% or 90% or 95% or 99%, sequence similarity with SEQ ID NO:1;
b) a sequence hybridizing with SEQ ID NO:1, or its complementary sequence, under stringent conditions;
c) a sequence encoding a protein of sequence SEQ ID NO:2, or any sequence substantially similar with SEQ ID NO:2.
The term “sequence similarity” in all its grammatical forms refers to the degree of identity or correspondence between nucleic acid or amino acid sequences of proteins that may or may not share a common evolutionary origin. Preferably the degree of sequence identity is calculated compared with the totality of a reference sequence.
In a specific embodiment, two DNA sequences are “substantially homologous” or “substantially similar” when at least 70%, preferably at least 75% or 80% or 85% or 90% or 95% or 99%, of the nucleotides match over the defined length of the DNA sequences, as determined by sequence comparison algorithms, such as BLAST, FASTA, DNA Strider, etc. Sequences that are substantially homologous can be identified by comparing the sequences using standard software available in sequence data banks, or in a Southern hybridization experiment under, for example, stringent conditions as defined for that particular system.
Similarly, in a particular embodiment, two amino acid sequences are “substantially similar” when greater than 80%, preferably than 85% or 90% or 95% or 99%, of the amino acids are similar (functionally identical). “Functionally identical” polypeptides are those in which a given amino acid residue has been changed without altering the overall conformation and function of the polypeptide, including, but not limited to, replacement of an amino acid with one having similar properties (such as, for example, polarity, hydrogen bonding potential, acidic, basic, hydrophobic, aromatic, and the like). Amino acids with similar properties are well known in the art. For example, arginine, histidine and lysine are hydrophilic-basic amino acids and may be interchangeable. Similarly, isoleucine, a hydrophobic amino acid, may be replaced with leucine, methionine or valine. Such changes are expected to have little or no effect on the apparent molecular weight or isoelectric point of the protein or polypeptide. Preferably, the similar sequences are identified by alignment using, for example, the GCG (Genetics Computer Group, Program Manual for the GCG Package, Version 7, Madison, Wis.) pileup program, or any of the programs described above (BLAST, FASTA, etc.).
Preferably the ZFYVE26 nucleic acid sequence according to the invention is associated with elements that enable for regulation of its expression, such as a promoter sequence.
Such a nucleic acid may be in the form of a DNA vector. The terms “vector” means the vehicle by which a DNA or RNA sequence (e.g. a foreign gene) can be introduced into a host cell, so as to transform the host and promote expression (e.g. transcription and translation) of the introduced sequence. A common type of vector is a “plasmid”, which generally is a self-contained molecule of double-stranded DNA, usually of bacterial origin, that can readily accept additional (foreign) DNA and which can readily introduced into a suitable host cell. A plasmid vector often contains coding DNA and promoter DNA and has one or more restriction sites suitable for inserting foreign DNA.
The ZFYVE26 nucleic acid may be introduced into a target cell by means of any procedure known for the delivery of nucleic acids to the nucleus of cells, ex vivo, on cells in culture or removed from an animal or a patient, or in vivo.
Ex vivo introduction may be performed by any standard method well known by one skilled in the art, e.g. transfection, electroporation, lipofection, microinjection, transduction, cell fusion, DEAE dextran, calcium phosphate precipitation, or use of a gene gun.
The above methods do not limit the scope of the invention and it is to be understood that the one skilled in the art may readily make use of any other known appropriate methods for delivering a nucleic acid to a cell in vivo or in vitro.
The invention also relates to the use of wild-type ZFYVE26 protein (Spastizin) for the manufacture of a medicament intended for the treatment of an HSP.
Thus the invention further relates to a method of treatment of an HSP which comprises the step of administering a subject in need thereof with a therapeutically effective amount of wild-type ZFYVE26 protein.
The ZFYVE26 protein may be introduced to a target cell by means of any procedure known for the delivery of proteins to cells, ex vivo, on cells in culture or removed from an animal or a patient, or in vivo.
Protein delivery is the process by which a protein crosses the cell plasma membrane. Traditionally, methods to introduce antibodies, peptides or other membrane-impermeable molecules into cells include micro-injection and electroporation.
A number of protein-transduction domains (PTDs) have also been developed that mediate protein delivery into cells. These PTDs or signal peptide sequences are naturally occurring polypeptides of 15 to 30 amino acids, which normally mediate protein secretion in the cells. They are composed of a positively charged amino terminus, a central hydrophobic core and a carboxyl-terminal cleavage site recognized by a signal peptidase. Examples of such membrane-transducing peptides include Trojan peptides, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 transcriptional activator (TAT) protein or its functional domain peptides, and other peptides containing protein-transduction domains (PTDs) derived from translocation proteins such as Drosophilia homeotic transcription factor Antennapedia (Antp) and herpes simplex virus DNA-binding protein, VP22, and the like. Some commercially available peptides, for example, penetratin 1, Pep-I (Chariot reagent, Active Motif Inc., CA) and HIV GP41 fragment (519-541), can be used for protein delivery.
Recently, the use of lipid liposomes or the like that can complex with a protein of interest and promote the delivery of the protein into the cell has also been demonstrated. Products available commercially can be used. such as BioPORTER (Gene Therapy Systems), or ProVectin (Imgenex, San Diego, Calif.).
The above methods do not limit the scope of the invention and it is to be understood that the one skilled in the art may readily make use of any other known appropriate methods for delivering a protein to a cell in vivo or in vitro.
The invention will be further illustrated by the following figures and examples.
(A) Physical and genetic map of human chromosome 14q23.3-q24.2 with markers defining the reduced SPG15 candidate interval in bold. Location and direction of transcription (arrow) of the known genes are schematically represented. The candidate genes analysed by the inventors are indicated by black boxes (# indicates genes analysed by the authors and reported in Elleuch et al, 2007). Distances on chromosome 14 are according to the Ensembl and UCSC Genome Browser databases.
(B) Structure of the ZFYVE26 gene (GenBank NM_015346) and location of the 18 different disease-causing mutations. The gene, located on chromosome 14q24.1, is transcribed from telomere to centromere, and consists of 42 exons covering a genomic region of 70,063 bp. The full-length transcript is 9,688 bp long, with a coding sequence (exon 2-42) of 7,620 bp (mRNA NM 015346.2). The coding region is indicated in grey and UTRs (5′ and 3′) are in white. The mutations are numbered according to the nomenclature of the Human Genome Variation Society where +1 is the A of the start codon (ATG) of the cDNA sequence.
(C) Putative functional domains (boxes) present in spastizin (according to Predictprotein).
Note: Numbering of nucleotides is respective to the A of the first coding ATG in exon 2 of ZFYVE26 gene sequence (position +136 in SEQ ID N01). In the case of the large genomic rearrangement, the genomic position of nucleotides in chromosome 14 is used according to the Ensembl (www.ensembl .org), NCBI (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) databases (accession NO NC000014). Amino-acid positions are according to SEQ ID N° 2.
A) Comparison of ZFYVE26 (SPG15) and KIAA1840 (SPG11) mRNA expression in the adult rat brain (P68). Both ZFYVE26 and K1AA 18-10 expression resemble expression of the neuronal marker NeuN more than expression of the glial marker GFAP labelled on adjacent slices. ZFYVE26 expression, as KIAA1840, was low throughout the brain except in the following structures: HIP, hippocampus; PG, pineal gland; GrC, granular cell layer of the cerebellum; and the edges of the ventricles (DV3, third ventricle; LV, lateral ventricles).
B) In situ hybridization of ZFYVE26 in E14.5 rat embryos. Labelling concerns mainly the liver, lungs and the nervous system, particularly the spinal cord, the cortical, hippocampal, cerebellar and thalamic neuroepithelia, as well as the inferior and superior colliculi and the tegmental and basal telencephalic areas.
Expression in COS-7 cells of a spastizin-HIS-V5 fusion protein labeled 48 hours after transfection with an antibody against the V5 tag (green) compared to specific markers (red). Images were obtained using a Leica SP1 confocal microscope (objective x63, scale bar=10 μm). The Pearson coefficient (Rr) was calculated to estimate the degree of colocalisation between spastizin-HISVS and the organelle markers. The values range from −1.0 (not colocalized) and +1.0 (fully colocalized). Spastizin partially co-localized with the endosomal marker EEA1 and the endoplasmic reticulum marker calreticulin but did not show any significant colocalisation with Golgi (anti-Giantin), mitochondria (anti-Cox2) and lysosomes (anti-Lamp2). Expression of a VS-tagged fusion protein of the expected size was verified on western-blots of cell extracts with an anti-V5 antibody (data not shown).
14AA: Localisation of the 4 peptides (Table 6) used for immunization along the protein.
14AB: Western blot showing the detection of the protein by the PER antibody at its expected size (280 KDa) in COS7 protein extracts except after preadsorption with the peptide. Note the detection of an additional specific band at 100 KDa probably corresponding to a smaller isoform.
14A-K: Immuno-detection in cells using the PER antibody.
(A-G): Immunohistochemical analysis of cells stained by anti-spastizin antibody.
(A-D): in rat brain.
(A) Large Betz cells of motor cortex stained by anti-spastizin antibody PER. Note spastizin in the cytoplasm & in the proximal dendrites of Betz cells; (B) spastizin staining blocked by PER antibody+peptide;
(C) Purkinje cells of cerebellum stained by anti-spastizin antibody PER. Note cytoplasmic as well as nuclear staining of Purkinje cells by spastizin;
(D) spastizin staining blocked by antibody+peptide;
(E-G) in human brain.
(E) Large Betz cells of motor cortex stained by anti-spastizin antibody PER. Note spastizin in the cytoplasm & in the proximal dendrites of Betz cells; (F) spastizin staining blocked by PER antibody+peptide;
(G) motor neurons of spinal cord stained by anti-spastizin antibody PER. Note cytoplasmic as well as dendritic staining by spastizin; (H) spastizin staining blocked by antibody+peptide;
(I-K) Confocal microscopic analysis of human neuronal cells (SH-SYSY) stained by anti-spastizin antibodies PER. Note cytoplasmic staining of cells and partial co-localisation of SPG15 (in green) with mitochondria (Erab, in red), see merge pictures for co-localisation. In blue, nuclear counterstaining with Dapi.
Material & Methods
Patients and controls: We selected 8 previously described SPG/5-linked AR-HSP families
(Elleuch et al. 2007, Boukhris et al. 2008a and 2008b, Hughes et al. 2000), one large kindred partially reported (Casali et al. 2004) that we found significantly linked to SPG15 with a significant multipoint LOD score of +3.3 (FSP-761, Muglia et al. submitted), 3 families with linkage analysis compatible with segregation of SPG15 in patients and 3 index cases of families with a compatible phenotype. Affected patients and their relatives were recruited with their informed and written consent, as prescribed by the law on bioethics of the European Community and after approval by the local ethics committee (approval No. 03-12-07 granted to Drs. Brice and Durr by the “Comité Consultatif pour la Protection des Personnes et la Recherche Biomédicale”, Paris-Necker). Genomic DNA from 300 unrelated healthy individuals (Caucasians n=200, North Africans n=100) were used as a control panel for molecular studies.
Linkage analysis: To further reduce the SPG15 interval, indirect genetic studies were undertaken in 2 of the families reported by Elleuch et al 2007. Primers flanking new polymorphic nucleotide repeats (table 4b) from the Working Draft of the Human Genome available at UCSC were designed in order to identify new critical recombination events in these 2 families that would allow the reduction of the SPG15 locus interval. Genotyping was performed by PCR with fluorescently-labeled primers, electrophoresis on an ABI-3730 sequencer and analysis with GeneMapper software 4.0 according to the manufacturer's recommendations (Applied Biosystems). Haplotypes were reconstructed manually by minimizing the number of recombination events. Genetic distances between markers were those of the Marshfield Centre for Medical Genetics (http://research.marshfieldclinic.org/genetics/home/index.asp) and map positions were verified on the draft of the Human Genome sequencing (UCSC and Ensembl centres).
Mutation screening: Four genes were screened for mutations in one affected member of each of the 15 families, using primers flanking the exon and intron-exon boundaries: ZFYVE26 (for zinc finger FYVE domain containing 26, Genbank accession number NM_015346; 42 exons); PLEK2 (encoding pleckstrin 2, NM_016445; 9 exons); PLEKHH (for pleckstrin homology domain containing, family H [with MyTH4 domain] member 1, NM_020715; 9 exons); and WDR22 (encoding WD repeat domain protein 22, NM_003861; 9 exons). PCR were performed in 10 μl final volume using 1 pmol of each primer, at final concentrations of 1.5 mM MgCl2, 0.24 mM dNTP, 50 ng of matrix genomic DNA in the Quiagen buffer supplemented with the Q solution (1/5 vol) and 0.4 unit of Taq polymerase (Quiagen). Primers used for the amplification of the ZFYVE26 gene are listed in the following Table 4.
The PCR conditions are as follows:
- 95° C., 10 min
- then 35 cycles of:
- 95° C., 30 s
- 60° C., 30 s,
- 72° C., 30 s
- 72° C., 10 min, and kept at 4° C.
These primers flanking newly described polymorphic markers were designed by the inventors on the human genome sequence draft in order to use them for the identification of critical recombination events in the SPG15 linked families. This was indeed successful since one of these markers revealed to be a flanking marker of the region (see
PCR products of ZFYVE26 or other genes in the interval were sequenced using the Big Dye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Kit v3.1 (Applied Biosystems) on a ABI-3730 automated sequencer according to the manufacturer recommendations. Nucleotides were numbered relative to the A of the start codon (ATG) of the ZFYVE26 cDNA sequence (NM_015346).
Analysis at the mRNA Level: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from two affected patients of families FSP-130 and FSP-708, respectively, were isolated by Ficoll gradient using lymphocyte separation medium LSM 1077 (PAA Laboratories, Les Mureaux, France). Lymphoblastoid cell lines were established after infection with Epstein-Barr virus.
Extraction of total RNA from ˜5·106 lymphoblastoid cells was performed using the Rneasy Mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), according to the manufacturer's instructions, after treatment with emetin (10 μg/ml) for 8 h in order to block nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). The quality of the RNA was verified and quantified using a BioAnalyzer2100 (Agilent Technologies). Reverse transcription (RT) of ˜1 μg of total RNA was performed with the SuperScript kit (Invitrogen) to obtain double-strand cDNA. The SPG15 cDNA was amplified by PCR on a Thermocycler 3800 (Applied Biosystems) with 2.5 mmol MgCl2, 1X Q solution, 1U of Taq polymerase (Qiagen) in a final reaction volume of 25 μl using 10 pmol of each of the following exonic primers covering exons 37 to 42 for family FSP-708 (37f: ACATCCCGCAGCTCTGGAAG (SEQ ID NO° 122, 42ar: GCAACATATCAGGTAGGCCC (SEQ ID NO° 123)) and exons 30 to 33 for family FSP-130 (30f: TGTACCAGAGGAGCCTTCAG (SEQ ID NO° 124), 33r: CTCAACGCCCAGTTGGTAGT (SEQ ID NO° 125)). The PCR conditions for both sets used an annealing temperature of 60° C. PCR products were verified for their size and specificity on a 2% agarose gel, then sub-cloned in the pcDNA3.1/V5-His© TOPO® TA vector using TOP10 bacteria according to the manufacturer's recommendations (Invitrogen). Plasmid DNA extracted from bacterial clones with the Jetstar 2.0 kit (Genomed, Löhne, Germany) was amplified by PCR and clones having integrated the mutated allele were subsequently sequenced using universal and specific primers.
Quantification of ZFYVE26 mRNA in human tissues by RT-PCR: ZFYVE26 mRNA: expression was analysed semiquantitatively by RT-PCR in adult human tissues, normalized with respect to vimentin (VIM) expression. One microgram of commercially available RNA (Human Total RNA Master panel II, Clontech) were reverse-transcribed with the High Capacity cDNA Archive Kit (Applied Biosystems) primed with Oligo d(T)16 (Applied Biosystems) in accordance with the supplier's recommendations. A 470 bp fragment from exon 2 to exon 5 was amplified with forward primer 5′-aggggatatcccaaagaggg-3′ (SEQ ID NO: 99) and reverse primer 5′-cctttcgaatgaggtccacc-3′ (SEQ ID NO: 100), and a 507 bp fragment including exons 38 to 42 was amplified with forward primer 5′-tcaccactttgcctctgcca-3′ (SEQ ID NO: 101) and reverse primer 5′-gccactgggcacagatgtct-3′ (SEQ ID NO: 102). A 274 bp fragment of VIM (Genbank accession number NM_003380) containing exons 1 to 4 was amplified with forward primer 5′-accagctaaccaacgacaaa-3′ (SEQ ID NO: 103) and reverse primer 5′-tgctgttcctgaatctgagc-3′ (SEQ ID NO: 104), as a reference.
Expression of rat ZFYVE26 mRNA detected by in situ hybridization: Adult (P68, 200 g) Sprague-Dawley rats (Charles River) were killed by decapitation and their brains were rapidly extracted and frozen in isopentane at −50° C. Sections were cut every 600 μm on a cryostat (−20° C.) from the medulla to the striatum (+1.7 mm from the bregma, according to the rat brain coordinates of Paxinos and Watson, thaw-mounted on glass slides and stored at −80° C. Whole rat embryos (E14.5) were fixed in PFA 4% for 24 hours, rinsed in PBS, dehydrated in graded ethanols (70% to 100%), re-hydrated using the reverse procedure, cryoprotected in 15% sucrose for 24 hours, then frozen in isopentane at −35° C. Sixteen micron slices were cut every 250 μm and stored.
Rat ZFYVE26 mRNA expression was probed with three 34 bp antisense oligonucleotides recognizing exon 15 or the 5′ or 3′ portions of the large exon 21, designed with Helios ETC oligo design software (Helios Biosciences, Paris, France) from the mRNA sequence (XM_234335.3) of Rattus norvegicus. Each oligonucleotide or a mix of the three oligonucleotides gave identical results. A mix of three sense oligonucleotides was used as negative control. Briefly, the oligonucleotides were labeled with [35S]-dATP using terminal transferase (Amersham Biosciences) to a specific activity of 5×108 dpm/μg. The day of the experiment, slices were fixed in 4% formaldehyde in PBS, washed with PBS, rinsed with water, dehydrated in 70% ethanol and air-dried. Sections were then covered with 140 μl of hybridization medium (Helios Biosciences, Paris, France) containing 3-5×105 dpm of the labeled oligonucleotide mix. Slices were incubated overnight at 42° C., washed and exposed to a BAS-SR Fujifilm Imaging Plate for 5-10 days. The plates were scanned with a Fujifilm Biolmaging Analyzer BAS-5000 and analyzed with Multi Gauge Software (Fuji).
Immunohistochemistry in rat brain: Brains were processed as for in situ hybridization. Sections were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde/PBS, preincubated in PBS containing 6% goat serum and 0.1% triton, then incubated in the same buffer with antibodies against NeuN (Chemicon International, 1/250, mouse) or GFAP (Dako, 1/500, rabbit) or the specific anti-spastizin antibodies followed by biotinylated horse anti-mouse or rabbit IgG and ABC reagents (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, Calif.). Labeling was revealed by autoradiography. Specificity of the anti-spastizin antibodies was verified by preincubation of the antibody with a large amount (×200) of peptide used for immunization (see
Expression of epitope-labeled or endogenous spastizin in cultured cells: The ZFYVE26 cDNA from clone DKFZp781H1112Q (RPDZ) was PCR-amplified using Easy-A polymerase (Stratagene) and primers 5′-ggctcaaacatggctgcgct-3′ and 5′-cttettggagcctgggcca-3′, and the PCR product was introduced in phase with the V5 and HIS tags in the pcDNA-3.1/V5-HIS-TOPO cloning vector, as recommended by the supplier (Invitrogen). The construction was verified by sequencing after ligation, transformation, plasmid extraction, using standard procedures, and correction of an initial nonsense mutation by directed-site mutagenesis (Quick-Change Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit, Stratagene).
COS-7 cells, maintained in DMEM (Invitrogen) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, penicillin (100 UI/ml) and streptomycin (100 μg/ml), were plated on cover slips coated with collagen and transfected 24 hrs later with 2 μg plasmid DNA per well, in 6-well plates with DMRIE-C, according to the manufacturer's instructions (Invitrogen). The cells were fixed for 15 minutes in 4% formaldehyde, 48 hours post-transfection, and immunocytochemistry was performed using classical procedures with the following primary antibodies: rabbit anti-giantin (1/2000, Abcam), rabbit anti-calreticulin (1/400, Stressgen), mouse anti-EAA1 (1/1000, BD Biosciences), rabbit anti-Cox2 (1/400, gift of Dr. A. Lombes), mouse anti-Lamp2 (1/200, Abcam), mouse anti-V5 (1/200, Invitrogen) mouse anti-erab (1/2,000, abcam) and rabbit anti-V5 (1 μg/ml, Sigma). Secondary antibodies were alexa-488 anti-mouse and anti-rabbit (1/1000, Molecular Probes) and Cy3 anti-mouse and anti-rabbit (1/1000, Sigma). Cells were counterstained with DAPI (1 μg/ml, Sigma) and mounted with Fluoromount-G (Southern Biotech). Images were acquired with a Leica SP1 confocal microscope and Leica software.
To detect the endogenous protein, COS-7 or SHSYSY cell lines were cultured using a classical procedure as mentioned above. Protein extracts were processed for western-blot analysis after cell lysis, run on acrylamide gel, transfer into cellulose membrane and immunolabeling using a chemioluminescence kit (Pierce) as described (Latouche et al, 2006).Results: 1. Refinement of the SPG15 Locus
The inventors recently refined the SPG15 locus in two large Arab families with AR-HSP and mental retardation but not maculopathy (Elleuch et al. 2007). To further restrict this interval, the authors analyzed additional polymorphic markers found in the Human Genome sequence draft (table 4b). Obligatory recombination events between loci VNTR25TG and D14S1069 (patient 444-6), and between loci D14S588 and D14S1029 (Individual 353-11, who is still unaffected at age 18 and assumed to be non-carrier of the disease gene), refined the centromeric and telomeric boundaries of this locus to a 2.64 Mb interval on chromosome 14q23.3-q24.2 (
Mutations causing other HSPs have been reported to affect cellular processes such as intracellular trafficking and mitochondrial function, but also myelination and development of corticospinal tract (Stevanin et al. 2008a). This information provided the inventors with criteria for selecting candidate genes located in the 2.64 Mb SPG15 interval (
The inventors then analysed the gene encoding ZFYVE26, which appeared to be a good candidate, since missense and nonsense mutations in two other genes of the same family were recently identified in patients with SPG33 (ZFYVE2 7 on chromosome 10q24.2; MIM#610244, Mannan et al. 2006) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 4H (FGD4 on chromosome 12p11.21; MIM#611104, Delague et al. 2007, Stendel et al. 2007). Heighteen different truncating ZFYVE26 mutations were detected in the index patients of the 16 families (
Seven were nonsense mutations including two that were recurrent: c.1477C>T in two consanguineous Tunisian families (F16 and F17) with similar flanking haplotypes suggesting a common ancestral event (Boukhris et al, 2008a and 2008b) and c.4312C>T in patients from two apparently unrelated consanguineous families from Morocco (F444) and Ireland (F1007), in which the mutation probably resulted from deamination of cytosine 4312 located in a CpG pair, a documented mechanism of mutation (Glass et al. 2007).
Four mutations were frameshift deletions including a large 70 base pair deletion (c.6702_6771del) in a large consanguineous family of Arab origin from Israel (F671).
Two mutations were frameshift insertions.
Four mutations affected the splicing sites. The c.5485-1G>A was homozygous in patients of the Algerian family 353, and was shown, in silico, to strongly alter the splice score from +3.1 to 7.8. The c.5791 −6G>A, found heterozygous in the French family FSP130, creates a new acceptor splicing site in exon 32 with a better score leading to abnormal splicing 4 bases before its normal position, with the appearance of a premature stop codon after 27 additional codons which was confirmed by direct sequencing of mRNA extracts of patients (see
Finally, one mutation was a complex indel-inversion rearrangement that deleted exons 21-23 in four patients from a consanguineous Italian family (F761) and leading to a premature stop codon (
Some of the clinical features of the 22 patients from 8 of the 16 SPG15 families are summarized in the Table 5.
The overall phenotype associated with SPGR mutations was early-onset spastic paraplegia (range: 5 to 19 years) associated with additional neurological symptoms that varied among patients and families: cognitive deterioration or mental retardation (73%, 16/22), axonal neuropathy (67%, 8/12), mild cerebellar signs (36%, 8/22) and, less frequently, a central hearing deficit, decreased visual acuity or retinal degeneration. A thin corpus callosum and white matter hyperintensities were found on brain MRI in 64% (7/11) and 36% (4/11) of the patients, respectively, independently of disease duration.
Most mutations resulted in the loss of the c-terminal putative leucine zipper domain and, of the FYVE domain as well. Since all mutations resulted in premature stop codons, the RNA is probably degraded by non-sense mediated mRNA decay, but this could not be confirmed because cells of SPG15 patients were not available.4. Analysis of the Expression of the SPG15 Gene
In order to obtain insight into the function of the SPG15 gene, the inventors first analyzed expression of ZFYVE26 mRNA by RT-PCR on total RNA from various human tissues. It was widely expressed, but most strongly in the adrenal gland, bone marrow, adult brain, fetal brain, lung, placenta, prostate, skeletal muscle, testis, thymus and retina (
When the expression ofZFYVE26 was investigated by in situ hybridization in adult rat brain (P68), mRNA levels were generally low, but strong signals were observed in the pineal gland, the edges of the lateral ventricles, the granular layer of the cerebellum and the hippocampus (
The ZFYVE26 protein or “spastizin” (SPASTIcity due to the ZFYVE26 proteIN), belongs to the FYVE-finger family which includes the early endosome antigen 1 (EAA1, MIM#605070), involved in endocytic membrane trafficking (Gilloly et al 2001, Seet et al. 2001). Because there was initially no antibody against endogenous spastizin, the inventors explored its subcellular location by overexpression of a spastizin-HIS-V5 fusion protein in COS-7 cells. Epitope-tagged wild-type spastizin expressed in COS-7 cells, and immunolabeled with antibodies against the V5 tag, was partially colocalized in small dots or vesicles with immunolabeled endosomal marker EAA1 and calreticulin (CALR, MIM#109091), a marker of the endoplasmic reticulum, but not with giantin (GOLGB1, MIM#602500), lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2, MIM#309060) or mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase II (MT-CO2 [COX2)], MIM#516040), markers of the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and mitochondria, respectively (
In order to gain insight into the endogenous expression of spastizin, the inventors have then generated 4 polyclonal anti-spastizin antibodies using the Proteogenix facility (Table 6). Purified sera have been verified for their specificity on the endogenous proteins from various cell lines (COS-7, NSC34, SHSYSY). One of them generated a specific signal at the expected size in western-blot (PER,
Thanks to the Brain Bank of INSERM/UPMC UMR679 (Dr E Hirsch) and the Neuropathology Department of the Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital (Pr C Duyckaerts) for providing us paraffin embedded human brains, we have prepared sections from the human and the rat brain (adult female rat, P63). Immunohistochemical studies have been undertaken to determine the expression profile and subcellular localization of spastizin (SPG15) protein.
Expression studies with anti-spastizin revealed widespread pattern of expression of endogenous spastizin in the central nervous system of the adult rat. Spastizin is prominent in the cytoplasm of the cells though sometimes it is also observed in the nucleus of cells (
In the adult human brain, Spastizin (SPG15) is also expressed strongly in neurons of cerebral cortex, spinal cord (
In SH-SY5Y (human neuroblastoma) and NSC34 (rodent motor-neuron), we observed cytoplasmic staining of cells. In both cell lines, spastizin seems to be distributed diffusely across the cytoplasm sometimes also staining punctuated vesicle-like structures (
The inventors, after identification of new families linked to the SPG15 locus (Elleuch et al. 2007, Boukhris et al. 2008a and 2008b) and its restriction to less than 6 Mbases (Elleuch et al. 2007), have then further refined the SPG15 locus to a 2.64 Mb interval on chromosome 14q23.3-q24.2 thanks to the analysis of newly described and designed markers in the interval (
Different pieces of evidence argue for the ZFYVE26 gene as responsible for SPG15: 1) the eighteen identified mutations segregated with a complex phenotype in 16 families, 2) 8 of these families were previously reported linked to SPG15, some of them significantly (Elleuch et al. 2007, Boukhris et al. 2008a and 2008b) and one was used to originally map the disease locus (Hughes et al. 2000), 3) the mutations were not found in a large series of control chromosomes (n=600), 4) among the genes of the restricted interval, 5 others were screened and no mutations were found, 5) the putative function of ZFYVE26 has already been implicated in other forms of HSP (Stevanin et al. 2008a) and its connection with endosomal trafficking has been highlighted by the inventors by overexpression studies (
The inventors have demonstrated the broad clinical variability of Kjellin syndrome, which is complete in only a minority of our mutated patients. The core features common to all mutated cases was a severe and early onset spastic paraplegia frequently associated with mental retardation and/or cognitive deterioration. Retinal degeneration, a major feature of this syndrome, as well as the MRI anomalies, may be absent in some patients, even after long disease durations, indicating that SPG15 might account for other forms HSP as well.
Spastizin, the product of the ZFYVE26 gene, is one of more than 30 different proteins with a FYVE domain in mammals (Gilloly et al. 2001, Seet et al. 2001). The FYVE domain is a zinc-finger binding domain, highly conserved from yeast to humans, characterized by the presence of eight conserved cysteine residues, the third of which is flanked by characteristic basic amino acids, CX2CX9-39RRHHCRXCX4CX2-6CX4-48CX2C (X=non-conserved amino acid residues), suggested to bind the FYVE-finger proteins to endosomes. The majority of FYVE-finger proteins are involved in interactions with different forms of phosphoinositides (e.g. phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns3P; PI3P]), which are found mainly in endosomes and serve as regulators of endocytic membrane trafficking. These phospholipids are components of membranes and have been implicated in the recruitment of proteins to membranes for signal transduction, membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal functions and apoptosis. FYVE fingers bind with much higher affinity to membrane-associated PI3P than to its soluble analogues, explaining why most FYVE finger proteins are associated with endosomal trafficking.
The colocalization of spastizin with markers of the endoplasmic reticulum and endosomes suggests that this protein plays a role in endosomal trafficking. Using a newly developed specific antibody against spastizin, the inventors confirmed that the endogenous protein labels vesicle-like structures (
Additionally, the temporal and regional distribution of ZFYVE26 mRNA observed by in situ hybridization in adult rat brain was very reminiscent of the expression of the SPG11 gene (Stevanin et al. 2007), the clinical features of which overlap those of SPG15, suggesting that the corresponding proteins may interact or function in a common pathway (
It has been previously demonstrated that an intact FYVE domain and several conserved cysteine residues in this domain are necessary for the endosomal localization of the proteins of this family. Interestingly, all of the mutations identified in the SPG15 families in ZFYVE26 were truncating mutations. Non-sense mediated mRNA decay, a well documented cellular mechanism (Frischmeyer et al. 1999, Amrani et al. 2006), probably contributes to the loss of function of this protein in all cases.
It is interesting to note that a missense mutation in the FYVE domain protein encoded by ZFYVE27 was identified in an “uncomplicated” form of autosomal dominant HSP in a single German family with SPG33 (Mannan et al. 2006). The ZFYVE27 protein product was found to bind spastin (SPG4), another HSP-associated protein, but the missense mutation in ZFYVE27 induces an aberrant structure which interferes with its interaction with spastin, and thus with microtubules. Whether spastizin also binds spastin remains to be determined.
In conclusion, the identification of ZFYVE26 as the gene responsible for SPG15 has increased the knowledge of the genetic and clinical heterogeneity of HSPs, and will help orient the molecular analysis of patients in view of a diagnosis. The in situ hybridization and colocalisation studies are also a starting point for the understanding of the normal cellular mechanisms in which spastizin participates and for the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying axonal degeneration in the SPG15, which probably include endosomal trafficking and development anomalies. Elucidation of these mechanisms will be necessary for the development of effective therapeutic strategies.REFERENCES
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16. An oligonucleotide specifically hybridizes to a region of ZFYVE26 gene sequence that contains a mutation, wherein the mutation is: wherein the nucleic acid is detectably labeled.
- (i) a substitution mutation selected from the group consisting of c.307G>T, c.427G>T, c.1240G>T, c.1477C>T, c.2182C>T, c.4312C>T, c.5422C>T, c.5791-6G>A/r.5791_5792ins5791-4_5791-1, c.5485-1G>A, c.7128+2T>A/r.6987_7128del, c.6011G>C;
- (ii) a deletion selected from the group consisting of c.2049de1T, c.4068_4069delTG, c.5036delT, c.6702_6771del;
- (iii) an insertion selected from the group consisting of c.2331_2332insA and c.6296_6297insT; or
- (iv) a complex rearrangement which is g.67316025_67319414del/g.67316025_67316026insTCTA/g.67319319_67319414i nv;
- wherein the nucleic acid position corresponds to SEQ ID NO:1, and
17. The oligonucleotide of claim 16, wherein the oligonucleotide has at least 10 nucleotides.
18. The oligonucleotide of claim 16, wherein the oligonucleotide has at least 15 nucleotides.
19. The oligonucleotide of claim 16, wherein the oligonucleotide has at least 20 nucleotides.
20. The oligonucleotide of claim 16, wherein the oligonucleotide has 10-100 nucleotides.
21. The oligonucleotide of claim 16, wherein the oligonucleotide has 10-70 nucleotides.
22. The oligonucleotide of claim 16, wherein the oligonucleotide is detectably labeled with a radiolabel, a fluorescent label, an enzymatic labels, or a sequence tag.
23. The oligonucleotide of claim 16, wherein the hybridization is under a high stringent condition.
24. A kit comprising at least one oligonucleotide of claim 16.
25. The kit of claim 24, further comprising a hybridization reagent.
26. The kit of claim 25, further comprising sequence determination reagents and sequence determination primers.
27. A method of detecting a mutation in a ZFYVE26 nucleic acid comprising:
- (a) contacting a ZFYVE26 nucleic acid in a sample with a detectably labeled oligonucleotide that specifically hybridizes to a region of the ZFYVE26 nucleic acid containing a mutation, wherein said mutation is (i) a substitution mutation selected from the group consisting of c.307G>T, c.427G>T, c.1240G>T, c.1477C>T, c.2182C>T, c.4312C>T, c.5422C>T, c.5791-6G>A/r.5791_5792ins5791-4_5791-1, c.5485-1G>A, c.7128+2T>A/r.6987_7128del, c.6011G>C; (ii) a deletion selected from the group consisting of c.2049delT, c.4068_4069deITG, c.5036delT, c.6702_6771del; (iii) an insertion selected from the group consisting of c.2331_2332insA and c.6296_6297insT; or (iv) a complex rearrangement which is g.67316025_67319414del/g.67316025_67316026 insTCTA/g.67319319_67319414inv;
- (b) detecting hybridization of the oligonucleotide to the ZFYVE26 nucleic acid, wherein hybridization is indicative of the presence of the mutation in a ZFYVE26 nucleic acid.