FRICTION STIR INTERLOCKING OF DISSIMILAR MATERIALS
A method for solid state joining of dissimilar materials using a friction stir welding device wherein a pin is inserted through an aperture defined in a first material and a second material to hold the materials together and then held in place by friction stir welding a portion of the pin to a material adjacent said pin, or by friction stir welding a cap or plug that holds the pin in place to the adjacent material. The result is a connection or join wherein the central portion of the pin is not friction stir welded but the portions holding the pin in place (the ends or caps) generally are.
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This application claims priority from and is a divisional application of application Ser. No. 15/794,687 filed Oct. 26, 2017 entitled Friction Stirring Interlocking of Dissimilar Materials, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference.STATEMENT AS TO RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE UNDER FEDERALLY-SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
This invention was made with Government support under Contract DE-AC0576RL01830 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The invention generally relates to methods for joining dissimilar materials and more particularly to connections between dissimilar metals having different melting points.
A world of rising energy necessitates approaches for reducing the amount of energy needed to perform standard tasks. Among approaches under development are lighter, more fuel efficient vehicles. Reducing the weight of vehicles can be accomplished in a variety of ways including replacing heavier steel regions with lighter weight materials. However, difficulty has arisen in attempting to find ways to robustly join dissimilar materials in a way that provides the needed strength and resiliency that exists in structures that are made from the same material. Preferably, and in some instances by requirement, these seams and interconnects must be welded together. Welding is fairly straight forward when the two materials have similar melting points but becomes more and more difficult when the materials have vastly different melting points or other characteristics.
Joining materials such as steel to aluminum, titanium, magnesium, copper, or any combination thereof, has proved difficult for a variety of reasons. The prior art generally teaches that when these materials are joined that the temperatures must be maintained generally low so as to prevent the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds, which are generally believed to cause the welds to be brittle and fail. Most prior art methodologies for joining dissimilar materials have focused on getting rid of these brittle intermetallic portions. However, the work arounds have generally proven to have negative side effects such as cost and complexity and in many instances simply do not provide an acceptable solution.
Hence what is needed is a process for forming high strength joints between dissimilar materials in ways that a simpler cheaper and more effective than the current methodologies. The present invention is a significant step forward in addressing these needs.
Additional advantages and novel features of the present invention will be set forth as follows and will be readily apparent from the descriptions and demonstrations set forth herein. Accordingly, the following descriptions of the present invention should be seen as illustrative of the invention and not as limiting in any way.SUMMARY
The present disclosure provides a method for solid state joining of dissimilar materials using a friction stir welding device wherein a pin is inserted through an aperture defined in a first material and a second material to hold the materials together and then held in place by friction stir welding a portion of the pin to a material adjacent said pin, or by friction stir welding a cap or plug that holds the pin in place to the adjacent material. The result is a connection or join wherein the central portion of the pin is not friction stir welded but the portions holding the pin in place (the ends or caps) generally are.
The process makes possible the connection and interconnection of a variety of materials including embodiment wherein the combinations such as steel and aluminum, magnesium and aluminum or magnesium and steel or a metal and a non-metal such as aluminum and a carbon reinforced polymer can be interconnected. In some embodiments the first material is configured in to a C-shape and said second material is embodied in an insert, however a variety of other configurations are also possible and contemplated for obtaining this pin held inter connection.
This process and configuration finds application in a variety of fields including but not limited to: transportation vehicle manufacture, electronic product manufacturing, construction trades manufacturing and other applications. According the descriptions provided previously and the detailed descriptions here after should be seen as illustrative and not limiting.
Various advantages and novel features of the present invention are described herein and will become further readily apparent to those skilled in this art from the following detailed description. In the preceding and following descriptions, only the preferred embodiment of the invention have been shown and described, by way of illustration of the best mode contemplated for carrying out the invention. As will be realized, the invention is capable of modification in various respects without departing from the invention. Accordingly, the drawings and description of the preferred embodiment set forth hereafter are to be regarded as illustrative in nature, and not as restrictive.
The following description includes examples of various embodiments of the present disclosure. It will be clear from this description of that the invention is not limited to these illustrated embodiments but also includes a variety of modifications and embodiments thereto. Therefore, the present description should be seen as illustrative and not limiting. There is no intention in the specification to limit the invention to the specific form disclosed, but, on the contrary, the invention is to cover all modifications, alternative constructions, and equivalents falling within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the claims.
Friction Stir Interlocking (FSI) is a new methodology for joining dissimilar materials such as lightweight metals to composites, thermoset plastics, or other non-metallic materials. Metals with vastly different melting temperatures which cannot be joined by conventional welding can also be joined by FSI. Currently the state-of-the-art for joining Mg and Al to carbon fiber (CF) and other non-metal is conventional mechanical fastening and adhesive bonding. Solid-phase approaches such as Friction Stir Welding, Scribe, Riveting, Pillaring and Spot Welding are all being investigated but face significant challenges with joint strength, fatigue, damaging the carbon fiber materials, slow process speed and galvanic corrosion. The FSI process described herein provides solutions to many of these issues.
In one embodiment shown in
In a variety of other embodiments are variety of other shapes, patterns and cross sections for the various pins 12 and corresponding holes 14 through which they can be inserted. As a friction stir process, numerous interlocks can be created quickly and uniformly, in a single pass, offering reduced cost and improved process efficiency compared to conventional metal-to-non-metal fasteners. Galvanic corrosion between the metal fasteners and carbon fibers can be nearly eliminated using FSI. In many instance the short process time (a few seconds) and low process temperature (as low as 250° C. for Mg) make this friction stir interlocking FSI approach attractive for joining Mg and Al to carbon fiber CF without substantially degrading the CF material properties.
In another embodiments of the invention (shown in the various
In other embodiments the plate of insert material such as Mg. or Al can be placed over a CFRP or CFRC assembly and then friction stir wielded along a weld path joining the plate to the insert embedded during fabrication of the CFRP or CFRC. Linear inserts such as these that are shown are can be advantageous because they provide a continuous joint along the dissimilar interface. Spot welding inserts using similar methods could also be embedded during the manufacturing of the carbon fiber composite. Forming carbon fiber composites around inserts allow for resign to adhere to the insert and allow for mechanical interlocking. This method allows for faster FSW processes and reduces heat input into carbon fiber.
In other variations, magnesium overcasting can be performed using any of a variety of metals such as Mg or Al and alloys thereof. In one particular instance a high-pressure die cast (HPDC) Mg alloy is directly cast over a short section of the CFRC component such that the carbon fiber reinforced composite CFRC section is completely embedded within the Mg casting to create a strong mechanical interlocking joint. Embedded inserts may also be used to enhance joint strength. Although CFRC will in general burn/decompose easily at the temperature corresponding to the melting point of Mg alloys (T>600 C), rapid solidification of molten Mg (i.e. within 1-2 seconds) and subsequent cooling during HPDC will sufficiently limit the surface decomposition of the bulk CFRP to form a robust mechanical joint.
The advantage of the Mg-CFRC overcasting method is that it avoids the need for machining or disturbance of the casting or CFRC while enabling joint geometries that are otherwise cumbersome to machine or not feasible by conventional mechanical fastening methods. While challenges may arise in creating a Mg-CFRC joint by overcasting because of the burn-off/thermal decomposition of the CFRC composite when it comes in contact with molten Mg and also during subsequent cooling of the solidified casting. This challenge can be addressed in two ways: 1) the Mg solidification rate is controlled to minimizing the duration for which the CFRC is exposed to temperature above its thermal decomposition temperature and 2) temperature-resistant coatings (e.g. graphite, boron nitride, etc.) on the CFRP are used to prevent erosion via direct contact with flowing molten metal.
In other circumstances, various other interlocking configurations and applications are shown.
In one example shown in
In another embodiment of the invention the aluminum pin 12 is replaced with a steel pin 12 and the approach is to lock the steel pin into the aluminum via friction stir welding. This is done by FSW through aluminum plugs 22 inserted on each side of the steel pin 12 as shown in
While various preferred embodiments of the invention are shown and described, it is to be distinctly understood that this invention is not limited thereto but may be variously embodied to practice within the scope of the following claims. From the foregoing description, it will be apparent that various changes may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the following claims.
1. A method for solid state joining of dissimilar materials using a friction stir welding device comprising the steps of:
- inserting an insert within an aperture defined in a first material and a second material, and
- friction stir welding a portion of said insert to a material adjacent to said pin.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein said first material is aluminum.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein said second material is steel.
4. The method claim 1 wherein said second material is a carbon reinforced composite.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein said first material is configured in to a C-shape and said second material is embodied in an insert configured to fit within said C-shaped material.
6. The method of claim 4 wherein said insert is a pin has two ends and is friction stir welded in each end to the first material.
7. The method of claim 5 wherein said first material is aluminum and said second material is steel.
8. The method of claim 5 wherein said first material is steel and said second material is aluminum.
9. A method for solid state joining of dissimilar materials using a friction stir welding device comprising the steps of:
- inserting a pin through an aperture defined in a first material and a second material;
- capping at least one end of pin with a cap material;
- and friction stir welding said cap to a material adjacent said cap.
10. The method of claim 9 wherein said first material is aluminum.
11. The method of claim 9 wherein said second material is steel.
12. The method claim 9 wherein said second material is a carbon reinforced composite.
13. The method of claim 9 wherein said first material is configured in to a C-shape and said second material is embodied in an insert.
14. The method of claim 9 wherein said first material is aluminum and said second material is steel.
15. The method of claim 9 wherein said first material is steel and said second material is aluminum.
16. A method of joining a first metal material to a carbon reinforced composite comprising the steps of overcasting the metal material over the carbon reinforced composite material.
17. A method of joining a metal material to a carbon reinforced composite comprising the steps of inserting a metal insert within the carbon reinforced composite during fabrication of the carbon reinforced composite and then friction stir welding a second piece of metal to the metal insert or inserts that were embedded during the fabrication of the said composite.
18. A joint comprising:
- a first material connected to a second material by a pin passing through said first material and said second material, said pin held in place by friction stir welded portions.
19. The joint of claim 16 wherein the ends of the pin are friction stir welded to a material adjacent the end of said pin.
20. The joint of claim 16 where in the pin is held in place by at least one cap that is friction stir welded to the material adjacent said cap.
Filed: Mar 26, 2019
Publication Date: Sep 19, 2019
Applicant: BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE (Richland, WA)
Inventors: Scott A. Whalen (West Richland, WA), MD. Reza-E-Rabby (Richland, WA), Kenneth A. Ross (West Richland, WA), Aashish Rohatgi (Richland, WA)
Application Number: 16/364,992