REFRIGERATION CYCLE
A refrigeration cycle is a refrigeration cycle using a mixed refrigerant which is a flammable refrigerant and which contains at least 1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), and includes a compressor (1), a heatsourceside heat exchanger (3), an expansion mechanism (4), a useside heat exchanger (2), and a decompression mechanism (7). The decompression mechanism (7) decompresses, between an inlet and an outlet of the heatsourceside heat exchanger (3), the mixed refrigerant flowing through the heatsourceside heat exchanger (3) that functions as an evaporator.
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The present disclosure relates to a refrigeration cycle.
BACKGROUND ARTPTL 1 (Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 57198968) discloses a refrigeration cycle using a nonazeotropic mixed refrigerant.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Technical ProblemIn a refrigeration cycle using a nonazeotropic mixed refrigerant, when a refrigerant is evaporated under a constant pressure in a heatsourceside heat exchanger, the capacity of heat exchange is not sufficiently provided.
Solution to ProblemA refrigeration cycle according to a first aspect is a refrigeration cycle using a mixed refrigerant which is a flammable refrigerant and which contains at least 1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), and includes a compressor, a heatsourceside heat exchanger, an expansion mechanism, a useside heat exchanger, and a decompression mechanism. The decompression mechanism decompresses, between an inlet and an outlet of the heatsourceside heat exchanger, the mixed refrigerant flowing through the heatsourceside heat exchanger that functions as an evaporator.
In this case, when the refrigerant evaporates in the heatsourceside heat exchanger, the decompression mechanism decreases the pressure of the refrigerant in the middle. Accordingly, the difference in evaporation temperature between the inlet and the outlet of the heatsourceside heat exchanger generated when the refrigerant is evaporated under the constant pressure can be decreased. Consequently, the capacity of heat exchange can be ensured, and the performance of the refrigeration cycle can be increased.
A refrigeration cycle according to a second aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to the first aspect, in which the decompression mechanism decompresses the mixed refrigerant flowing through the heatsourceside heat exchanger in accordance with a temperature gradient of the mixed refrigerant.
A refrigeration cycle according to a third aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to the first aspect or the second aspect, in which the heatsourceside heat exchanger includes a first heat exchange section and a second heat exchange section. The decompression mechanism is disposed between the first heat exchange section and the second heat exchange section.
A refrigeration cycle according to a fourth aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to any one of the first aspect to the fourth aspect, in which the useside heat exchanger is disposed in a use unit. The useside heat exchanger includes a third heat exchange section located on a frontsurface side of the use unit, and a fourth heat exchange section located on a rearsurface side of the use unit. An upper portion of the fourth heat exchange section is located near an upper portion of the third heat exchange section. The third heat exchange section extends obliquely downward from the upper portion thereof toward the frontsurface side of the use unit. The fourth heat exchange section extends obliquely downward from the upper portion thereof toward the rearsurface side of the use unit. A capacity of a refrigerant flow path of the third heat exchange section is larger than a capacity of a refrigerant flow path of the fourth heat exchange section.
In this case, the capacity of the refrigerant flow path of the third heat exchange section located on the frontsurface side of the use unit is larger than the capacity of the refrigerant flow path of the fourth heat exchange section. Accordingly, the third heat exchange section having a larger capacity of the refrigerant flow path exchanges more heat between the mixed refrigerant and the air on the frontsurface side of the use unit of which the velocity of the air passing through the heat exchange section tends to be high.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 5th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to any of the 1st through 4th aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf).
In this refrigeration cycle, the capacity of heat exchange can be increased when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A is used.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 6th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to the 5th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0),
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD, CO, and OA);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 7th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to the 5th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments GI, IA, AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CG that connect the following 8 points:
point G (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments IA, BD, and CG);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments GI, IA, BD, and CG are straight lines.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 8th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to the 5th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PN, NK, KA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1),
point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);
the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x^{2}−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x^{2}+28.955x−831.91),
the line segment KA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments JP, BD, and CG are straight lines.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 9th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to the 5th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);
the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43)
the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments JP, LM, BD, and CG are straight lines.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 10th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to the 5th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TP that connect the following 7 points:
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment BF);
the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x^{2}−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x^{2}−0.2499x+38.2),
the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x^{2}−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x^{2}−0.2393x+36.475), and
the line segments LM and BF are straight lines.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 11th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to the 5th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LQ, QR, and RP that connect the following 4 points:
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6), and
point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9),
or on the above line segments;
the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment RP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x^{2}−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x^{2}−0.2393x+36.475), and
the line segments LQ and QR are straight lines.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 12th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to the 5th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments SM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TS that connect the following 6 points:
point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments,
the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x^{2}−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x^{2}−0.2499x+38.2),
the line segment TS is represented by coordinates (x, −0.0017x^{2}−0.7869x+70.888, −0.0017x^{2}−0.2131x+29.112), and
the line segments SM and BF are straight lines.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 13th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to any of the 1st through 4th aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)) and trifluoroethylene (HFO1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and
the refrigerant comprises 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.
In this refrigeration cycle, the capacity of heat exchange can be increased when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 14th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to any of the 1st through 4th aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and
the refrigerant comprises 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.
In this refrigeration cycle, the capacity of heat exchange can be increased when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 15th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to any of the 1st through 4th aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32),
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BD′, D′C, and CG that connect the following 6 points:
point G (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0),
point I (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0),
point A (0.0134a^{2}−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a^{2}+0.9681a+31.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a^{2}−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a^{2}+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a^{2}+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a^{2}−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a^{2}−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a^{2}−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI, AB, and D′C (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, point D′, and point C);
if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0),
point I (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895),
point A (0.0112a^{2}−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a^{2}+0.9337a+31.516),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a^{2}−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a^{2}+0.5156a+41.801), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);
if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0),
point I (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273),
point A (0.0107a^{2}−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a^{2}+0.9142a+31.695),
point B (0.0, 0.009a^{2}−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a^{2}+0.6045a+40.682), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);
if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0),
point I (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014),
point A (0.0103a^{2}−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a^{2}+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a^{2}−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a^{2}+0.41a+42.714), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); and
if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0),
point I (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098),
point A (0.0085a^{2}−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a^{2}+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a^{2}−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a^{2}+0.1659a+47.05), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W).
In this refrigeration cycle, the capacity of heat exchange can be increased when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A is used.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 16th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to any of the 1st through 4th aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32),
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BD′, D′C, and CJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (0.0049a^{2}−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a^{2}−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0514a^{2}−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a^{2}+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a^{2}+1.0231a+32.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a^{2}−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a^{2}+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a^{2}+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a^{2}−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a^{2}−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a^{2}−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′B, and D′C (excluding point J, point B, point D′, and point C);
if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
point J (0.0243a^{2}−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a^{2}+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0341a^{2}−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a^{2}+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a^{2}+0.8577a+33.177),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a^{2}−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a^{2}+0.5156a+41.801), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);
if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
point J (0.0246a^{2}−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a^{2}+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0196a^{2}−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a^{2}−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a^{2}+0.8999a+32.783),
point B (0.0, 0.009a^{2}−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a^{2}+0.6045a+40.682), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);
if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (0.0183a^{2}−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a^{2}+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0),
point K′ (−0.0051a^{2}+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a^{2}−1.0929a+74.05),
point A (0.0103a^{2}−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a^{2}+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a^{2}−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a^{2}+0.41a+42.714), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W); and
if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (−0.0134a^{2}+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a^{2}−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0),
point K′ (−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557),
point A (0.0085a^{2}−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a^{2}+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a^{2}−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a^{2}+0.1659a+47.05), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W).
In this refrigeration cycle, the capacity of heat exchange can be increased when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A is used.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 17th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to any of the 1st through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane(R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf),
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI;
the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y^{2}−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y^{2}+0.7616y+28.0);
the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y^{2}−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y^{2}+0.9003y+41.7); and
the line segments JN and EI are straight lines.
In this refrigeration cycle, the capacity of heat exchange can be increased when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 18th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to any of the 1st through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, MN, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:
point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4),
point M′(39.2, 5.0, 55.8),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1),
point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and
point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);
the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y^{2}−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y^{2}+2.34y+47.4);
the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y^{2}−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y^{2}+1.2541y+51.02);
the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y^{2}−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y^{2}+0.8033y+60.4); and
the line segments NV and GM are straight lines.
In this refrigeration cycle, the capacity of heat exchange can be increased when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 19th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to any of the 1st through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:
point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4),
or on these line segments;
the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y^{2}−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y^{2}−0.3299y+62.488);
the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y^{2}−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y^{2}+0.7403y+43.365); and
the line segment UO is a straight line.
In this refrigeration cycle, the capacity of heat exchange can be increased when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 20th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to any of the 1st through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:
point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4),
point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7),
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and
point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6),
or on these line segments;
the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y^{2}−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y^{2}+0.975y+15.235);
the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y^{2}+0.8683y+16.874);
the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y^{2}−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y^{2}−0.1158y+38.512);
the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y^{2}−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y^{2}+0.2222y+32.324); and
the line segment TL is a straight line.
In this refrigeration cycle, the capacity of heat exchange can be increased when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 21st aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to any of the 1st through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8),
point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
or on these line segments;
the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y^{2}−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y^{2}−0.2897y+59.9);
the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y^{2}+0.8683y+16.874); and
the line segment TP is a straight line.
In this refrigeration cycle, the capacity of heat exchange can be increased when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 22nd aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to any of the 1st through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IK, KB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GI that connect the following 6 points:
point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GI);
the line segment IK is represented by coordinates (0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z^{2}+0.7429z+28.0, z),
the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z^{2}+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z^{2}−5.234z+88.94, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments KB′ and GI are straight lines.
In this refrigeration cycle, the capacity of heat exchange can be increased when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 23rd aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to any of the 1st through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JR, RG, and GI that connect the following 4 points:
point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GI);
the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.0, −0.025z^{2}+0.7429z+28.0, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.
In this refrigeration cycle, the capacity of heat exchange can be increased when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 24th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to any of the 1st through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MP, PB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GM that connect the following 6 points:
point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GM);
the line segment MP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z),
the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z^{2}+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z^{2}−5.234z+88.94, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments PB′ and GM are straight lines.
In this refrigeration cycle, the capacity of heat exchange can be increased when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 25th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to any of the 1st through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MN, NR, RG, and GM that connect the following 4 points:
point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point N (38.5, 52.1, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);
the line segment MN is represented by coordinates (0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.
In this refrigeration cycle, the capacity of heat exchange can be increased when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 26th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to any of the 1st through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point S (25.4, 56.2, 18.4), and
point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2),
or on these line segments;
the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (−0.0982z^{2}+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z^{2}−1.9622z+59.069, z),
the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z), and
the line segment PS is a straight line.
In this refrigeration cycle, the capacity of heat exchange can be increased when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
A refrigeration cycle according to a 27th aspect is the refrigeration cycle according to any of the 1st through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QB″, B″D, DU, and UQ that connect the following 4 points:
point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0),
point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0),
point D (0.0, 67.0, 33.0), and
point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment B″D);
the line segment DU is represented by coordinates (−3.4962z^{2}+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z^{2}−211.71z+3246.1, z),
the line segment UQ is represented by coordinates (0.0135z^{2}−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z^{2}−0.0819z+55.867, z), and
the line segments QB″ and B″D are straight lines.
In this refrigeration cycle, the capacity of heat exchange can be increased when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
In the present specification, the term “refrigerant” includes at least compounds that are specified in ISO 817 (International Organization for Standardization), and that are given a refrigerant number (ASHRAE number) representing the type of refrigerant with “R” at the beginning; and further includes refrigerants that have properties equivalent to those of such refrigerants, even though a refrigerant number is not yet given. Refrigerants are broadly divided into fluorocarbon compounds and nonfluorocarbon compounds in terms of the structure of the compounds. Fluorocarbon compounds include chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC). Nonfluorocarbon compounds include propane (R290), propylene (R1270), butane (R600), isobutane (R600a), carbon dioxide (R744), ammonia (R717), and the like.
In the present specification, the phrase “composition comprising a refrigerant” at least includes (1) a refrigerant itself (including a mixture of refrigerants), (2) a composition that further comprises other components and that can be mixed with at least a refrigeration oil to obtain a working fluid for a refrigerating machine, and (3) a working fluid for a refrigerating machine containing a refrigeration oil. In the present specification, of these three embodiments, the composition (2) is referred to as a “refrigerant composition” so as to distinguish it from a refrigerant itself (including a mixture of refrigerants). Further, the working fluid for a refrigerating machine (3) is referred to as a “refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid” so as to distinguish it from the “refrigerant composition.”
In the present specification, when the term “alternative” is used in a context in which the first refrigerant is replaced with the second refrigerant, the first type of “alternative” means that equipment designed for operation using the first refrigerant can be operated using the second refrigerant under optimum conditions, optionally with changes of only a few parts (at least one of the following: refrigeration oil, gasket, packing, expansion valve, dryer, and other parts) and equipment adjustment. In other words, this type of alternative means that the same equipment is operated with an alternative refrigerant. Embodiments of this type of “alternative” include “dropin alternative,” “nearly dropin alternative,” and “retrofit,” in the order in which the extent of changes and adjustment necessary for replacing the first refrigerant with the second refrigerant is smaller.
The term “alternative” also includes a second type of “alternative,” which means that equipment designed for operation using the second refrigerant is operated for the same use as the existing use with the first refrigerant by using the second refrigerant. This type of alternative means that the same use is achieved with an alternative refrigerant.
In the present specification, the term “refrigerating machine” refers to machines in general that draw heat from an object or space to make its temperature lower than the temperature of ambient air, and maintain a low temperature. In other words, refrigerating machines refer to conversion machines that gain energy from the outside to do work, and that perform energy conversion, in order to transfer heat from where the temperature is lower to where the temperature is higher.
In the present specification, a refrigerant having a “WCF lower flammability” means that the most flammable composition (worst case of formulation for flammability: WCF) has a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less according to the US ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013. Further, in the present specification, a refrigerant having “ASHRAE lower flammability” means that the burning velocity of WCF is 10 cm/s or less, that the most flammable fraction composition (worst case of fractionation for flammability: WCFF), which is specified by performing a leakage test during storage, shipping, or use based on ANSI/ASHRAE 342013 using WCF, has a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less, and that flammability classification according to the US ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013 is determined to classified as be “Class 2L.”
In the present specification, a refrigerant having an “RCL of x % or more” means that the refrigerant has a refrigerant concentration limit (RCL), calculated in accordance with the US ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013, of x % or more. RCL refers to a concentration limit in the air in consideration of safety factors. RCL is an index for reducing the risk of acute toxicity, suffocation, and flammability in a closed space where humans are present. RCL is determined in accordance with the ASHRAE Standard. More specifically, RCL is the lowest concentration among the acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL), the oxygen deprivation limit (ODL), and the flammable concentration limit (FCL), which are respectively calculated in accordance with sections 7.1.1, 7.1.2, and 7.1.3 of the ASHRAE Standard.
In the present specification, temperature glide refers to an absolute value of the difference between the initial temperature and the end temperature in the phase change process of a composition containing the refrigerant of the present disclosure in the heat exchanger of a refrigerant system.
(2) Refrigerant (21) Refrigerant ComponentAny one of various refrigerants such as refrigerant A, refrigerant B, refrigerant C, refrigerant D, and refrigerant E, details of these refrigerant are to be mentioned later, can be used as the refrigerant.
(22) Use of RefrigerantThe refrigerant according to the present disclosure can be preferably used as a working fluid in a refrigerating machine.
The composition according to the present disclosure is suitable for use as an alternative refrigerant for HFC refrigerant such as R410A, R407C and R404 etc, or HCFC refrigerant such as R22 etc.
(3) Refrigerant CompositionThe refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure comprises at least the refrigerant according to the present disclosure, and can be used for the same use as the refrigerant according to the present disclosure. Moreover, the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure can be further mixed with at least a refrigeration oil to thereby obtain a working fluid for a refrigerating machine.
The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure further comprises at least one other component in addition to the refrigerant according to the present disclosure. The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise at least one of the following other components, if necessary. As described above, when the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure is used as a working fluid in a refrigerating machine, it is generally used as a mixture with at least a refrigeration oil. Therefore, it is preferable that the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure does not substantially comprise a refrigeration oil. Specifically, in the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure, the content of the refrigeration oil based on the entire refrigerant composition is preferably 0 to 1 mass %, and more preferably 0 to 0.1 mass %.
(31) WaterThe refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may contain a small amount of water. The water content of the refrigerant composition is preferably 0.1 mass % or less based on the entire refrigerant. A small amount of water contained in the refrigerant composition stabilizes double bonds in the molecules of unsaturated fluorocarbon compounds that can be present in the refrigerant, and makes it less likely that the unsaturated fluorocarbon compounds will be oxidized, thus increasing the stability of the refrigerant composition.
(32) TracerA tracer is added to the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure at a detectable concentration such that when the refrigerant composition has been diluted, contaminated, or undergone other changes, the tracer can trace the changes.
The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single tracer, or two or more tracers.
The tracer is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used tracers. Preferably, a compound that cannot be an impurity inevitably mixed in the refrigerant of the present disclosure is selected as the tracer.
Examples of tracers include hydrofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorocarbons, fluorocarbons, deuterated hydrocarbons, deuterated hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, fluoroethers, brominated compounds, iodinated compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and nitrous oxide (N_{2}O). The tracer is particularly preferably a hydrofluorocarbon, a hydrochlorofluorocarbon, a chlorofluorocarbon, a fluorocarbon, a hydrochlorocarbon, a fluorocarbon, or a fluoroether.
The following compounds are preferable as the tracer.
FC14 (tetrafluoromethane, CF_{4})
HCC40 (chloromethane, CH_{3}Cl)
HFC23 (trifluoromethane, CHF_{3})
HFC41 (fluoromethane, CH_{3}Cl)
HFC125 (pentafluoroethane, CF_{3}CHF_{2})
HFC134a (1,1,1,2tetrafluoroethane, CF_{3}CH_{2}F)
HFC134 (1,1,2,2tetrafluoroethane, CHF_{2}CHF_{2})
HFC143a (1,1,1trifluoroethane, CF_{3}CH_{3})
HFC143 (1,1,2trifluoroethane, CHF_{2}CH_{2}F)
HFC152a (1,1difluoroethane, CHF_{2}CH_{3})
HFC152 (1,2difluoroethane, CH_{2}FCH_{2}F)
HFC161 (fluoroethane, CH_{3}CH_{2}F)
HFC245fa (1,1,1,3,3pentafluoropropane, CF_{3}CH_{2}CHF_{2})
HFC236fa (1,1,1,3,3,3hexafluoropropane, CF_{3}CH_{2}CF_{3})
HFC236ea (1,1,1,2,3,3hexafluoropropane, CF_{3}CHFCHF_{2})
HFC227ea (1,1,1,2,3,3,3heptafluoropropane, CF_{3}CHFCF_{3})
HCFC22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF_{2})
HCFC31 (chlorofluoromethane, CH_{2}ClF)
CFC1113 (chlorotrifluoroethylene, CF_{2}=CClF)
HFE125 (trifluoromethyldifluoromethyl ether, CF_{3}OCHF_{2})
HFE134a (trifluoromethylfluoromethyl ether, CF_{3}OCH_{2}F)
HFE143a (trifluoromethylmethyl ether, CF_{3}OCH_{3})
HFE227ea (trifluoromethyltetrafluoroethyl ether, CF_{3}OCHFCF_{3})
HFE236fa (trifluoromethyltrifluoroethyl ether, CF_{3}OCH_{2}CF_{3})
The tracer compound may be present in the refrigerant composition at a total concentration of about 10 parts per million (ppm) to about 1000 ppm. Preferably, the tracer compound is present in the refrigerant composition at a total concentration of about 30 ppm to about 500 ppm, and most preferably, the tracer compound is present at a total concentration of about 50 ppm to about 300 ppm.
(33) Ultraviolet Fluorescent DyeThe refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single ultraviolet fluorescent dye, or two or more ultraviolet fluorescent dyes.
The ultraviolet fluorescent dye is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used ultraviolet fluorescent dyes.
Examples of ultraviolet fluorescent dyes include naphthalimide, coumarin, anthracene, phenanthrene, xanthene, thioxanthene, naphthoxanthene, fluorescein, and derivatives thereof. The ultraviolet fluorescent dye is particularly preferably either naphthalimide or coumarin, or both.
(34) StabilizerThe refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single stabilizer, or two or more stabilizers.
The stabilizer is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used stabilizers.
Examples of stabilizers include nitro compounds, ethers, and amines.
Examples of nitro compounds include aliphatic nitro compounds, such as nitromethane and nitroethane; and aromatic nitro compounds, such as nitro benzene and nitro styrene.
Examples of ethers include 1,4dioxane.
Examples of amines include 2,2,3,3,3pentafluoropropylamine and diphenylamine.
Examples of stabilizers also include butylhydroxyxylene and benzotriazole. The content of the stabilizer is not limited. Generally, the content of the stabilizer is preferably 0.01 to 5 mass %, and more preferably 0.05 to 2 mass %, based on the entire refrigerant.
(35) Polymerization InhibitorThe refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single polymerization inhibitor, or two or more polymerization inhibitors.
The polymerization inhibitor is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used polymerization inhibitors.
Examples of polymerization inhibitors include 4methoxy1naphthol, hydroquinone, hydroquinone methyl ether, dimethyltbutylphenol, 2,6ditertbutylpcresol, and benzotriazole.
The content of the polymerization inhibitor is not limited. Generally, the content of the polymerization inhibitor is preferably 0.01 to 5 mass %, and more preferably 0.05 to 2 mass %, based on the entire refrigerant.
(4) Refrigeration OilContaining Working FluidThe refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid according to the present disclosure comprises at least the refrigerant or refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure and a refrigeration oil, for use as a working fluid in a refrigerating machine. Specifically, the refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid according to the present disclosure is obtained by mixing a refrigeration oil used in a compressor of a refrigerating machine with the refrigerant or the refrigerant composition. The refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid generally comprises 10 to 50 mass % of refrigeration oil.
(41) Refrigeration OilThe refrigeration oil is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used refrigeration oils. In this case, refrigeration oils that are superior in the action of increasing the miscibility with the mixture and the stability of the mixture, for example, are suitably selected as necessary.
The base oil of the refrigeration oil is preferably, for example, at least one member selected from the group consisting of polyalkylene glycols (PAG), polyol esters (POE), and polyvinyl ethers (PVE).
The refrigeration oil may further contain additives in addition to the base oil. The additive may be at least one member selected from the group consisting of antioxidants, extremepressure agents, acid scavengers, oxygen scavengers, copper deactivators, rust inhibitors, oil agents, and antifoaming agents.
A refrigeration oil with a kinematic viscosity of 5 to 400 cSt at 40° C. is preferable from the standpoint of lubrication.
The refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid according to the present disclosure may further optionally contain at least one additive. Examples of additives include compatibilizing agents described below.
(42) Compatibilizing AgentThe refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid according to the present disclosure may comprise a single compatibilizing agent, or two or more compatibilizing agents.
The compatibilizing agent is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used compatibilizing agents.
Examples of compatibilizing agents include polyoxyalkylene glycol ethers, amides, nitriles, ketones, chlorocarbons, esters, lactones, aryl ethers, fluoroethers, and 1,1,1trifluoroalkanes. The compatibilizing agent is particularly preferably a polyoxyalkylene glycol ether.
(5) Various RefrigerantsHereinafter, the refrigerants A to E, which are the refrigerants used in the present embodiment, will be described in detail.
In addition, each description of the following refrigerant A, refrigerant B, refrigerant C, refrigerant D, and refrigerant E is each independent. The alphabet which shows a point or a line segment, the number of an Examples, and the number of a comparative examples are all independent of each other among the refrigerant A, the refrigerant B, the refrigerant C, the refrigerant D, and the refrigerant E. For example, the first embodiment of the refrigerant A and the first embodiment of the refrigerant B are different embodiment from each other.
(51) Refrigerant AThe refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf).
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410Aalternative refrigerant, i.e., a refrigerating capacity and a coefficient of performance that are equivalent to those of R410A, and a sufficiently low GWP.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is a composition comprising HFO1132(E) and R1234yf, and optionally further comprising HFO1123, and may further satisfy the following requirements. This refrigerant also has various properties desirable as an alternative refrigerant for R410A; i.e., it has a refrigerating capacity and a coefficient of performance that are equivalent to those of R410A, and a sufficiently low GWP.
RequirementsPreferable refrigerant A is as follows:
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0),
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line CO);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3,
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A.
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf, based on their sum in the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within a figure surrounded by line segments GI, IA, AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CG that connect the following 8 points:
point G (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CG);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments GI, IA, BD, and CG are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant A has a WCF lower flammability according to the ASHRAE Standard (the WCF composition has a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less).
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PN, NK, KA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1),
point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CJ);
the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x^{2}−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x^{2}+28.955x−831.91),
the line segment KA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments JP, BD, and CG are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant exhibits a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard (the WCF composition and the WCFF composition have a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less).
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CJ);
the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments JP, LM, BD, and CG are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has an RCL of 40 g/m^{3 }or more.
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TP that connect the following 7 points:
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment BF);
the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x^{2}−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x^{2}−0.2499x+38.2),
the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x^{2}−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x^{2}−0.2393x+36.475), and
the line segments LM and BF are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has an RCL of 40 g/m^{3 }or more.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LQ, QR, and RP that connect the following 4 points:
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6), and
point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9),
or on the above line segments;
the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment RP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x^{2}−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x^{2}−0.2393x+36.475), and
the line segments LQ and QR are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and an RCL of 40 g/m^{3 }or more, furthermore, the refrigerant has a condensation temperature glide of 1° C. or less.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments SM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TS that connect the following 6 points:
point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′(30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments,
the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x^{2}−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x^{2}−0.2499x+38.2),
the line segment TS is represented by coordinates (x, −0.0017x^{2}−0.7869x+70.888, −0.0017x^{2}−0.2131x+29.112), and
the line segments SM and BF are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and an RCL of 40 g/m^{3 }or more furthermore, the refrigerant has a discharge pressure of 105% or more relative to that of R410A.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Od, dg, gh, and hO that connect the following 4 points:
point d (87.6, 0.0, 12.4),
point g (18.2, 55.1, 26.7),
point h (56.7, 43.3, 0.0), and
point o (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the line segments Od, dg, gh, and hO (excluding the points O and h);
the line segment dg is represented by coordinates (0.0047y^{2}−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y^{2}+0.5177y+12.402),
the line segment gh is represented by coordinates (−0.0134z^{2}−1.0825z+56.692, 0.0134z^{2}+0.0825z+43.308, z), and
the line segments hO and Od are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf, based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments lg, gh, hi, and il that connect the following 4 points:
point 1 (72.5, 10.2, 17.3),
point g (18.2, 55.1, 26.7),
point h (56.7, 43.3, 0.0), and
point i (72.5, 27.5, 0.0) or
on the line segments lg, gh, and il (excluding the points h and i);
the line segment lg is represented by coordinates (0.0047y^{2}−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y^{2}+0.5177y+12.402),
the line gh is represented by coordinates (−0.0134z^{2}−1.0825z+56.692, 0.0134z^{2}+0.0825z+43.308, z), and
the line segments hi and il are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Od, de, ef, and fO that connect the following 4 points:
point d (87.6, 0.0, 12.4),
point e (31.1, 42.9, 26.0),
point f (65.5, 34.5, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the line segments Od, de, and ef (excluding the points 0 and f);
the line segment de is represented by coordinates (0.0047y^{2}−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y^{2}+0.5177y+12.402),
the line segment ef is represented by coordinates (−0.0064z^{2}−1.1565z+65.501, 0.0064z^{2}+0.1565z+34.499, z), and
the line segments fO and Od are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,
coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments le, ef, fi, and il that connect the following 4 points:
point l (72.5, 10.2, 17.3),
point e (31.1, 42.9, 26.0),
point f (65.5, 34.5, 0.0), and
point i (72.5, 27.5, 0.0),
or on the line segments le, ef, and il (excluding the points f and i);
the line segment le is represented by coordinates (0.0047y^{2}−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y^{2}+0.5177y+12.402),
the line segment ef is represented by coordinates (−0.0134z^{2}−1.0825z+56.692, 0.0134z^{2}+0.0825z+43.308, z), and
the line segments fi and il are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,
coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oa, ab, bc, and cO that connect the following 4 points:
point a (93.4, 0.0, 6.6),
point b (55.6, 26.6, 17.8),
point c (77.6, 22.4, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the line segments Oa, ab, and bc (excluding the points 0 and c);
the line segment ab is represented by coordinates (0.0052y^{2}−1.5588y+93.385, y, −0.0052y^{2}+0.5588y+6.615),
the line segment bc is represented by coordinates (−0.0032z^{2}−1.1791z+77.593, 0.0032z^{2}+0.1791z+22.407, z), and
the line segments cO and Oa are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,
coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments kb, bj, and jk that connect the following 3 points:
point k (72.5, 14.1, 13.4),
point b (55.6, 26.6, 17.8), and
point j (72.5, 23.2, 4.3),
or on the line segments kb, bj, and jk;
the line segment kb is represented by coordinates (0.0052y^{2}−1.5588y+93.385, y, and −0.0052y^{2}+0.5588y+6.615),
the line segment bj is represented by coordinates (−0.0032z^{2}−1.1791z+77.593, 0.0032z^{2}+0.1791z+22.407, z), and
the line segment jk is a straight line.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard.
The refrigerant according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and still more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
The refrigerant according to the present disclosure may comprise HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, 99.75 mass % or more, or 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
Additional refrigerants are not particularly limited and can be widely selected. The mixed refrigerant may contain one additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.
Examples of Refrigerant AThe present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant A. However, refrigerant A is not limited to the Examples.
The GWP of R1234yf and a composition consisting of a mixed refrigerant R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO1123 (GWP=0.3, described in WO2015/141678). The refrigerating capacity of R410A and compositions each comprising a mixture of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.
Further, the RCL of the mixture was calculated with the LFL of HFO1132(E) being 4.7 vol. %, the LFL of HFO1123 being 10 vol. %, and the LFL of R1234yf being 6.2 vol. %, in accordance with the ASHRAE Standard 342013.
Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Degree of superheating: 5 K
Degree of subcooling: 5 K
Compressor efficiency: 70%
Tables 1 to 34 show these values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant.
These results indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′(30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0),
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CO);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3,
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines,
the refrigerant has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A.
The point on the line segment AA′ was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point A, Example 1, and point A′ by the least square method.
The point on the line segment A′B was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point A′, Example 3, and point B by the least square method.
The point on the line segment DC′ was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point D, Example 6, and point C′ by the least square method.
The point on the line segment C′C was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point C′, Example 4, and point C by the least square method.
Likewise, the results indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BF, FT, TE, EO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2),
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
point E (58.0, 42.0, 0.0) and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line EO);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x^{2}−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x^{2}−0.2499x+38.2), and
the line segment TE is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.7607x+63.525, −0.0067x^{2}−0.2393x+36.475), and
the line segments BF, FO, and OA are straight lines,
the refrigerant has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A.
The point on the line segment FT was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points T, E′, and F, by the least square method.
The point on the line segment TE was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points E, R, and T, by the least square method.
The results in Tables 1 to 34 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of the mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf in which the sum of these components is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below the line segment LM connecting point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0) and point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), the refrigerant has an RCL of 40 g/m^{3 }or more.
The results in Tables 1 to 34 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of the mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123 and R1234yf in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the line segment QR connecting point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6) and point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9) or on the left side of the line segment, the refrigerant has a temperature glide of 1° C. or less.
The results in Tables 1 to 34 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of the mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the line segment ST connecting point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1) and point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3) or on the right side of the line segment, the refrigerant has a discharge pressure of 105% or less relative to that of 410A.
In these compositions, R1234yf contributes to reducing flammability, and suppressing deterioration of polymerization etc. Therefore, the composition preferably contains R1234yf.
Further, the burning velocity of these mixed refrigerants whose mixed formulations were adjusted to WCF concentrations was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013. Compositions having a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less were determined to be classified as “Class 2L (lower flammability).”
A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in
Each WCFF concentration was obtained by using the WCF concentration as the initial concentration and performing a leak simulation using NIST Standard Reference Database REFLEAK Version 4.0.
Tables 35 and 36 show the results.
The results in Table 35 clearly indicate that when a mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf contains HFO1132(E) in a proportion of 72.0 mass % or less based on their sum, the refrigerant can be determined to have a WCF lower flammability.
The results in Tables 36 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of a mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf in which their sum is 100 mass %, and a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base,
when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below the line segments JP, PN, and NK connecting the following 6 points:
point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0)
point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1)
point N′ (65.0, 7.7, 27.3) and
point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3),
the refrigerant can be determined to have a WCF lower flammability, and a WCFF lower flammability.
In the diagram, the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
and the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x^{2}−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x^{2}+28.955x−831.91).
The point on the line segment PN was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points P, L, and N, by the least square method.
The point on the line segment NK was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points N, N′, and K, by the least square method.
(52) Refrigerant BThe refrigerant B according to the present disclosure is
a mixed refrigerant comprising trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)) and trifluoroethylene (HFO1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and the refrigerant comprising 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % or 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant, or
a mixed refrigerant comprising HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and the refrigerant comprising 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.
The refrigerant B according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410Aalternative refrigerant, i.e., (1) a coefficient of performance equivalent to that of R410A, (2) a refrigerating capacity equivalent to that of R410A, (3) a sufficiently low GWP, and (4) a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.
When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising 72.0 mass % or less of HFO1132(E), it has WCF lower flammability. When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure is a composition comprising 47.1% or less of HFO1132(E), it has WCF lower flammability and WCFF lower flammability, and is determined to be “Class 2L,” which is a lower flammable refrigerant according to the ASHRAE standard, and which is further easier to handle.
When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure comprises 62.0 mass % or more of HFO1132(E), it becomes superior with a coefficient of performance of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, the polymerization reaction of HFO1132(E) and/or HFO1123 is further suppressed, and the stability is further improved. When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure comprises 45.1 mass % or more of HFO1132(E), it becomes superior with a coefficient of performance of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, the polymerization reaction of HFO1132(E) and/or HFO1123 is further suppressed, and the stability is further improved.
The refrigerant B according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO1132(E) and HFO1123, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 in a total amount of 99.75 mass % or more, and more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
Such additional refrigerants are not limited, and can be selected from a wide range of refrigerants. The mixed refrigerant may comprise a single additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.
(Examples of Refrigerant B)The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant B. However, the refrigerant B is not limited to the Examples.
Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 at mass % based on their sum shown in Tables 37 and 38.
The GWP of compositions each comprising a mixture of R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO1123 (GWP=0.3, described in WO2015/141678). The refrigerating capacity of compositions each comprising R410A and a mixture of HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.
Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Superheating temperature: 5 K
Subcooling temperature: 5 K
Compressor efficiency: 70%
The composition of each mixture was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using NIST Standard Reference Data Base Refleak Version 4.0 under the conditions of Equipment, Storage, Shipping, Leak, and Recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 342013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.
Tables 1 and 2 show GWP, COP, and refrigerating capacity, which were calculated based on these results. The COP and refrigerating capacity are ratios relative to R410A.
The coefficient of performance (COP) was determined by the following formula.
COP=(refrigerating capacity or heating capacity)/power consumption
For the flammability, the burning velocity was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013. Both WCF and WCFF having a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less were determined to be “Class 2L (lower flammability).”
A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in
The compositions each comprising 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire composition are stable while having a low GWP (GWP=1), and they ensure WCF lower flammability. Further, surprisingly, they can ensure performance equivalent to that of R410A. Moreover, compositions each comprising 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire composition are stable while having a low GWP (GWP=1), and they ensure WCFF lower flammability. Further, surprisingly, they can ensure performance equivalent to that of R410A.
(53) Refrigerant CThe refrigerant C according to the present disclosure is a composition comprising trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32), and satisfies the following requirements. The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an alternative refrigerant for R410A; i.e. it has a coefficient of performance and a refrigerating capacity that are equivalent to those of R410A, and a sufficiently low GWP.
RequirementsPreferable refrigerant C is as follows:
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BD′, D′ C, and CG that connect the following 6 points:
point G (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0),
point I (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0),
point A (0.0134a^{2}−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a^{2}+0.9681a+31.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a^{2}−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a^{2}+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a^{2}+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a^{2}−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a^{2}−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a^{2}−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI, AB, and D′C (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, point D′, and point C);
if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0),
point I (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895),
point A (0.0112a^{2}−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a^{2}+0.9337a+31.516),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a^{2}−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a^{2}+0.5156a+41.801) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);
if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0),
point I (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273),
point A (0.0107a^{2}−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a^{2}+0.9142a+31.695),
point B (0.0, 0.009a^{2}−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a^{2}+0.6045a+40.682) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);
if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0),
point I (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014),
point A (0.0103a^{2}−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a^{2}+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a^{2}−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a^{2}+0.41a+42.714) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); and
if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0),
point I (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098),
point A (0.0085a^{2}−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a^{2}+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a^{2}−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a^{2}+0.1659a+47.05) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W). When the refrigerant according to the present disclosure satisfies the above requirements, it has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and further ensures a WCF lower flammability.
The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,
if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BD′, D′C, and CJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (0.0049a^{2}−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a^{2}−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0514a^{2}−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a^{2}+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a^{2}+1.0231a+32.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a^{2}−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a^{2}+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a^{2}+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a^{2}−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a^{2}−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a^{2}−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′B, and D′C (excluding point J, point B, point D′, and point C);
if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
point J (0.0243a^{2}−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a^{2}+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0341a^{2}−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a^{2}+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a^{2}+0.8577a+33.177),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a^{2}−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a^{2}+0.5156a+41.801) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);
if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
point J (0.0246a^{2}−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a^{2}+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0196a^{2}−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a^{2}−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a^{2}+0.8999a+32.783),
point B (0.0, 0.009a^{2}−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a^{2}+0.6045a+40.682) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);
if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (0.0183a^{2}−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a^{2}+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0),
point K′ (−0.0051a^{2}+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a^{2}−1.0929a+74.05),
point A (0.0103a^{2}−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a^{2}+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a^{2}−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a^{2}+0.41a+42.714) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W); and
if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (−0.0134a^{2}+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a^{2}−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0),
point K′ (−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557),
point A (0.0085a^{2}−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a^{2}+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a^{2}−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a^{2}+0.1659a+47.05) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W). When the refrigerant according to the present disclosure satisfies the above requirements, it has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A. Additionally, the refrigerant has a WCF lower flammability and a WCFF lower flammability, and is classified as “Class 2L,” which is a lower flammable refrigerant according to the ASHRAE standard.
When the refrigerant C according to the present disclosure further contains R32 in addition to HFO1132 (E), HFO1123, and R1234yf, the refrigerant may be a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
if 0<a≤10.0, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines that connect the following 4 points:
point a (0.02a^{2}−2.46a+93.4, 0, −0.02a^{2}+2.46a+6.6),
point b′ (−0.008a^{2}−1.38a+56, 0.018a^{2}−0.53a+26.3, −0.01a^{2}+1.91a+17.7),
point c (−0.016a^{2}+1.02a+77.6, 0.016a^{2}−1.02a+22.4, 0), and
point o (100.0−a, 0.0, 0.0)
or on the straight lines oa, ab′, and b′c (excluding point o and point c);
if 10.0<a≤16.5, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines that connect the following 4 points:
point a (0.0244a^{2}−2.5695a+94.056, 0, −0.0244a^{2}+2.5695a+5.944),
point b′ (0.1161a^{2}−1.9959a+59.749, 0.014a^{2}−0.3399a+24.8, −0.1301a^{2}+2.3358a+15.451),
point c (−0.0161a^{2}+1.02a+77.6, 0.0161a^{2}−1.02a+22.4, 0), and
point o (100.0−a, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the straight lines oa, ab′, and b′c (excluding point o and point c); or
if 16.5<a≤21.8, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines that connect the following 4 points:
point a (0.0161a^{2}−2.3535a+92.742, 0, −0.0161a^{2}+2.3535a+7.258),
point b′ (−0.0435a^{2}−0.0435a+50.406, 0.0304a^{2}+1.8991a−0.0661, 0.0739a^{2}−1.8556a+49.6601),
point c (−0.0161a^{2}+0.9959a+77.851, 0.0161a^{2}−0.9959a+22.149, 0), and
point o (100.0−a, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the straight lines oa, ab′, and b′c (excluding point o and point c). Note that when point b in the ternary composition diagram is defined as a point where a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% relative to that of R410A and a COP ratio of 95% relative to that of R410A are both achieved, point b′ is the intersection of straight line ab and an approximate line formed by connecting the points where the COP ratio relative to that of R410A is 95%. When the refrigerant according to the present disclosure meets the above requirements, the refrigerant has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A.
The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and still more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure may comprise HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, 99.75 mass % or more, or 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
Additional refrigerants are not particularly limited and can be widely selected. The mixed refrigerant may contain one additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.
(Examples of Refrigerant C)The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant C. However, the refrigerant C is not limited to the Examples.
Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 at mass % based on their sum shown in Tables 39 to 96.
The GWP of compositions each comprising a mixture of R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO1123 (GWP=0.3, described in WO2015/141678). The refrigerating capacity of compositions each comprising R410A and a mixture of HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.
For each of these mixed refrigerants, the COP ratio and the refrigerating capacity ratio relative to those of R410 were obtained. Calculation was conducted under the following conditions.
Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Superheating temperature: 5 K
Subcooling temperature: 5 K
Compressor efficiency: 70%
Tables 39 to 96 show the resulting values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant. The COP and refrigerating capacity are ratios relative to R410A.
The coefficient of performance (COP) was determined by the following formula.
COP=(refrigerating capacity or heating capacity)/power consumption
The above results indicate that the refrigerating capacity ratio relative to R410A is 85% or more in the following cases:
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a, in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass %, a straight line connecting a point (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0−a) is the base, and the point (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0) is on the left side, if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0134a^{2}−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a^{2}+0.9681a+31.4) and point B (0.0, 0.0144a^{2}−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a^{2}+0.6377a+41.3);
if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0112a^{2}−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a^{2}+0.9337a+31.516) and point B (0.0, 0.0075a^{2}−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a^{2}+0.5156a+41.801);
if 18.2a<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0107a^{2}−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a^{2}+0.9142a+31.695) and point B (0.0, 0.009a^{2}−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a^{2}+0.6045a+40.682);
if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0103a^{2}−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a^{2}+0.9225a+31.207) and point B (0.0, 0.0046a^{2}−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a^{2}+0.41a+42.714); and
if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0085a^{2}−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a^{2}+0.8102a+32.9) and point B (0.0, 0.0012a^{2}−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a^{2}+0.1659a+47.05).
Actual points having a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more form a curved line that connects point A and point B in
Similarly, it was also found that in the ternary composition diagram, if 0<a≤11.1, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on, or on the left side of, a straight line D′C that connects point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a^{2}+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a^{2}−1.968a+24.6) and point C (−0.2304a^{2}−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a^{2}−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0); or if 11.1<a≤46.7, when coordinates are in the entire region, the COP ratio relative to that of R410A is 92.5% or more.
In
The composition of each mixture was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using NIST Standard Reference Database REFLEAK Version 4.0 under the conditions of Equipment, Storage, Shipping, Leak, and Recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 342013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.
For the flammability, the burning velocity was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013. Both WCF and WCFF having a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less were determined to be classified as “Class 2L (lower flammability).”
A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in
The results are shown in Tables 97 to 104.
The results in Tables 97 to 100 indicate that the refrigerant has a WCF lower flammability in the following cases:
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % and a straight line connecting a point (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0−a) is the base, if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0) and point I (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0);
if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0) and point I (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895); if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0) and point I (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273); if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0) and point I (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014); and if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0) and point I (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098).
Three points corresponding to point G (Table 105) and point I (Table 106) were individually obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained.
The results in Tables 101 to 104 indicate that the refrigerant is determined to have a WCFF lower flammability, and the flammability classification according to the ASHRAE Standard is “2L (flammability)” in the following cases:
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a, in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % and a straight line connecting a point (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0−a) is the base, if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0049a^{2}−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a^{2}−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0) and point K′(0.0514a^{2}−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a^{2}+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a^{2}+1.0231a+32.4); if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates are on a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0243a^{2}−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a^{2}+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0) and point K′(0.0341a^{2}−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a^{2}+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a^{2}+0.8577a+33.177); if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0246a^{2}−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a^{2}+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0) and point K′ (0.0196a^{2}−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a^{2}−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a^{2}+0.8999a+32.783); if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0183a^{2}−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a^{2}+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0) and point K′ (−0.0051a^{2}+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a^{2}−1.0929a+74.05); and if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (−0.0134a^{2}+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a^{2}−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0) and point K′(−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557).
Actual points having a WCFF lower flammability form a curved line that connects point J and point K′ (on the straight line AB) in
Three points corresponding to point J (Table 107) and point K′ (Table 108) were individually obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained.
Points A, B, C, and D′ were obtained in the following manner according to approximate calculation.
Point A is a point where the content of HFO1123 is 0 mass %, and a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% relative to that of R410A is achieved. Three points corresponding to point A were obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 109).
Point B is a point where the content of HFO1132(E) is 0 mass %, and a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% relative to that of R410A is achieved.
Three points corresponding to point B were obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 110).
Point D′ is a point where the content of HFO1132(E) is 0 mass %, and a COP ratio of 95.5% relative to that of R410A is achieved.
Three points corresponding to point D′ were obtained in each of the following by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 111).
Point C is a point where the content of R1234yf is 0 mass %, and a COP ratio of 95.5% relative to that of R410A is achieved.
Three points corresponding to point C were obtained in each of the following by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 112).
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf).
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410Aalternative refrigerant; i.e., a refrigerating capacity equivalent to that of R410A, a sufficiently low GWP, and a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI);
the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y^{2}−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y^{2}+0.7616y+28.0);
the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y^{2}−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y^{2}+0.9003y+41.7); and
the line segments JN and EI are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MINI′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:
point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4),
point M′ (39.2, 5.0, 55.8),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1),
point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and
point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);
the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y^{2}−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y^{2}+2.34y+47.4);
the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y^{2}−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y^{2}+1.2541y+51.02);
the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y^{2}−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y^{2}+0.8033y+60.4); and
the line segments NV and GM are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 70% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:
point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4),
or on these line segments;
the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y^{2}−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y^{2}−0.3299y+62.488);
the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y^{2}−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y^{2}+0.7403y+43.365); and
the line segment UO is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 250 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:
point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4),
point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7),
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and
point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6),
or on these line segments;
the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y^{2}−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y^{2}+0.975y+15.235);
the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y^{2}+0.8683y+16.874);
the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y^{2}−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y^{2}−0.1158y+38.512);
the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y^{2}−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y^{2}+0.2222y+32.324); and
the line segment TL is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8),
point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
or on these line segments;
the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y^{2}−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y^{2}−0.2897y+59.9);
the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y^{2}+0.8683y+16.874); and
the line segment TP is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ac, cf, fd, and da that connect the following 4 points:
point a (71.1, 0.0, 28.9),
point c (36.5, 18.2, 45.3),
point f (47.6, 18.3, 34.1), and
point d (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
or on these line segments;
the line segment ac is represented by coordinates (0.0181y^{2}−2.2288y+71.096, y, −0.0181y^{2}+1.2288y+28.904);
the line segment fd is represented by coordinates (0.02y^{2}−1.7y+72, y, −0.02y^{2}+0.7y+28); and
the line segments cf and da are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ab, be, ed, and da that connect the following 4 points:
point a (71.1, 0.0, 28.9),
point b (42.6, 14.5, 42.9),
point e (51.4, 14.6, 34.0), and
point d (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
or on these line segments;
the line segment ab is represented by coordinates (0.0181y^{2}−2.2288y+71.096, y, −0.0181y^{2}+1.2288y+28.904);
the line segment ed is represented by coordinates (0.02y^{2}−1.7y+72, y, −0.02y^{2}+0.7y+28); and
the line segments be and da are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 100 or less, and a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments gi, ij, and jg that connect the following 3 points:
point g (77.5, 6.9, 15.6),
point i (55.1, 18.3, 26.6), and
point j (77.5. 18.4, 4.1),
or on these line segments;
the line segment gi is represented by coordinates (0.02y^{2}−2.4583y+93.396, y, −0.02y^{2}+1.4583y+6.604); and
the line segments ij and jg are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to R410A and a GWP of 100 or less, undergoes fewer or no changes such as polymerization or decomposition, and also has excellent stability.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments gh, hk, and kg that connect the following 3 points:
point g (77.5, 6.9, 15.6),
point h (61.8, 14.6, 23.6), and
point k (77.5, 14.6, 7.9),
or on these line segments;
the line segment gh is represented by coordinates (0.02y^{2}−2.4583y+93.396, y, −0.02y^{2}+1.4583y+6.604); and
the line segments hk and kg are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to R410A and a GWP of 100 or less, undergoes fewer or no changes such as polymerization or decomposition, and also has excellent stability.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and still more preferably 99.9 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant.
Such additional refrigerants are not limited, and can be selected from a wide range of refrigerants. The mixed refrigerant may comprise a single additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.
(Examples of Refrigerant D)The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant D. However, the refrigerant D is not limited to the Examples.
The composition of each mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using the NIST Standard Reference Database REFLEAK Version 4.0 under the conditions of Equipment, Storage, Shipping, Leak, and Recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 342013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.
A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in
The results indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram shown in
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram shown in
Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf in amounts (mass %) shown in Tables 116 to 144 based on the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf. The coefficient of performance (COP) ratio and the refrigerating capacity ratio relative to R410 of the mixed refrigerants shown in Tables 116 to 144 were determined. The conditions for calculation were as described below.
Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Degree of superheating: 5 K
Degree of subcooling: 5 K
Compressor efficiency: 70%
Tables 116 to 144 show these values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant.
The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI),
the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y^{2}−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y^{2}+0.7616y+28.0),
the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y^{2}−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y^{2}+0.9003y+41.7), and
the line segments JN and EI are straight lines, the refrigerant D has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.
The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:
point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4),
point M′ (39.2, 5.0, 55.8),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1),
point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and
point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM),
the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y^{2}−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y^{2}+2.34y+47.4),
the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y^{2}−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y^{2}+1.2541y+51.02),
the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y^{2}−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y^{2}+0.8033y+60.4), and
the line segments NV and GM are straight lines, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 70% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:
point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4),
or on these line segments,
the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y^{2}−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y^{2}−0.3299y+62.488),
the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y^{2}−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y^{2}+0.7403y+43.365), and
the line segment UO is a straight line, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 250 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:
point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4),
point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7),
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and
point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6),
or on these line segments,
the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y^{2}−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y^{2}+0.975y+15.235),
the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y^{2}+0.8683y+16.874),
the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y^{2}−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y^{2}−0.1158y+38.512),
the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y^{2}−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y^{2}+0.2222y+32.324), and
the line segment TL is a straight line, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.
The results further indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8),
point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
or on these line segments,
the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y^{2}−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y^{2}−0.2897y+59.9),
the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y^{2}+0.8683y+16.874), and
the line segment TP is a straight line, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
(55) Refrigerant EThe refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32).
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410Aalternative refrigerant, i.e., a coefficient of performance equivalent to that of R410A and a sufficiently low GWP.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IK, KB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GI that connect the following 6 points:
point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GI);
the line segment IK is represented by coordinates (0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z^{2}+0.7429z+28.0, z),
the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z^{2}+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z^{2}−5.234z+88.94, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments KB′ and GI are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has WCF lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JR, RG, and GI that connect the following 4 points:
point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GI);
the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.0, −0.025z^{2}+0.7429z+28.0, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments JR and GI are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has WCF lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MP, PB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GM that connect the following 6 points:
point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GM);
the line segment MP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z),
the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z^{2}+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z^{2}−5.234z+88.94, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments PB′ and GM are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MN, NR, RG, and GM that connect the following 4 points:
point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point N (38.5, 52.1, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);
the line segment MN is represented by coordinates (0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z),
the line segments NR and GM are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 65 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point S (25.4, 56.2, 18.4), and
point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2),
or on these line segments;
the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (−0.0982z^{2}+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z^{2}−1.9622z+59.069, z),
the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z), and
the line segment PS is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 94.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QB″, B″D, DU, and UQ that connect the following 4 points:
point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0),
point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0),
point D (0.0, 67.0, 33.0), and
point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment B″D);
the line segment DU is represented by coordinates (−3.4962z^{2}+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z^{2}−211.71z+3246.1, z),
the line segment UQ is represented by coordinates (0.0135z^{2}−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z^{2}−0.0819z+55.867, z), and
the line segments QB″ and B″D are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 96% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 250 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc′, c′d′, d′e′, e′a′, and a′0 that connect the following 5 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c′ (56.7, 43.3, 0.0),
point d′ (52.2, 38.3, 9.5),
point e′ (41.8, 39.8, 18.4), and
point a′ (81.6, 0.0, 18.4),
or on the line segments c′d′, d′e′, and e′a′ (excluding the points c′ and a′);
the line segment c′d′ is represented by coordinates (−0.0297z^{2}−0.1915z+56.7, 0.0297z^{2}+1.1915z+43.3, z),
the line segment d′e′ is represented by coordinates (−0.0535z^{2}+0.3229z+53.957, 0.0535z^{2}+0.6771z+46.043, z), and
the line segments Oc′, e′a′, and a′O are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc, cd, de, ea′, and a′O that connect the following 5 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c (77.7, 22.3, 0.0),
point d (76.3, 14.2, 9.5),
point e (72.2, 9.4, 18.4), and
point a′ (81.6, 0.0, 18.4),
or on the line segments cd, de, and ea′ (excluding the points c and a′);
the line segment cde is represented by coordinates (−0.017z^{2}+0.0148z+77.684, 0.017z^{2}+0.9852z+22.316, z), and
the line segments Oc, ea′, and a′O are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc′, c′d′, d′a, and aO that connect the following 5 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c′ (56.7, 43.3, 0.0),
point d′ (52.2, 38.3, 9.5), and
point a (90.5, 0.0, 9.5),
or on the line segments c′d′ and d′a (excluding the points c′ and a);
the line segment c′d′ is represented by coordinates (−0.0297z^{2}−0.1915z+56.7, 0.0297z^{2}+1.1915z+43.3, z), and
the line segments Oc′, d′a, and aO are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 65 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc, cd, da, and aO that connect the following 4 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c (77.7, 22.3, 0.0),
point d (76.3, 14.2, 9.5), and
point a (90.5, 0.0, 9.5),
or on the line segments cd and da (excluding the points c and a);
the line segment cd is represented by coordinates (−0.017z^{2}+0.0148z+77.684, 0.017z^{2}+0.9852z+22.316, z), and
the line segments Oc, da, and aO are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 65 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and even more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
Such additional refrigerants are not limited, and can be selected from a wide range of refrigerants. The mixed refrigerant may comprise a single additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.
(Examples of Refrigerant E)The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant E. However, the refrigerant E is not limited to the Examples.
Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 at mass % based on their sum shown in Tables 145 and 146.
The composition of each mixture was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Data Base Refleak Version 4.0 under the conditions for equipment, storage, shipping, leak, and recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 342013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.
For each mixed refrigerant, the burning velocity was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013. When the burning velocities of the WCF composition and the WCFF composition are 10 cm/s or less, the flammability of such a refrigerant is classified as Class 2L (lower flammability) in the ASHRAE flammability classification.
A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in
Tables 145 and 146 show the results.
The results in Table 1 indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of a mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below line segments IK and KL that connect the following 3 points:
point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4), and
point L (35.5, 27.5, 37.0);
the line segment IK is represented by coordinates (0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z^{2}+0.7429z+28.00, z), and
the line segment KL is represented by coordinates (0.0098z^{2}−1.238z+67.852, −0.0098z^{2}+0.238z+32.148, z),
it can be determined that the refrigerant has WCF lower flammability.
For the points on the line segment 1K, an approximate curve (x=0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.00) was obtained from three points, i.e., I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5), and K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4) by using the leastsquare method to determine coordinates (x=0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.00, y=100−z−x=−0.00922z^{2}+0.2114z+32.443, z).
Likewise, for the points on the line segment KL, an approximate curve was determined from three points, i.e., K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4), Example 10 (41.1, 31.2, 27.7), and L (35.5, 27.5, 37.0) by using the leastsquare method to determine coordinates.
The results in Table 146 indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of a mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below line segments MP and PQ that connect the following 3 points:
point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4), and
point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0),
it can be determined that the refrigerant has ASHRAE lower flammability.
In the above, the line segment MP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z), and the line segment PQ is represented by coordinates
(0.0135z^{2}−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z^{2}−0.0819z+55.867, z).
For the points on the line segment MP, an approximate curve was obtained from three points, i.e., points M, N, and P, by using the leastsquare method to determine coordinates. For the points on the line segment PQ, an approximate curve was obtained from three points, i.e., points P, U, and Q, by using the leastsquare method to determine coordinates.
The GWP of compositions each comprising a mixture of R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO1123 (GWP=0.3, described in WO2015/141678). The refrigerating capacity of compositions each comprising R410A and a mixture of HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.
The COP ratio and the refrigerating capacity (which may be referred to as “cooling capacity” or “capacity”) ratio relative to those of R410 of the mixed refrigerants were determined. The conditions for calculation were as described below.
Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Degree of superheating: 5K
Degree of subcooling: 5K
Compressor efficiency: 70%
Tables 147 to 166 show these values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant.
The above results indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, and the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments that connect the following 4 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point A″ (63.0, 0.0, 37.0),
point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0), and
point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a GWP of 250 or less.
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments that connect the following 4 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point A′ (81.6, 0.0, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4), and
point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a GWP of 125 or less.
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments that connect the following 4 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point A (90.5, 0.0, 9.5),
point B (0.0, 90.5, 9.5), and
point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a GWP of 65 or less.
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the left side of line segments that connect the following 3 points:
point C (50.0, 31.6, 18.4),
point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1), and
point D (52.2, 38.3, 9.5),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a COP ratio of 96% or more relative to that of R410A.
In the above, the line segment CU is represented by coordinates (−0.0538z^{2}+0.7888z+53.701, 0.0538z^{2}−1.7888z+46.299, z), and the line segment UD is represented by coordinates
(−3.4962z^{2}+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z^{2}−211.71z+3246.1, z).
The points on the line segment CU are determined from three points, i.e., point C, Comparative Example 10, and point U, by using the leastsquare method.
The points on the line segment UD are determined from three points, i.e., point U, Example 2, and point D, by using the leastsquare method.
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the left side of line segments that connect the following 3 points:
point E (55.2, 44.8, 0.0),
point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2), and
point F (0.0, 76.7, 23.3),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a COP ratio of 94.5% or more relative to that of R410A.
In the above, the line segment ET is represented by coordinates (−0.0547z^{2}−0.5327z+53.4, 0.0547z^{2}−0.4673z+46.6, z), and the line segment TF is represented by coordinates
(−0.0982z^{2}+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z^{2}−1.9622z+59.069, z).
The points on the line segment ET are determined from three points, i.e., point E, Example 2, and point T, by using the leastsquare method.
The points on the line segment TF are determined from three points, i.e., points T, S, and F, by using the leastsquare method.
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the left side of line segments that connect the following 3 points:
point G (0.0, 76.7, 23.3),
point R (21.0, 69.5, 9.5), and
point H (0.0, 85.9, 14.1),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A.
In the above, the line segment GR is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and the line segment RH is represented by coordinates
(−0.3123z^{2}+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z^{2}−5.234z+88.94, z).
The points on the line segment GR are determined from three points, i.e., point G, Example 5, and point R, by using the leastsquare method.
The points on the line segment RH are determined from three points, i.e., point R, Example 7, and point H, by using the leastsquare method.
In contrast, as shown in, for example, Comparative Examples 8, 9, 13, 15, 17, and 18, when R32 is not contained, the concentrations of HFO1132(E) and HFO1123, which have a double bond, become relatively high; this undesirably leads to deterioration, such as decomposition, or polymerization in the refrigerant compound.
(6) First EmbodimentA refrigeration cycle illustrated in
In the present embodiment, the refrigeration cycle is filled with a refrigerant for performing a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The refrigerant is a mixed refrigerant containing 1,2difluoroethylene, and can use any one of the abovedescribed refrigerants A to E.
In the refrigeration cycle, the heatsourceside heat exchanger 3 is divided into a first heat exchange section 31 and a second heat exchange section 32. The first and second heat exchange sections 31 and 32 are connected in series via a second capillary tube 7 serving as a decompression mechanism. During heating operation, the second capillary tube 7 decreases the evaporation pressure of the mixed refrigerant while the mixed refrigerant flows through the heatsourceside heat exchanger 3. Reference sign 8 denotes a check valve provided to cause the mixed refrigerant to bypass the second capillary tube 7 during cooling operation.
The compressor 1, the heatsourceside heat exchanger 3, the first capillary tube 4, the fourway switching valve 5, the accumulator 6, and the second capillary tube 7 are disposed in a heat source unit 50 situated outside a room. The useside heat exchanger 2 is disposed in a use unit 60 situated inside the room.
As illustrated in
Next, setting of the decompression amount of each of the capillary tubes 4 and 7 is described based on the Mollier diagram in
In
The decompression amount of the first capillary tube 4 on the inlet side of the first heat exchange section 31 is set to a pressure P1 with which the evaporation temperature of the refrigerant at the inlet of the first heat exchange section 31 becomes a temperature T3 that is slightly higher than the frost limit temperature T1 during heating operation.
The decompression amount of the second capillary tube 7 disposed between the first and second heat exchange sections 31 and 32 is determined in accordance with the temperature gradient of the mixed refrigerant. Specifically, the decompression amount of the second capillary tube 7 is set to attain decompression to a pressure P2 with which the evaporation temperature at the inlet of the second heat exchange section 32 becomes a temperature T5 that is equal to or higher than the frost limit temperature T1 and the evaporation temperature at the outlet of the second heat exchange section 32 becomes a temperature T6 that is lower than the standard outside air temperature T2.
Next, the operation of the refrigeration cycle is described.
During heating operation, the fourway switching valve (5) is switched to the state indicated by solid lines in
The mixed refrigerant is discharged as a hightemperature highpressure gas with a pressure P0 from the compressor 1 (point C1 in
The refrigerant which has flowed into the first heat exchange section 31 starts evaporating at a temperature T3 that is higher than the frost limit temperature T1 near the inlet of the first heat exchange section 31. Due to the evaporation, the evaporation temperature near the outlet of the first heat exchange section 31 increases to T4 (however, T2 or less) (C4). The mixed refrigerant which has flowed out from the first heat exchange section 31 is decompressed in the second capillary tube 7 again and the pressure thereof becomes the pressure P2. By this, the evaporation temperature at the inlet of the second heat exchange section 32 decreases to a temperature T5 that is lower than the evaporation temperature at the outlet of the first heat exchange section 31 and that is higher than the frost limit temperature T1 (C5).
By the evaporation in the second heat exchange section 32, the evaporation temperature of the refrigerant increases, and the refrigerant becomes the gas refrigerant at a temperature T6 that is lower than the standard outside air temperature T2 near the outlet of the second heat exchange section 32. Then, the refrigerant returns to the compressor 1 and is compressed again.
In this way, since the second capillary tube 7 serving as a decompression mechanism is provided between the first heat exchange section 31 and the second heat exchange section 32 of the heatsourceside heat exchanger 3, the difference in the evaporation temperature between the inlet and the outlet of the heatsourceside heat exchanger 3 decreases. In other words, in the refrigeration cycle, the degree of increase in the evaporation temperature in the heatsourceside heat exchanger 3 decreases. Accordingly, the evaporation temperature can be shifted within a proper evaporation temperature. The difference between the outside air temperature and the evaporation temperature can be ensured while frost (frosting) in the heatsourceside heat exchanger 3 is avoided. With the advantageous effects, in the refrigeration cycle, the efficiency of heat exchange of the heatsourceside heat exchanger 3 increases.
Moreover, in the refrigeration cycle, even when a mixed refrigerant having a large temperature gradient of the evaporation temperature is used, a decrease in the capacity of the heatsourceside heat exchanger 3 is suppressed.
When the fourway switching valve 5 is switched to a state indicated by broken lines, a cooling operation can be performed. This is, however, like related art, and the description is omitted.
(7) Second EmbodimentA refrigeration cycle illustrated in
Bringing the second openclose valve 13 into a closed state and the first openclose valve 12 into an open state allows the mixed refrigerant with a large proportion of a lowboilingpoint refrigerant to flow into the container 11 from the gasliquid separator 9, and hence the refrigerant can be condensed and stored. Accordingly, the composition ratio of a highboilingpoint refrigerant in the circulating mixed refrigerant increases, and the capacity can be decreased.
Moreover, bringing the second openclose valve 13 into an open state and the first openclose valve 12 into a closed state allows the composition ratio of the mixed refrigerant to be returned to the original state and the capacity is increased.
The other configurations are similar to those of the first embodiment, and hence the same reference sign as that of the configuration according to the first embodiment is applied in
In each embodiment described above, the evaporation pressure in the heating operation has two steps; however, the heatsourceside heat exchanger 3 may be divided into three or more sections, decompression mechanisms may be provided between the divided heat exchange sections, and the evaporation pressure may be changed by three or more steps.
In each embodiment described above, the capillary tube 7 is provided as a decompression mechanism; however, a decompression mechanism may be constituted by determining the inner diameter of the heat transfer tube of the heatsourceside heat exchanger 3 so as to obtain a proper decompression gradient.
Moreover, the decompression amount of the decompression mechanism may not be set such that the evaporation temperature at the inlet of the heatsourceside heat exchanger 3 is equal to or higher than the frost limit temperature during heating operation.
The embodiments of the present disclosure have been described above, and it is understood that the embodiments and details can be modified in various ways without departing from the idea and scope of the present disclosure described in the claims.
REFERENCE SIGNS LIST

 1 compressor
 2 useside heat exchanger
 3 heatsourceside heat exchanger
 4 first capillary tube (expansion mechanism)
 7 second capillary tube (decompression mechanism)
 21 third heat exchange section
 22 fourth heat exchange section
 31 first heat exchange section
 32 second heat exchange section
 41 third capillary tube (expansion mechanism)
 42 fourth capillary tube (expansion mechanism)
 60 use unit
PTL 1: Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 57198968
Claims
1. A refrigeration cycle using a refrigerant which is a flammable refrigerant and which contains at least 1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), comprising:
 a compressor;
 a heatsourceside heat exchanger;
 an expansion mechanism;
 a useside heat exchanger; and
 a decompression mechanism that decompresses, between an inlet and an outlet of the heatsourceside heat exchanger, the mixed refrigerant flowing through the heatsourceside heat exchanger that functions as an evaporator.
2. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1, wherein
 the decompression mechanism decompresses the refrigerant flowing through the heatsourceside heat exchanger in accordance with a temperature gradient of the refrigerant.
3. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1, wherein
 the heatsourceside heat exchanger includes a first heat exchange section and a second heat exchange section, and
 the decompression mechanism is disposed between the first heat exchange section and the second heat exchange section.
4. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1, wherein
 the useside heat exchanger is disposed in a use unit, and includes a third heat exchange section located on a frontsurface side of the use unit, and a fourth heat exchange section located on a rearsurface side of the use unit,
 an upper portion of the fourth heat exchange section is located near an upper portion of the third heat exchange section,
 the third heat exchange section extends obliquely downward from the upper portion thereof toward the frontsurface side of the use unit,
 the fourth heat exchange section extends obliquely downward from the upper portion thereof toward the rearsurface side of the use unit, and
 a capacity of a refrigerant flow path of the third heat exchange section is larger than a capacity of a refrigerant flow path of the fourth heat exchange section.
5. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1,
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf).
6. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 5, point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD, CO, and OA);
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:
 the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines.
7. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 5, point G (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0), point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments IA, BD, and CG);
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments GI, IA, AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CG that connect the following 8 points:
 the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments GI, IA, BD, and CG are straight lines.
8. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 5, point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1), point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PN, NK, KA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
 the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),
 the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x2−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x2+28.955x−831.91),
 the line segment KA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments JP, BD, and CG are straight lines.
9. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 5, point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0), point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
 the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43)
 the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments JP, LM, BD, and CG are straight lines.
10. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 5, point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0), point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment BF);
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TP that connect the following 7 points:
 the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),
 the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),
 the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and
 the line segments LM and BF are straight lines.
11. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 5, point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0), point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6), and point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9), or on the above line segments;
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LQ, QR, and RP that connect the following 4 points:
 the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),
 the line segment RP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and
 the line segments LQ and QR are straight lines.
12. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 5, point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1), point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3), or on the above line segments,
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments SM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TS that connect the following 6 points:
 the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),
 the line segment TS is represented by coordinates (x, −0.0017x2−0.7869x+70.888, −0.0017x2−0.2131x+29.112), and
 the line segments SM and BF are straight lines.
13. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1,
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)) and trifluoroethylene (HFO1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and
 the refrigerant comprises 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.
14. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1,
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)) and trifluoroethylene (HFO1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and
 the refrigerant comprises 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.
15. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1, wherein point G (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0), point I (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0), point A (0.0134a2−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a2+0.9681a+31.4), point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3), point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI, AB, and D′C (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, point D′, and point C); point G (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0), point I (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895), point A (0.0112a2−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a2+0.9337a+31.516), point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); point G (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0), point I (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273), point A (0.0107a2−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a2+0.9142a+31.695), point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); point G (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0), point I (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014), point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207), point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); and point G (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0), point I (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098), point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9), point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W).
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
 if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BD′, D′ C, and CG that connect the following 6 points:
 if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
 if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
 if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
 if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
16. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1, point J (0.0049a2−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a2−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0), point K′ (0.0514a2−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a2+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a2+1.0231a+32.4), point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3), point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′, K′B, and D′C (excluding point J, point B, point D′, and point C); point J (0.0243a2−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a2+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0), point K′ (0.0341a2−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a2+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a2+0.8577a+33.177), point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W); point J (0.0246a2−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a2+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0), point K′ (0.0196a2−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a2−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a2+0.8999a+32.783), point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W); point J (0.0183a2−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a2+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0), point K′ (−0.0051a2+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a2−1.0929a+74.05), point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207), point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W); and point J (−0.0134a2+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a2−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0), point K′ (−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557), point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9), point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W).
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32),
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
 if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BD′, D′C, and CJ that connect the following 5 points:
 if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
 if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
 if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
 if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
17. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1, point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0), point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2), point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI;
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf), wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:
 the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y2−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y2+0.7616y+28.0);
 the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y2−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y2+0.9003y+41.7); and
 the line segments JN and EI are straight lines.
18. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1, point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4), point M′(39.2, 5.0, 55.8), point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf), wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, MN, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:
 the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y2−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y2+2.34y+47.4);
 the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y2−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y2+1.2541y+51.02);
 the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y2−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y2+0.8033y+60.4); and
 the line segments NV and GM are straight lines.
19. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1, wherein point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6), point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4), or on these line segments;
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:
 the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y2−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y2−0.3299y+62.488);
 the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y2−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y2+0.7403y+43.365); and
 the line segment UO is a straight line.
20. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1, wherein point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4), point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7), point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8), point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6), or on these line segments;
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:
 the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y2−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y2+0.975y+15.235);
 the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874);
 the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y2−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y2−0.1158y+38.512);
 the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y2−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y2+0.2222y+32.324); and
 the line segment TL is a straight line.
21. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1, wherein point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8), point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8), or on these line segments;
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
 the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y2−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y2−0.2897y+59.9);
 the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874); and
 the line segment TP is a straight line.
22. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1, wherein point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4), point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4), point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GI);
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IK, KB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GI that connect the following 6 points:
 the line segment IK is represented by coordinates (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z),
 the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z),
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 the line segments KB′ and GI are straight lines.
23. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1, wherein point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), point J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GI);
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JR, RG, and GI that connect the following 4 points:
 the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.0, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z),
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.
24. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1, wherein point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4), point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4), point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GM);
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MP, PB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GM that connect the following 6 points:
 the line segment MP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z),
 the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z),
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 the line segments PB′ and GM are straight lines.
25. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1, wherein point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point N (38.5, 52.1, 9.5), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MN, NR, RG, and GM that connect the following 4 points:
 the line segment MN is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z),
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.
26. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1, wherein point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4), point S (25.4, 56.2, 18.4), and point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2), or on these line segments;
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
 the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (−0.0982z2+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z2−1.9622z+59.069, z),
 the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z), and
 the line segment PS is a straight line.
27. The refrigeration cycle according to claim 1, wherein point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0), point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0), point D (0.0, 67.0, 33.0), and point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment B″D);
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QB″, B″D, DU, and UQ that connect the following 4 points:
 the line segment DU is represented by coordinates (−3.4962z2+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z2−211.71z+3246.1, z),
 the line segment UQ is represented by coordinates (0.0135z2−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z2−0.0819z+55.867, z), and
 the line segments QB″ and B″D are straight lines.
Type: Application
Filed: Dec 10, 2018
Publication Date: Oct 22, 2020
Applicant: DAIKIN INDUSTRIES, LTD. (Osaka)
Inventors: Eiji KUMAKURA (Osaka), Takuro YAMADA (Osaka), Atsushi YOSHIMI (Osaka), Ikuhiro IWATA (Osaka), Mitsushi ITANO (Osaka), Daisuke KARUBE (Osaka), Yuuki YOTSUMOTO (Osaka), Kazuhiro TAKAHASHI (Osaka), Tatsuya TAKAKUWA (Osaka), Yuzo KOMATSU (Osaka), Shun OHKUBO (Osaka)
Application Number: 16/954,973