REFRIGERATION CYCLE APPARATUS
A refrigeration cycle apparatus including a heat exchanger can decrease the material cost. An air conditioning apparatus (10) that is a refrigeration cycle apparatus includes a flammable refrigerant containing at least 1,2difluoroethylene, an outdoor heat exchanger (23), and an indoor heat exchanger (27). One of the outdoor heat exchanger (23) and the indoor heat exchanger (27) is an evaporator that evaporates the refrigerant, and the other one is a condenser that condenses the refrigerant. The outdoor heat exchanger (23) and the indoor heat exchanger (27) each are a heat exchanger that includes metal plates (19) serving as a plurality of fins made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, and flat tubes (16) serving as a plurality of heat transfer tubes made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, and that causes the refrigerant flowing inside the flat tubes (16) and the air flowing along the metal plates (19) to exchange heat with each other. The refrigerant repeats a refrigeration cycle by circulating through the outdoor heat exchanger (23) and the indoor heat exchanger (27).
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The present disclosure relates to a refrigeration cycle apparatus.
BACKGROUND ARTThere has been a refrigeration cycle apparatus including a heat exchanger as described in, for example, PTL 1 (Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 11256358). Like the heat exchanger of the refrigeration cycle apparatus described in PTL 1, a heat transfer tube may use a copper pipe.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Technical ProblemA heat exchanger like one described in PTL 1 is expensive because the heat transfer tube uses the copper pipe.
In this way, the refrigeration cycle apparatus including the heat exchanger has an object to decrease the material cost.
Solution to ProblemA refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a first aspect includes a flammable refrigerant containing at least 1,2difluoroethylene; an evaporator that evaporates the refrigerant; and a condenser that condenses the refrigerant; at least one of the evaporator and the condenser is a heat exchanger that includes a plurality of fins made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy and a plurality of heat transfer tubes made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, and that causes the refrigerant flowing inside the heat transfer tubes and a fluid flowing along the fins to exchange heat with each other; and the refrigerant repeats a refrigeration cycle by circulating through the evaporator and the condenser.
With the refrigeration cycle apparatus, since the plurality of fins made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy and the plurality of heat transfer tubes made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy are included, for example, as compared to a case where a heat transfer tube uses a copper pipe, the material cost of the heat exchanger can be decreased.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a second aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to the first aspect, in which each of the plurality of fins has a plurality of holes, the plurality of heat transfer tubes penetrate through the plurality of holes of the plurality of fins, and outer peripheries of the plurality of heat transfer tubes are in close contact with inner peripheries of the plurality of holes.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a third aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to the first aspect, in which the plurality of heat transfer tubes are a plurality of flat tubes, and flat surface portions of the flat tubes that are disposed next to each other face each other.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a fourth aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to the third aspect, in which each of the plurality of fins is bent in a waveform, disposed between the flat surface portions of the flat tubes disposed next to each other, and connected to the flat surface portions to be able to transfer heat to the flat surface portions.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a fifth aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to the third aspect, in which each of the plurality of fins has a plurality of cutouts, and the plurality of flat tubes are inserted into the plurality of cutouts of the plurality of fins and connected thereto to be able to transfer heat to the plurality of fins.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 6th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to any of the first through 5th aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf).
In this refrigeration cycle apparatus, the refrigeration cycle apparatus can decrease the material cost of the heat exchanger when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A is used.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 7th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to the 6th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0),
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD, CO, and OA);

 the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 8th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to the 6th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments GI, IA, AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CG that connect the following 8 points:
point G (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments IA, BD, and CG);

 the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and the line segments GI, IA, BD, and CG are straight lines.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 9th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to the 6th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PN, NK, KA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1),
point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);

 the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
 the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x^{2}−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x^{2}+28.955x−831.91),
 the line segment KA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and the line segments JP, BD, and CG are straight lines.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 10th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to the 6th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);

 the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43)
 the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and the line segments JP, LM, BD, and CG are straight lines.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 11th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to the 6th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TP that connect the following 7 points:
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment BF);

 the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
 the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x^{2}−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x^{2}−0.2499x+38.2),
 the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x^{2}−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x^{2}−0.2393x+36.475), and
 the line segments LM and BF are straight lines.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 12th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to the 6th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LQ, QR, and RP that connect the following 4 points:
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6), and
point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9),
or on the above line segments;

 the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
 the line segment RP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x^{2}−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x^{2}−0.2393x+36.475), and the line segments LQ and QR are straight lines.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 13th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to the 6th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments SM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TS that connect the following 6 points:
point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments,

 the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x^{2}−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x^{2}−0.2499x+38.2),
 the line segment TS is represented by coordinates (x, −0.0017x^{2}−0.7869x+70.888, −0.0017x^{2}−0.2131x+29.112), and
 the line segments SM and BF are straight lines.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 14th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to any of the first through 5th aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)) and trifluoroethylene (HFO1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and

 the refrigerant comprises 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.
In this refrigeration cycle apparatus, the refrigeration cycle apparatus can decrease the material cost of the heat exchanger when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 15th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to any of the first through 5th aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and

 the refrigerant comprises 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.
 In this refrigeration cycle apparatus, the refrigeration cycle apparatus can decrease the material cost of the heat exchanger when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 16th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to any of the first through 5th aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32),
wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
 if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BD′, D′C, and CG that connect the following 6 points:
point G (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0),
point I (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0),
point A (0.0134a^{2}−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a^{2}+0.9681a+31.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a^{2}−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a^{2}+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a^{2}+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a^{2}−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a^{2}−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a^{2}−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI, AB, and D′C (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, point D′, and point C);  if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0),
point I (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895),
point A (0.0112a^{2}−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a^{2}+0.9337a+31.516),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a^{2}−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a^{2}+0.5156a+41.801), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);  if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0),
point I (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273),
point A (0.0107a^{2}−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a^{2}+0.9142a+31.695),
point B (0.0, 0.009a^{2}−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a^{2}+0.6045a+40.682), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);  if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0),
point I (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014),
point A (0.0103a^{2}−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a^{2}+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a^{2}−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a^{2}+0.41a+42.714), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); and  if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0),
point I (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098),
point A (0.0085a^{2}−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a^{2}+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a^{2}−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a^{2}+0.1659a+47.05), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W).
In this refrigeration cycle apparatus, the refrigeration cycle apparatus can decrease the material cost of the heat exchanger when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A is used.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 17th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to any of the first through 5th aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32),
wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
 if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BD′, D′C, and CJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (0.0049a^{2}−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a^{2}−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0514a^{2}−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a^{2}+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a^{2}+1.0231a+32.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a^{2}−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a^{2}+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a^{2}+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a^{2}−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a^{2}−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a^{2}−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′B, and D′C (excluding point J, point B, point D′, and point C);  if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
point J (0.0243a^{2}−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a^{2}+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0341a^{2}−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a^{2}+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a^{2}+0.8577a+33.177),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a^{2}−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a^{2}+0.5156a+41.801), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);  if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
point J (0.0246a^{2}−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a^{2}+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0196a^{2}−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a^{2}−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a^{2}+0.8999a+32.783),
point B (0.0, 0.009a^{2}−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a^{2}+0.6045a+40.682), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);  if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (0.0183a^{2}−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a^{2}+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0),
point K′ (−0.0051a^{2}+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a^{2}−1.0929a+74.05),
point A (0.0103a^{2}−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a^{2}+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a^{2}−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a^{2}+0.41a+42.714), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W); and  if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (−0.0134a^{2}+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a^{2}−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0),
point K′ (−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557),
point A (0.0085a^{2}−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a^{2}+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a^{2}−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a^{2}+0.1659a+47.05), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W).
In this refrigeration cycle apparatus, the refrigeration cycle apparatus can decrease the material cost of the heat exchanger when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A is used.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 17th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to any of the first through 5th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf),
wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI;  the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y^{2}−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y^{2}+0.7616y+28.0);
 the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y^{2}−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y^{2}+0.9003y+41.7); and
 the line segments IN and EI are straight lines.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:
In this refrigeration cycle apparatus, the refrigeration cycle apparatus can decrease the material cost of the heat exchanger when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 19th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to any of the first through 5th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,
wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:
point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4),
point M′ (39.2, 5.0, 55.8),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1),
point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and
point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);  the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y^{2}−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y^{2}+2.34y+47.4);
 the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y^{2}−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y^{2}+1.2541y+51.02);
 the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y^{2}−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y^{2}+0.8033y+60.4); and
 the line segments NV and GM are straight lines.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:
In this refrigeration cycle apparatus, the refrigeration cycle apparatus can decrease the material cost of the heat exchanger when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 20th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to any of the first through 5th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,
wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:
point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4),
or on these line segments;  the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y^{2}−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y^{2}−0.3299y+62.488);
 the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y^{2}−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y^{2}+0.7403y+43.365); and
 the line segment UO is a straight line.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:
In this refrigeration cycle apparatus, the refrigeration cycle apparatus can decrease the material cost of the heat exchanger when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 21th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to any of the first through 5th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,
wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:
point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4),
point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7),
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and
point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6),
or on these line segments;  the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y^{2}−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y^{2}+0.975y+15.235);
 the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y^{2}+0.8683y+16.874);
 the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y^{2}−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y^{2}−0.1158y+38.512);
 the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y^{2}−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y^{2}+0.2222y+32.324); and
 the line segment TL is a straight line.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:
In this refrigeration cycle apparatus, the refrigeration cycle apparatus can decrease the material cost of the heat exchanger when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 22th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to any of the first through 5th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,
wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8),
point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
or on these line segments;  the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y^{2}−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y^{2}−0.2897y+59.9);
 the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082yz+0.8683y+16.874); and
 the line segment TP is a straight line.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
In this refrigeration cycle apparatus, the refrigeration cycle apparatus can decrease the material cost of the heat exchanger when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 23th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to any of the first through 5th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IK, KB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GI that connect the following 6 points:
point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GI);  the line segment IK is represented by coordinates (0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z^{2}+0.7429z+28.0, z),
 the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z^{2}+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z^{2}−5.234z+88.94, z),
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 the line segments KB′ and GI are straight lines.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IK, KB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GI that connect the following 6 points:
In this refrigeration cycle apparatus, the refrigeration cycle apparatus can decrease the material cost of the heat exchanger when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 24th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to any of the first through 5th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32,
wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JR, RG, and GI that connect the following 4 points:
point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GI);  the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.0, −0.025z^{2}+0.7429z+28.0, z),
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JR, RG, and GI that connect the following 4 points:
In this refrigeration cycle apparatus, the refrigeration cycle apparatus can decrease the material cost of the heat exchanger when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 25th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to any of the first through 5th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32,
wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MP, PB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GM that connect the following 6 points:
point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GM);  the line segment MP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z),
 the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z^{2}+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z^{2}−5.234z+88.94, z),
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 the line segments PB′ and GM are straight lines.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MP, PB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GM that connect the following 6 points:
In this refrigeration cycle apparatus, the refrigeration cycle apparatus can decrease the material cost of the heat exchanger when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 26th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to any of the first through 5th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32,
wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MN, NR, RG, and GM that connect the following 4 points:
point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point N (38.5, 52.1, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);  the line segment MN is represented by coordinates (0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z),
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MN, NR, RG, and GM that connect the following 4 points:
In this refrigeration cycle apparatus, the refrigeration cycle apparatus can decrease the material cost of the heat exchanger when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 27th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to any of the first through 5th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32,
wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point S (25.4, 56.2, 18.4), and
point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2),
or on these line segments;  the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (−0.0982z^{2}+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z^{2}−1.9622z+59.069, z),
 the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z), and
 the line segment PS is a straight line.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
In this refrigeration cycle apparatus, the refrigeration cycle apparatus can decrease the material cost of the heat exchanger when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a 28th aspect is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to any of the first through 5th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32,
wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QB″, B″D, DU, and UQ that connect the following 4 points:
point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0),
point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0),
point D (0.0, 67.0, 33.0), and
point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment B″D);  the line segment DU is represented by coordinates (−3.4962z^{2}+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z^{2}−211.71z+3246.1, z),
 the line segment UQ is represented by coordinates (0.0135z^{2}−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z^{2}−0.0819z+55.867, z), and
 the line segments QB″ and B″D are straight lines.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QB″, B″D, DU, and UQ that connect the following 4 points:
In this refrigeration cycle apparatus, the refrigeration cycle apparatus can decrease the material cost of the heat exchanger when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
In the present specification, the term “refrigerant” includes at least compounds that are specified in ISO 817 (International Organization for Standardization), and that are given a refrigerant number (ASHRAE number) representing the type of refrigerant with “R” at the beginning; and further includes refrigerants that have properties equivalent to those of such refrigerants, even though a refrigerant number is not yet given. Refrigerants are broadly divided into fluorocarbon compounds and nonfluorocarbon compounds in terms of the structure of the compounds. Fluorocarbon compounds include chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC). Nonfluorocarbon compounds include propane (R290), propylene (R1270), butane (R600), isobutane (R600a), carbon dioxide (R744), ammonia (R717), and the like.
In the present specification, the phrase “composition comprising a refrigerant” at least includes (1) a refrigerant itself (including a mixture of refrigerants), (2) a composition that further comprises other components and that can be mixed with at least a refrigeration oil to obtain a working fluid for a refrigerating machine, and (3) a working fluid for a refrigerating machine containing a refrigeration oil. In the present specification, of these three embodiments, the composition (2) is referred to as a “refrigerant composition” so as to distinguish it from a refrigerant itself (including a mixture of refrigerants). Further, the working fluid for a refrigerating machine (3) is referred to as a “refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid” so as to distinguish it from the “refrigerant composition.”
In the present specification, when the term “alternative” is used in a context in which the first refrigerant is replaced with the second refrigerant, the first type of “alternative” means that equipment designed for operation using the first refrigerant can be operated using the second refrigerant under optimum conditions, optionally with changes of only a few parts (at least one of the following: refrigeration oil, gasket, packing, expansion valve, dryer, and other parts) and equipment adjustment. In other words, this type of alternative means that the same equipment is operated with an alternative refrigerant. Embodiments of this type of “alternative” include “dropin alternative,” “nearly dropin alternative,” and “retrofit,” in the order in which the extent of changes and adjustment necessary for replacing the first refrigerant with the second refrigerant is smaller.
The term “alternative” also includes a second type of “alternative,” which means that equipment designed for operation using the second refrigerant is operated for the same use as the existing use with the first refrigerant by using the second refrigerant. This type of alternative means that the same use is achieved with an alternative refrigerant.
In the present specification, the term “refrigerating machine” refers to machines in general that draw heat from an object or space to make its temperature lower than the temperature of ambient air, and maintain a low temperature. In other words, refrigerating machines refer to conversion machines that gain energy from the outside to do work, and that perform energy conversion, in order to transfer heat from where the temperature is lower to where the temperature is higher.
In the present specification, a refrigerant having a “WCF lower flammability” means that the most flammable composition (worst case of formulation for flammability: WCF) has a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less according to the US ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013. Further, in the present specification, a refrigerant having “ASHRAE lower flammability” means that the burning velocity of WCF is 10 cm/s or less, that the most flammable fraction composition (worst case of fractionation for flammability: WCFF), which is specified by performing a leakage test during storage, shipping, or use based on ANSI/ASHRAE 342013 using WCF, has a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less, and that flammability classification according to the US ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013 is determined to classified as be “Class 2L.”
In the present specification, a refrigerant having an “RCL of x % or more” means that the refrigerant has a refrigerant concentration limit (RCL), calculated in accordance with the US ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013, of x % or more. RCL refers to a concentration limit in the air in consideration of safety factors. RCL is an index for reducing the risk of acute toxicity, suffocation, and flammability in a closed space where humans are present. RCL is determined in accordance with the ASHRAE Standard. More specifically, RCL is the lowest concentration among the acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL), the oxygen deprivation limit (ODL), and the flammable concentration limit (FCL), which are respectively calculated in accordance with sections 7.1.1, 7.1.2, and 7.1.3 of the ASHRAE Standard.
In the present specification, temperature glide refers to an absolute value of the difference between the initial temperature and the end temperature in the phase change process of a composition containing the refrigerant of the present disclosure in the heat exchanger of a refrigerant system.
(2) Refrigerant (2−1) Refrigerant ComponentAny one of various refrigerants such as refrigerant A, refrigerant B, refrigerant C, refrigerant D, and refrigerant E, details of these refrigerant are to be mentioned later, can be used as the refrigerant.
(22) Use of refrigerant
The refrigerant according to the present disclosure can be preferably used as a working fluid in a refrigerating machine.
The composition according to the present disclosure is suitable for use as an alternative refrigerant for HFC refrigerant such as R410A, R407C and R404 etc, or HCFC refrigerant such as R22 etc.
(3) Refrigerant CompositionThe refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure comprises at least the refrigerant according to the present disclosure, and can be used for the same use as the refrigerant according to the present disclosure. Moreover, the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure can be further mixed with at least a refrigeration oil to thereby obtain a working fluid for a refrigerating machine.
The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure further comprises at least one other component in addition to the refrigerant according to the present disclosure. The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise at least one of the following other components, if necessary. As described above, when the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure is used as a working fluid in a refrigerating machine, it is generally used as a mixture with at least a refrigeration oil. Therefore, it is preferable that the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure does not substantially comprise a refrigeration oil. Specifically, in the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure, the content of the refrigeration oil based on the entire refrigerant composition is preferably 0 to 1 mass %, and more preferably 0 to 0.1 mass %.
(31) WaterThe refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may contain a small amount of water. The water content of the refrigerant composition is preferably 0.1 mass % or less based on the entire refrigerant. A small amount of water contained in the refrigerant composition stabilizes double bonds in the molecules of unsaturated fluorocarbon compounds that can be present in the refrigerant, and makes it less likely that the unsaturated fluorocarbon compounds will be oxidized, thus increasing the stability of the refrigerant composition.
(32) TracerA tracer is added to the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure at a detectable concentration such that when the refrigerant composition has been diluted, contaminated, or undergone other changes, the tracer can trace the changes.
The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single tracer, or two or more tracers.
The tracer is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used tracers. Preferably, a compound that cannot be an impurity inevitably mixed in the refrigerant of the present disclosure is selected as the tracer.
Examples of tracers include hydrofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorocarbons, fluorocarbons, deuterated hydrocarbons, deuterated hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, fluoroethers, brominated compounds, iodinated compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and nitrous oxide (N_{2}O). The tracer is particularly preferably a hydrofluorocarbon, a hydrochlorofluorocarbon, a chlorofluorocarbon, a fluorocarbon, a hydrochlorocarbon, a fluorocarbon, or a fluoroether.
The following compounds are preferable as the tracer.
 FC14 (tetrafluoromethane, CF_{4})
 HCC40 (chloromethane, CH_{3}Cl)
 HFC23 (trifluoromethane, CHF_{3})
 HFC41 (fluoromethane, CH_{3}Cl)
 HFC125 (pentafluoroethane, CF_{3}CHF_{2})
 HFC134a (1,1,1,2tetrafluoroethane, CF_{3}CH_{2}F)
 HFC134 (1,1,2,2tetrafluoroethane, CHF_{2}CHF_{2})
 HFC143a (1,1,1trifluoroethane, CF_{3}CH_{3})
 HFC143 (1,1,2trifluoroethane, CHF_{2}CH_{2}F)
 HFC152a (1,1difluoroethane, CHF_{2}CH_{3})
 HFC152 (1,2difluoroethane, CH_{2}FCH_{2}F)
 HFC161 (fluoroethane, CH_{3}CH_{2}F)
 HFC245fa (1,1,1,3,3pentafluoropropane, CF_{3}CH_{2}CHF_{2})
 HFC236fa (1,1,1,3,3,3hexafluoropropane, CF_{3}CH_{2}CF_{3})
 HFC236ea (1,1,1,2,3,3hexafluoropropane, CF_{3}CHFCHF_{2})
 HFC227ea (1,1,1,2,3,3,3heptafluoropropane, CF_{3}CHFCF_{3})
 HCFC22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHCF_{2})
 HCFC31 (chlorofluoromethane, CH_{2}ClF)
 CFC1113 (chlorotrifluoroethylene, CF_{2}═CClF)
 HFE125 (trifluoromethyldifluoromethyl ether, CF_{3}OCHF_{2})
 HFE134a (trifluoromethylfluoromethyl ether, CF_{3}OCH_{2}F)
 HFE143a (trifluoromethylmethyl ether, CF_{3}OCH_{3})
 HFE227ea (trifluoromethyltetrafluoroethyl ether, CF_{3}OCFCF_{3})
 HFE236fa (trifluoromethyltrifluoroethyl ether, CF_{3}OCH_{2}CF_{3})
The tracer compound may be present in the refrigerant composition at a total concentration of about 10 parts per million (ppm) to about 1000 ppm. Preferably, the tracer compound is present in the refrigerant composition at a total concentration of about 30 ppm to about 500 ppm, and most preferably, the tracer compound is present at a total concentration of about 50 ppm to about 300 ppm.
(33) Ultraviolet Fluorescent DyeThe refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single ultraviolet fluorescent dye, or two or more ultraviolet fluorescent dyes.
The ultraviolet fluorescent dye is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used ultraviolet fluorescent dyes.
Examples of ultraviolet fluorescent dyes include naphthalimide, coumarin, anthracene, phenanthrene, xanthene, thioxanthene, naphthoxanthene, fluorescein, and derivatives thereof. The ultraviolet fluorescent dye is particularly preferably either naphthalimide or coumarin, or both.
(34) StabilizerThe refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single stabilizer, or two or more stabilizers.
The stabilizer is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used stabilizers.
Examples of stabilizers include nitro compounds, ethers, and amines.
Examples of nitro compounds include aliphatic nitro compounds, such as nitromethane and nitroethane; and aromatic nitro compounds, such as nitro benzene and nitro styrene.
Examples of ethers include 1,4dioxane.
Examples of amines include 2,2,3,3,3pentafluoropropylamine and diphenylamine.
Examples of stabilizers also include butylhydroxyxylene and benzotriazole.
The content of the stabilizer is not limited. Generally, the content of the stabilizer is preferably 0.01 to 5 mass %, and more preferably 0.05 to 2 mass %, based on the entire refrigerant.
(35) Polymerization InhibitorThe refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single polymerization inhibitor, or two or more polymerization inhibitors.
The polymerization inhibitor is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used polymerization inhibitors.
Examples of polymerization inhibitors include 4methoxy1naphthol, hydroquinone, hydroquinone methyl ether, dimethyltbutylphenol, 2,6ditertbutylpcresol, and benzotriazole.
The content of the polymerization inhibitor is not limited. Generally, the content of the polymerization inhibitor is preferably 0.01 to 5 mass %, and more preferably 0.05 to 2 mass %, based on the entire refrigerant.
(4) Refrigeration OilContaining Working FluidThe refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid according to the present disclosure comprises at least the refrigerant or refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure and a refrigeration oil, for use as a working fluid in a refrigerating machine. Specifically, the refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid according to the present disclosure is obtained by mixing a refrigeration oil used in a compressor of a refrigerating machine with the refrigerant or the refrigerant composition. The refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid generally comprises 10 to 50 mass % of refrigeration oil.
(41) Refrigeration OilThe refrigeration oil is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used refrigeration oils. In this case, refrigeration oils that are superior in the action of increasing the miscibility with the mixture and the stability of the mixture, for example, are suitably selected as necessary.
The base oil of the refrigeration oil is preferably, for example, at least one member selected from the group consisting of polyalkylene glycols (PAG), polyol esters (POE), and polyvinyl ethers (PVE).
The refrigeration oil may further contain additives in addition to the base oil. The additive may be at least one member selected from the group consisting of antioxidants, extremepressure agents, acid scavengers, oxygen scavengers, copper deactivators, rust inhibitors, oil agents, and antifoaming agents.
A refrigeration oil with a kinematic viscosity of 5 to 400 cSt at 40° C. is preferable from the standpoint of lubrication.
The refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid according to the present disclosure may further optionally contain at least one additive. Examples of additives include compatibilizing agents described below.
(42) Compatibilizing AgentThe refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid according to the present disclosure may comprise a single compatibilizing agent, or two or more compatibilizing agents.
The compatibilizing agent is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used compatibilizing agents.
Examples of compatibilizing agents include polyoxyalkylene glycol ethers, amides, nitriles, ketones, chlorocarbons, esters, lactones, aryl ethers, fluoroethers, and 1,1,1trifluoroalkanes. The compatibilizing agent is particularly preferably a polyoxyalkylene glycol ether.
(5) Various RefrigerantsHereinafter, the refrigerants A to E, which are the refrigerants used in the present embodiment, will be described in detail.
In addition, each description of the following refrigerant A, refrigerant B, refrigerant C, refrigerant D, and refrigerant E is each independent. The alphabet which shows a point or a line segment, the number of an Examples, and the number of a comparative examples are all independent of each other among the refrigerant A, the refrigerant B, the refrigerant C, the refrigerant D, and the refrigerant E. For example, the first embodiment of the refrigerant A and the first embodiment of the refrigerant B are different embodiment from each other.
(51) Refrigerant AThe refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf).
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410Aalternative refrigerant, i.e., a refrigerating capacity and a coefficient of performance that are equivalent to those of R410A, and a sufficiently low GWP.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is a composition comprising HFO1132(E) and R1234yf, and optionally further comprising HFO1123, and may further satisfy the following requirements. This refrigerant also has various properties desirable as an alternative refrigerant for R410A; i.e., it has a refrigerating capacity and a coefficient of performance that are equivalent to those of R410A, and a sufficiently low GWP.
RequirementsPreferable refrigerant A is as follows:
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0),
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line CO);

 the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3,
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A.
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf, based on their sum in the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within a figure surrounded by line segments GI, IA, AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CG that connect the following 8 points:
point G (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CG);

 the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments GI, IA, BD, and CG are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant A has a WCF lower flammability according to the ASHRAE Standard (the WCF composition has a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less).
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PN, NK, KA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points: point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1),
point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CJ);

 the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
 the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x^{2}−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x^{2}+28.955x−831.91),
 the line segment KA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments JP, BD, and CG are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant exhibits a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard (the WCF composition and the WCFF composition have a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less).
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CJ);

 the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
 the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments JP, LM, BD, and CG are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has an RCL of 40 g/m^{3 }or more.
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TP that connect the following 7 points:
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment BF);

 the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
 the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x^{2}−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x^{2}−0.2499x+38.2),
 the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x^{2}−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x^{2}−0.2393x+36.475), and
 the line segments LM and BF are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has an RCL of 40 g/m^{3 }or more.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LQ, QR, and RP that connect the following 4 points:
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6), and
point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9),
or on the above line segments;

 the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
 the line segment RP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x^{2}−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x^{2}−0.2393x+36.475), and
 the line segments LQ and QR are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and an RCL of 40 g/m^{3 }or more, furthermore, the refrigerant has a condensation temperature glide of 1C or less.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments SM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TS that connect the following 6 points:
point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′(30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments,

 the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x^{2}−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x^{2}−0.2499x+38.2),
 the line segment TS is represented by coordinates (x, −0.0017x^{2}−0.7869x+70.888, −0.0017x^{2}−0.2131x+29.112), and
 the line segments SM and BF are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and an RCL of 40 g/m^{3 }or more furthermore, the refrigerant has a discharge pressure of 105% or more relative to that of R410A.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Od, dg, gh, and hO that connect the following 4 points:
point d (87.6, 0.0, 12.4),
point g (18.2, 55.1, 26.7),
point h (56.7, 43.3, 0.0), and
point o (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the line segments Od, dg, gh, and hO (excluding the points O and h);

 the line segment dg is represented by coordinates (0.0047y^{2}−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y^{2}+0.5177y+12.402),
 the line segment gh is represented by coordinates (−0.0134z^{2}−1.0825z+56.692, 0.0134z^{2}+0.0825z+43.308, z), and
 the line segments hO and Od are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf, based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments lg, gh, hi, and il that connect the following 4 points:
point 1 (72.5, 10.2, 17.3),
point g (18.2, 55.1, 26.7),
point h (56.7, 43.3, 0.0), and
point i (72.5, 27.5, 0.0) or
on the line segments lg, gh, and il (excluding the points h and i);  the line segment lg is represented by coordinates (0.0047y^{2}−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y^{2}+0.5177y+12.402), the line gh is represented by coordinates (−0.0134z^{2}−1.0825z+56.692, 0.0134z^{2}+0.0825z+43.308, z), and
 the line segments hi and il are straight lines.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf, based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments lg, gh, hi, and il that connect the following 4 points:
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Od, de, ef, and fO that connect the following 4 points:
point d (87.6, 0.0, 12.4),
point e (31.1, 42.9, 26.0),
point f (65.5, 34.5, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the line segments Od, de, and ef (excluding the points O and f);  the line segment de is represented by coordinates (0.0047y^{2}−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y^{2}+0.5177y+12.402),
 the line segment ef is represented by coordinates (−0.0064z^{2}−1.1565z+65.501, 0.0064z^{2}+0.1565z+34.499, z), and
 the line segments fO and Od are straight lines.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Od, de, ef, and fO that connect the following 4 points:
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,
 coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments le, ef, fi, and il that connect the following 4 points:
point l (72.5, 10.2, 17.3),
point e (31.1, 42.9, 26.0),
point f (65.5, 34.5, 0.0), and
point i (72.5, 27.5, 0.0),
or on the line segments le, ef, and il (excluding the points f and i);  the line segment le is represented by coordinates (0.0047y^{2}−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y^{2}+0.5177y+12.402),
 the line segment ef is represented by coordinates (−0.0134z^{2}−1.0825z+56.692, 0.0134z^{2}+0.0825z+43.308, z), and
 the line segments fi and il are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,
 coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oa, ab, bc, and cO that connect the following 4 points:
point a (93.4, 0.0, 6.6),
point b (55.6, 26.6, 17.8),
point c (77.6, 22.4, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the line segments Oa, ab, and bc (excluding the points O and c);  the line segment ab is represented by coordinates (0.0052y^{2}−1.5588y+93.385, y, −0.0052y^{2}+0.5588y+6.615),
 the line segment be is represented by coordinates (−0.0032z^{2}−1.1791z+77.593, 0.0032z^{2}+0.1791z+22.407, z), and
 the line segments cO and Oa are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,
 coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments kb, bj, and jk that connect the following 3 points:
point k (72.5, 14.1, 13.4),
point b (55.6, 26.6, 17.8), and
point j (72.5, 23.2, 4.3),
or on the line segments kb, bj, and jk;  the line segment kb is represented by coordinates (0.0052y^{2}−1.5588y+93.385, y, and −0.0052y+0.5588y+6.615),
 the line segment bj is represented by coordinates (−0.0032z^{2}−1.1791z+77.593, 0.0032z^{2}+0.1791z+22.407, z), and
 the line segment jk is a straight line.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard.
The refrigerant according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and still more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
The refrigerant according to the present disclosure may comprise HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, 99.75 mass % or more, or 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
Additional refrigerants are not particularly limited and can be widely selected. The mixed refrigerant may contain one additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.
Examples of Refrigerant AThe present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant A. However, refrigerant A is not limited to the Examples.
The GWP of R1234yf and a composition consisting of a mixed refrigerant R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO1123 (GWP=0.3, described in International Publication No. 2015/141678). The refrigerating capacity of R410A and compositions each comprising a mixture of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.
Further, the RCL of the mixture was calculated with the LFL of THFO1132(E) being 4.7 vol. the LFL of HFO1123 being 10 vol. and the LFL of R1234yf being 6.2 vol. %, in accordance with the ASHRAEL Standard 342013.
Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Degree of superheating: 5K
Degree of subcooling: 5K
Compressor efficiency: 70%
Tables 1 to 34 show these values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant.
These results indicate that under the condition that the mass % of TIFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x,y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and GA that connect the following 7 points:
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0),
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CO);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3,
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines,
the refrigerant has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A.
The point on the line segment AA′ was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point A, Example 1, and point A′ by the least square method.
The point on the line segment A′B was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point A′, Example 3, and point B by the least square method.
The point on the line segment DC′ was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point D, Example 6, and point C′ by the least square method.
The point on the line segment C′C was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point C′, Example 4, and point C by the least square method.
Likewise, the results indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BF, FT, TE, EO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2),
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
point E (58.0, 42.0, 0.0) and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line EO);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x^{2}−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x^{2 }0.2499x+38.2), and
the line segment TE is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.7607x+63.525, −0.0067x^{2}−0.2393x+36.475), and
the line segments BF, FO, and OA are straight lines,
the refrigerant has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A.
The point on the line segment FT was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points T, E′, and F, by the least square method.
The point on the line segment TE was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points E, R, and T, by the least square method.
The results in Tables 1 to 34 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of the mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf in which the sum of these components is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below the line segment LM connecting point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0) and point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), the refrigerant has an RCL of 40 g/m^{3 }or more.
The results in Tables 1 to 34 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of the mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123 and R1234yf in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the line segment QR connecting point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6) and point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9) or on the left side of the line segment, the refrigerant has a temperature glide of 1C or less.
The results in Tables 1 to 34 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of the mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the line segment ST connecting point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1) and point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3) or on the right side of the line segment, the refrigerant has a discharge pressure of 105% or less relative to that of 410A.
In these compositions, R1234yf contributes to reducing flammability, and suppressing deterioration of polymerization etc. Therefore, the composition preferably contains R1234yf.
Further, the burning velocity of these mixed refrigerants whose mixed formulations were adjusted to WCF concentrations was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013. Compositions having a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less were determined to be classified as “Class 2L (lower flammability).”
A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in
Each WCFF concentration was obtained by using the WCF concentration as the initial concentration and performing a leak simulation using NIST Standard Reference Database REFLEAK Version 4.0.
Tables 35 and 36 show the results.
The results in Table 35 clearly indicate that when a mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf contains HFO1132(E) in a proportion of 72.0 mass % or less based on their sum, the refrigerant can be determined to have a WCF lower flammability.
The results in Tables 36 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of a mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf in which their sum is 100 mass %, and a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base,
when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below the line segments JP, PN, and NK connecting the following 6 points:
point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0)
point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1)
point N′ (65.0, 7.7, 27.3) and
point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3),
the refrigerant can be determined to have a WCF lower flammability, and a WCFF lower flammability.
In the diagram, the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
and the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x^{2}−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x^{2}+28.955x−831.91).
The point on the line segment PN was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points P, L, and N, by the least square method.
The point on the line segment NK was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points N, N′, and K, by the least square method.
(52) Refrigerant BThe refrigerant B according to the present disclosure is

 a mixed refrigerant comprising trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)) and trifluoroethylene (HFO1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and the refrigerant comprising 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % or 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant, or
 a mixed refrigerant comprising HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and the refrigerant comprising 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.
The refrigerant B according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410Aalternative refrigerant, i.e., (1) a coefficient of performance equivalent to that of R410A, (2) a refrigerating capacity equivalent to that of R410A, (3) a sufficiently low GWP, and (4) a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.
When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising 72.0 mass % or less of HFO1132(E), it has WCF lower flammability. When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure is a composition comprising 47.1% or less of HFO1132(E), it has WCF lower flammability and WCFF lower flammability, and is determined to be “Class 2L,” which is a lower flammable refrigerant according to the ASHRAE standard, and which is further easier to handle.
When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure comprises 62.0 mass % or more of HFO1132(E), it becomes superior with a coefficient of performance of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, the polymerization reaction of HFO1132(E) and/or HFO1123 is further suppressed, and the stability is further improved. When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure comprises 45.1 mass % or more of HFO1132(E), it becomes superior with a coefficient of performance of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, the polymerization reaction of HFO1132(E) and/or HFO1123 is further suppressed, and the stability is further improved.
The refrigerant B according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO1132(E) and HFO1123, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 in a total amount of 99.75 mass % or more, and more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
Such additional refrigerants are not limited, and can be selected from a wide range of refrigerants. The mixed refrigerant may comprise a single additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.
Examples of Refrigerant BThe present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant B. However, the refrigerant B is not limited to the Examples.
Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 at mass % based on their sum shown in Tables 37 and 38.
The GWP of compositions each comprising a mixture of R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO1123 (GWP=0.3, described in International Publication No. 2015/141678). The refrigerating capacity of compositions each comprising R410A and a mixture of HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.
Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Superheating temperature: 5 K
Subcooling temperature: 5 K
Compressor efficiency: 70%
The composition of each mixture was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using NIST Standard Reference Data Base Refleak Version 4.0 under the conditions of Equipment, Storage, Shipping, Leak, and Recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 342013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.
Tables 1 and 2 show GWP, COP, and refrigerating capacity, which were calculated based on these results. The COP and refrigerating capacity are ratios relative to R410A.
The coefficient of performance (COP) was determined by the following formula.
COP=(refrigerating capacity or heating capacity)/power consumption
For the flammability, the burning velocity was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013. Both WCF and WCFF having a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less were determined to be “Class 2L (lower flammability).”
A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in
The compositions each comprising 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire composition are stable while having a low GWP (GWP=1), and they ensure WCF lower flammability. Further, surprisingly, they can ensure performance equivalent to that of R410A. Moreover, compositions each comprising 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire composition are stable while having a low GWP (GWP=1), and they ensure WCFF lower flammability. Further, surprisingly, they can ensure performance equivalent to that of R410A.
(53) Refrigerant CThe refrigerant C according to the present disclosure is a composition comprising trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32), and satisfies the following requirements. The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an alternative refrigerant for R410A; i.e. it has a coefficient of performance and a refrigerating capacity that are equivalent to those of R410A, and a sufficiently low GWP.
RequirementsPreferable refrigerant C is as follows:
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BD′, D′C, and CG that connect the following 6 points:
point G (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0),
point I (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0),
point A (0.0134a^{2}−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a^{2}+0.9681a+31.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a^{2}−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a^{2}+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a^{2}+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a^{2}−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a^{2}−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a^{2}−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI, AB, and D′C (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, point D′, and point C);

 if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0),
point I (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895),
point A (0.0112a^{2}−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a^{2}+0.9337a+31.516),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a^{2}−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a^{2}+0.5156a+41.801) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);  if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0),
point I (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273),
point A (0.0107a^{2}−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a^{2}+0.9142a+31.695),
point B (0.0, 0.009a^{2}−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a^{2}+0.6045a+40.682) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);  if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0),
point I (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014),
point A (0.0103a^{2}−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a^{2}+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a^{2}−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a^{2}+0.41a+42.714) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); and  if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0),
point I (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098),
point A (0.0085a^{2}−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a^{2}+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a^{2}−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a^{2}+0.1659a+47.05) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W). When the refrigerant according to the present disclosure satisfies the above requirements, it has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and further ensures a WCF lower flammability.
 if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,
 if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BD′, D′C, and CJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (0.0049a^{2}−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a^{2}−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0514a^{2}−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a^{2}+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a^{2}+1.0231a+32.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a^{2}−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a^{2}+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a^{2}+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a^{2}−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a^{2}−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a^{2}−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′B, and D′C (excluding point J, point B, point D′, and point C);  if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
point J (0.0243a^{2}−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a^{2}+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0341a^{2}−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a^{2}+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a^{2}+0.8577a+33.177),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a^{2}−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a^{2}+0.5156a+41.801) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);  if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
point J (0.0246a^{2}−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a^{2}+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0196a^{2}−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a^{2}−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a^{2}+0.8999a+32.783),
point B (0.0, 0.009a^{2}−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a^{2}+0.6045a+40.682) and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);  if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (0.0183a^{2}−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a^{2}+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0),
point K′ (−0.0051a^{2}+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a^{2}−1.0929a+74.05),
point A (0.0103a^{2}−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a^{2}+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a^{2}−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a^{2}+0.41a+42.714) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W); and  if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (−0.0134a^{2}+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a^{2}−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0),
point K′ (−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557),
point A (0.0085a^{2}−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a^{2}+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a^{2}−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a^{2}+0.1659a+47.05) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W). When the refrigerant according to the present disclosure satisfies the above requirements, it has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A. Additionally, the refrigerant has a WCF lower flammability and a WCFF lower flammability, and is classified as “Class 2L,” which is a lower flammable refrigerant according to the ASHRAE standard.
When the refrigerant C according to the present disclosure further contains R32 in addition to HFO1132 (E), HFO1123, and R1234yf, the refrigerant may be a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,

 if 0<a≤10.0, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines that connect the following 4 points:
point a (0.02a^{2}−2.46a+93.4, 0, −0.02a^{2}+2.46a+6.6),
point b′ (−0.008a^{2}−1.38a+56, 0.018a^{2}−0.53a+26.3, −0.01a^{2}+1.91a+17.7),
point c (−0.016a^{2}+1.02a+77.6, 0.016a^{2}−1.02a+22.4, 0), and
point o (100.0−a, 0.0, 0.0)
or on the straight lines oa, ab′, and b′c (excluding point o and point c);  if 10.0<a≤16.5, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines that connect the following 4 points:
point a (0.0244a^{2}−2.5695a+94.056, 0, −0.0244a^{2}+2.5695a+5.944),
point b′ (0.1161a^{2}−1.9959a+59.749, 0.014a^{2}−0.3399a+24.8, −0.1301a^{2}+2.3358a+15.451),
point c (−0.0161a^{2}+1.02a+77.6, 0.0161a^{2}−1.02a+22.4, 0), and
point o (100.0−a, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the straight lines oa, ab′, and b′c (excluding point o and point c); or  if 16.5<a≤21.8, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines that connect the following 4 points:
point a (0.0161a^{2}−2.3535a+92.742, 0, −0.0161a^{2}+2.3535a+7.258),
point b′ (−0.0435a^{2}−0.0435a+50.406, 0.0304a^{2}+1.8991a−0.0661, 0.0739a^{2}−1.8556a+49.6601),
point c (−0.0161a^{2}+0.9959a+77.851, 0.0161a^{2}−0.9959a+22.149, 0), and
point o (100.0−a, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the straight lines oa, ab′, and b′c (excluding point o and point c). Note that when point b in the ternary composition diagram is defined as a point where a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% relative to that of R410A and a COP ratio of 95% relative to that of R410A are both achieved, point b′ is the intersection of straight line ab and an approximate line formed by connecting the points where the COP ratio relative to that of R410A is 95%. When the refrigerant according to the present disclosure meets the above requirements, the refrigerant has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A.
 if 0<a≤10.0, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines that connect the following 4 points:
The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and still more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure may comprise HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, 99.75 mass % or more, or 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
Additional refrigerants are not particularly limited and can be widely selected. The mixed refrigerant may contain one additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.
Examples of Refrigerant CThe present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant C. However, the refrigerant C is not limited to the Examples.
Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 at mass % based on their sum shown in Tables 39 to 96.
The GWP of compositions each comprising a mixture of R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO1123 (GWP=0.3, described in International Publication No. 2015/141678). The refrigerating capacity of compositions each comprising R410A and a mixture of IFO1132(E) and HFO1123 was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.
For each of these mixed refrigerants, the COP ratio and the refrigerating capacity ratio relative to those of R410 were obtained. Calculation was conducted under the following conditions.
Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Superheating temperature: 5 K
Subcooling temperature: 5 K
Compressor efficiency: 70%
Tables 39 to 96 show the resulting values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant. The COP and refrigerating capacity are ratios relative to R410A.
The coefficient of performance (COP) was determined by the following formula.
COP=(refrigerating capacity or heating capacity)/power consumption
The above results indicate that the refrigerating capacity ratio relative to R410A is 85% or more in the following cases:
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), THFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x,y, z, and a, in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of THFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass %, a straight line connecting a point (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0−a) is the base, and the point (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0) is on the left side, if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0134a^{2}−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a^{2}+0.9681a+31.4) and point B (0.0, 0.0144a^{2}−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a^{2}+0.6377a+41.3);

 if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0112a^{2}−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a^{2}+0.9337a+31.516) and point B (0.0, 0.0075a^{2}−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a^{2}+0.5156a+41.801);
 if 18.2a<a≤267, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0107a^{2}−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a^{2}+0.9142a+31.695) and point B (0.0, 0.009a^{2 }1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a^{2}+0.6045a+40.682);
 if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0103a^{2}−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a^{2}+0.9225a+31.207) and point B (0.0, 0.0046a^{2}−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a^{2}+0.41a+42.714); and
 if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0085a^{2}−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a^{2}+0.8102a+32.9) and point B (0.0, 0.0012a^{2}−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a^{2}+0.1659a+47.05).
Actual points having a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more form a curved line that connects point A and point B in
Similarly, it was also found that in the ternary composition diagram, if 0<a≤11.1, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on, or on the left side of, a straight line D′C that connects point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a^{2}+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a^{2}−1.968a+24.6) and point C (−0.2304a^{2}−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a^{2}−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0); or if 11.1<a≤46.7, when coordinates are in the entire region, the COP ratio relative to that of R410A is 92.5% or more.
In
The composition of each mixture was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using NIST Standard Reference Database REFLEAK Version 4.0 under the conditions of Equipment, Storage, Shipping, Leak, and Recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 342013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.
For the flammability, the burning velocity was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013. Both WCF and WCFF having a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less were determined to be classified as “Class 2L (lower flammability).”
A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in
The results are shown in Tables 97 to 104.
The results in Tables 97 to 100 indicate that the refrigerant has aWCF lower flammability in the following cases:
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), THFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), THFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of THFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % and a straight line connecting a point (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0−a) is the base, if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0) and point I (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0);
if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0) and point I (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895); if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0) and point I (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273); if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0) and point I (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014); and if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0) and point I (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098).
Three points corresponding to point G (Table 105) and point I (Table 106) were individually obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained.
The results in Tables 101 to 104 indicate that the refrigerant is determined to have a WCFF lower flammability, and the flammability classification according to the ASHRAE Standard is “2L (flammability)” in the following cases:
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a, in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % and a straight line connecting a point (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0−a) is the base, if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0049a^{2}−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a^{2}−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0) and point K′(0.0514a^{2}−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a^{2}+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a^{2}+1.0231a+32.4); if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates are on a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0243a^{2}−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a^{2}+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0) and point K′(0.0341a^{2}−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a^{2}+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a^{2}+0.8577a+33.177); if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0246a^{2}−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a^{2}+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0) and point K′ (0.0196a^{2}−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a^{2}−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a^{2}+0.8999a+32.783); if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0183a^{2}−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a^{2}+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0) and point K′ (−0.0051a^{2}+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a^{2}−1.0929a+74.05); and if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (−0.0134a^{2}+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a^{2}−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0) and point K′(−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557).
Actual points having a WCFF lower flammability form a curved line that connects point J and point K′ (on the straight line AB) in
Three points corresponding to point J (Table 107) and point K′ (Table 108) were individually obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained.
Points A, B, C, and D′ were obtained in the following manner according to approximate calculation.
Point A is a point where the content of HFO1123 is 0 mass %, and a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% relative to that of R410A is achieved. Three points corresponding to point A were obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 109).
Point Bis a point where the content of THFO1132(E) is 0 mass %, and a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% relative to that of R410A is achieved.
Three points corresponding to point B were obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 110).
Point D′ is a point where the content of THFO1132(E) is 0 mass %, and a COP ratio of 95.5% relative to that of R410A is achieved.
Three points corresponding to point D′ were obtained in each of the following by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 111).
Point C is a point where the content of R1234yf is 0 mass %, and a COP ratio of 95.5% relative to that of R410A is achieved.
Three points corresponding to point C were obtained in each of the following by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 112).
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf).
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410Aalternative refrigerant; i.e., a refrigerating capacity equivalent to that of R410A, a sufficiently low GWP, and a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI);  the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y^{2}−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y^{2}+0.7616y+28.0);
 the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y^{2}−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y^{2}+0.9003y+41.7); and
 the line segments JN and EI are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:
point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4),
point M′ (39.2, 5.0, 55.8),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1),
point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and
point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);  the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y^{2}−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y^{2}+2.34y+47.4);
 the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y^{2}−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y^{2}+1.2541y+51.02);
 the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y^{2}−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y^{2}+0.8033y+60.4); and
 the line segments NV and GM are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 70% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:
point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4),
or on these line segments;  the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y^{2}−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y^{2}−0.3299y+62.488);
 the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y^{2}−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y^{2}+0.7403y+43.365); and
 the line segment UO is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 250 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:
point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4),
point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7),
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and
point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6),
or on these line segments;  the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y^{2}−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y^{2}+0.975y+15.235);
 the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y^{2}+0.8683y+16.874);
 the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y^{2}−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y^{2}−0.1158y+38.512);
 the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y^{2}−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y^{2}+0.2222y+32.324); and
 the line segment TL is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8),
point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
or on these line segments;  the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y^{2}−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y^{2}−0.2897y+59.9);
 the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y^{2}+0.8683y+16.874); and
 the line segment TP is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ac, cf, fd, and da that connect the following 4 points:
point a (71.1, 0.0, 28.9),
point c (36.5, 18.2, 45.3),
point f (47.6, 18.3, 34.1), and
point d (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
or on these line segments;  the line segment ac is represented by coordinates (0.0181y^{2}−2.2288y+71.096, y, −0.0181y^{2}+1.2288y+28.904);
 the line segment fd is represented by coordinates (0.02y^{2}−1.7y+72, y, −0.02y^{2}+0.7y+28); and
 the line segments cf and da are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ac, cf, fd, and da that connect the following 4 points:
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ab, be, ed, and da that connect the following 4 points:
point a (71.1, 0.0, 28.9),
point b (42.6, 14.5, 42.9),
point e (51.4, 14.6, 34.0), and
point d (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
or on these line segments;  the line segment ab is represented by coordinates (0.0181y^{2 }2.2288y+71.096, y, −0.0181y^{2}+1.2288y+28.904);
 the line segment ed is represented by coordinates (0.02y^{2}−1.7y+72, y, −0.02y^{2}+0.7y+28); and
 the line segments be and da are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 100 or less, and a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ab, be, ed, and da that connect the following 4 points:
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments gi, ij, and jg that connect the following 3 points:
point g (77.5, 6.9, 15.6),
point i (55.1, 18.3, 26.6), and
point j (77.5. 18.4, 4.1),
or on these line segments;  the line segment gi is represented by coordinates (0.02y^{2}−2.4583y+93.396, y, −0.02y^{2}+1.4583y+6.604); and
 the line segments ij and jg are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to R410A and a GWP of 100 or less, undergoes fewer or no changes such as polymerization or decomposition, and also has excellent stability.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments gi, ij, and jg that connect the following 3 points:
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments gh, hk, and kg that connect the following 3 points:
point g (77.5, 6.9, 15.6),
point h (61.8, 14.6, 23.6), and
point k (77.5, 14.6, 7.9),
or on these line segments;  the line segment gh is represented by coordinates (0.02y^{2}−2.4583y+93.396, y, −0.02y^{2}+1.4583y+6.604); and
 the line segments hk and kg are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to R410A and a GWP of 100 or less, undergoes fewer or no changes such as polymerization or decomposition, and also has excellent stability.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments gh, hk, and kg that connect the following 3 points:
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and still more preferably 99.9 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant.
Such additional refrigerants are not limited, and can be selected from a wide range of refrigerants. The mixed refrigerant may comprise a single additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.
Examples of Refrigerant DThe present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant D. However, the refrigerant D is not limited to the Examples.
The composition of each mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using the NIST Standard Reference Database REFLEAK Version 4.0 under the conditions of Equipment, Storage, Shipping, Leak, and Recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 342013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.
A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in
The results indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram shown in
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram shown in
Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf in amounts (mass %) shown in Tables 116 to 144 based on the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf. The coefficient of performance (COP) ratio and the refrigerating capacity ratio relative to R410 of the mixed refrigerants shown in Tables 116 to 144 were determined. The conditions for calculation were as described below.
Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Degree of superheating: 5 K
Degree of subcooling: 5 K
Compressor efficiency: 70%
Tables 116 to 144 show these values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant.
The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of UHFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x,y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of UFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI),

 the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y^{2}−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y^{2}+0.7616y+28.0),
 the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y^{2}−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y^{2}+0.9003y+41.7), and
 the line segments JN and EI are straight lines, the refrigerant D has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.
The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:
point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4),
point M′ (39.2, 5.0, 55.8),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1),
point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and
point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM),

 the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y^{2}−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y^{2}+2.34y+47.4),
 the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y^{2}−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y^{2}+1.2541y+51.02),
 the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y^{2}−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y^{2}+0.8033y+60.4), and
 the line segments NV and GM are straight lines, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 70% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:
point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4),
or on these line segments,

 the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y^{2}−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y^{2}−0.3299y+62.488),
 the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y^{2}−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y^{2}+0.7403y+43.365), and
 the line segment UO is a straight line, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 250 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:
point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4),
point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7),
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and
point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6),
or on these line segments,

 the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y^{2}−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y^{2}+0.975y+15.235),
 the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y^{2}+0.8683y+16.874),
 the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y^{2}−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y^{2}−0.1158y+38.512),
 the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y^{2}−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y^{2}+0.2222y+32.324), and
 the line segment TL is a straight line, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.
The results further indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8),
point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
or on these line segments,

 the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y^{2}−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y^{2}−0.2897y+59.9),
 the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y^{2}+0.8683y+16.874), and
 the line segment TP is a straight line, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32).
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410Aalternative refrigerant, i.e., a coefficient of performance equivalent to that of R410A and a sufficiently low GWP.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IK, KB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GI that connect the following 6 points:
point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GI);  the line segment IK is represented by coordinates (0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z^{2}+0.7429z+28.0, z),
 the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z^{2}+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z^{2}−5.234z+88.94, z),
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 the line segments KB′ and GI are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has WCF lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IK, KB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GI that connect the following 6 points:
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JR, RG, and GI that connect the following 4 points:
point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GI);  the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.0, −0.025z^{2}+0.7429z+28.0, z),
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 the line segments JR and GI are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has WCF lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JR, RG, and GI that connect the following 4 points:
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MP, PB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GM that connect the following 6 points:
point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GM);  the line segment MP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z),
 the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z^{2}+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z^{2}−5.234z+88.94, z),
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491zz+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 the line segments PB′ and GM are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MP, PB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GM that connect the following 6 points:
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MN, NR, RG, and GM that connect the following 4 points:
point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point N (38.5, 52.1, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);  the line segment MN is represented by coordinates (0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z),
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z),
 the line segments NR and GM are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 65 or less.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MN, NR, RG, and GM that connect the following 4 points:
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point S (25.4, 56.2, 18.4), and
point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2),
or on these line segments;  the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (−0.0982z^{2}+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z^{2}−1.9622z+59.069, z),
 the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z), and
 the line segment PS is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 94.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QB″, B″D, DU, and UQ that connect the following 4 points:
point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0),
point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0),
point D (0.0, 67.0, 33.0), and
point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment B″D);  the line segment DU is represented by coordinates (−3.4962z^{2}+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z^{2}−211.71z+3246.1, z),
 the line segment UQ is represented by coordinates (0.0135z^{2}−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z^{2}−0.0819z+55.867, z), and
 the line segments QB″ and B″D are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 96% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 250 or less.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QB″, B″D, DU, and UQ that connect the following 4 points:
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc′, c′d′, d′e′, e′a′, and a′O that connect the following 5 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c′ (56.7, 43.3, 0.0),
point d′ (52.2, 38.3, 9.5),
point e′ (41.8, 39.8, 18.4), and
point a′ (81.6, 0.0, 18.4),
or on the line segments c′d′, d′e′, and e′a′ (excluding the points c′ and a′);  the line segment c′d′ is represented by coordinates (−0.0297z^{2}−0.1915z+56.7, 0.0297z^{2}+1.1915z+43.3, z),
 the line segment d′e′ is represented by coordinates (−0.0535z^{2}+0.3229z+53.957, 0.0535z^{2}+0.6771z+46.043, z), and
 the line segments Oc′, e′a′, and a′O are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc′, c′d′, d′e′, e′a′, and a′O that connect the following 5 points:
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc, cd, de, ea′, and a′O that connect the following 5 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c (77.7, 22.3, 0.0),
point d (76.3, 14.2, 9.5),
point e (72.2, 9.4, 18.4), and
point a′ (81.6, 0.0, 18.4),
or on the line segments cd, de, and ea′ (excluding the points c and a′);  the line segment cde is represented by coordinates (−0.017z^{2}+0.0148z+77.684, 0.017z^{2}+0.9852z+22.316, z), and
 the line segments Oc, ea′, and a′O are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc, cd, de, ea′, and a′O that connect the following 5 points:
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc′, c′d′, d′a, and aO that connect the following 5 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c′ (56.7, 43.3, 0.0),
point d′ (52.2, 38.3, 9.5), and
point a (90.5, 0.0, 9.5),
or on the line segments c′d′ and d′a (excluding the points c′ and a);  the line segment c′d′ is represented by coordinates (−0.0297z^{2}−0.1915z+56.7, 0.0297z^{2}+1.1915z+43.3, z), and
 the line segments Oc′, d′a, and aO are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 65 or less.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc′, c′d′, d′a, and aO that connect the following 5 points:
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc, cd, da, and aO that connect the following 4 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c (77.7, 22.3, 0.0),
point d (76.3, 14.2, 9.5), and
point a (90.5, 0.0, 9.5),
or on the line segments cd and da (excluding the points c and a);  the line segment cd is represented by coordinates
(−0.017z^{2}+0.0148z+77.684, 0.017z^{2}+0.9852z+22.316, z), and  the line segments Oc, da, and aO are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 65 or less.
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc, cd, da, and aO that connect the following 4 points:
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and even more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
Such additional refrigerants are not limited, and can be selected from a wide range of refrigerants. The mixed refrigerant may comprise a single additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.
Examples of Refrigerant EThe present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant E. However, the refrigerant E is not limited to the Examples.
Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 at mass % based on their sum shown in Tables 145 and 146.
The composition of each mixture was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Data Base Refleak Version 4.0 under the conditions for equipment, storage, shipping, leak, and recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 342013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.
For each mixed refrigerant, the burning velocity was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013. When the burning velocities of the WCF composition and the WCFF composition are 10 cm/s or less, the flammability of such a refrigerant is classified as Class 2L (lower flammability) in the ASHRAE flammability classification.
A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in
Tables 145 and 146 show the results.
The results in Table 1 indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of a mixed refrigerant of THFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below line segments IK and KL that connect the following 3 points:
point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4), and
point L (35.5, 27.5, 37.0);
the line segment IK is represented by coordinates
(0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025zz+0.7429z+28.00, z), and
the line segment KL is represented by coordinates
(0.0098z^{2}−1.238z+67.852, −0.0098z^{2}+0.238z+32.148, z),
it can be determined that the refrigerant has WCF lower flammability.
For the points on the line segment IK, an approximate curve (x=0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.00) was obtained from three points, i.e., I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5), and K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4) by using the leastsquare method to determine coordinates (x=0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.00, y=100−z−x=−0.00922z^{2}+0.2114z+32.443, z).
Likewise, for the points on the line segment KL, an approximate curve was determined from three points, i.e., K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4), Example 10 (41.1, 31.2, 27.7), and L (35.5, 27.5, 37.0) by using the leastsquare method to determine coordinates.
The results in Table 146 indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of a mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below line segments MP and PQ that connect the following 3 points:
point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4), and
point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0),
it can be determined that the refrigerant has ASHRAE lower flammability.
In the above, the line segment MP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z), and the line segment PQ is represented by coordinates
(0.0135z^{2}−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z^{2}−0.0819z+55.867, z).
For the points on the line segment MP, an approximate curve was obtained from three points, i.e., points M, N, and P, by using the leastsquare method to determine coordinates. For the points on the line segment PQ, an approximate curve was obtained from three points, i.e., points P, U, and Q, by using the leastsquare method to determine coordinates.
The GWP of compositions each comprising a mixture of R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO1123 (GWP=0.3, described in International Publication No. 2015/141678). The refrigerating capacity of compositions each comprising R410A and a mixture of HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.
The COP ratio and the refrigerating capacity (which may be referred to as “cooling capacity” or “capacity”) ratio relative to those of R410 of the mixed refrigerants were determined. The conditions for calculation were as described below.
Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Degree of superheating: 5K
Degree of subcooling: 5K
Compressor efficiency: 70%
Tables 147 to 166 show these values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant.
The above results indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x,y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, and the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments that connect the following 4 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point A″ (63.0, 0.0, 37.0),
point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0), and
point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a GWP of 250 or less.
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments that connect the following 4 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point A′ (81.6, 0.0, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4), and
point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a GWP of 125 or less.
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments that connect the following 4 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point A (90.5, 0.0, 9.5),
point B (0.0, 90.5, 9.5), and
point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a GWP of 65 or less.
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the left side of line segments that connect the following 3 points:
point C (50.0, 31.6, 18.4),
point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1), and
point D (52.2, 38.3, 9.5),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a COP ratio of 96% or more relative to that of R410A.
In the above, the line segment CU is represented by coordinates (−0.0538z^{2}+0.7888z+53.701, 0.0538z−1.7888z+46.299, z), and the line segment UD is represented by coordinates
(−3.4962z^{2}+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z^{2}−211.71z+3246.1, z).
The points on the line segment CU are determined from three points, i.e., point C, Comparative Example 10, and point U, by using the leastsquare method.
The points on the line segment UD are determined from three points, i.e., point U, Example 2, and point D, by using the leastsquare method.
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the left side of line segments that connect the following 3 points:
point E (55.2, 44.8, 0.0),
point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2), and
point F (0.0, 76.7, 23.3),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a COP ratio of 94.5% or more relative to that of R410A.
In the above, the line segment ET is represented by coordinates (−0.0547z^{2}−0.5327z+53.4, 0.0547z^{2}−0.4673z+46.6, z), and the line segment TF is represented by coordinates
(−0.0982z^{2}+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z^{2}−1.9622z+59.069, z).
The points on the line segment ET are determined from three points, i.e., point E, Example 2, and point T, by using the leastsquare method.
The points on the line segment TF are determined from three points, i.e., points T, S, and F, by using the leastsquare method.
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the left side of line segments that connect the following 3 points:
point G (0.0, 76.7, 23.3),
point R (21.0, 69.5, 9.5), and
point H (0.0, 85.9, 14.1),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A.
In the above, the line segment GR is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and the line segment RH is represented by coordinates
(−0.3123z^{2}+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z^{2}−5.234z+88.94, z).
The points on the line segment GR are determined from three points, i.e., point G, Example 5, and point R, by using the leastsquare method.
The points on the line segment RH are determined from three points, i.e., point R, Example 7, and point H, by using the leastsquare method.
In contrast, as shown in, for example, Comparative Examples 8, 9, 13, 15, 17, and 18, when R32 is not contained, the concentrations of HFO1132(E) and HFO1123, which have a double bond, become relatively high; this undesirably leads to deterioration, such as decomposition, or polymerization in the refrigerant compound.
(6) First EmbodimentIn a first embodiment, an air conditioning apparatus 10 that is an example of a refrigeration cycle apparatus is described. The refrigeration cycle apparatus represents any of all apparatuses that are operated with refrigeration cycles. The refrigeration cycle apparatuses include an air conditioner, a dehumidifier, a heat pump warmwater supply apparatus, a refrigerator, a refrigeration apparatus for freezing, a cooling apparatus for manufacturing process, and so forth.
The air conditioning apparatus 10 is a separate air conditioning apparatus including an outdoor unit (not illustrated) and an indoor unit (not illustrated) and configured to switch the operation between cooling operation and heating operation.
As illustrated in
An inflow pipe 36, an outflow pipe 37, and an injection pipe 38 are connected to the gasliquid separator 25. The inflow pipe 36 is open at an upper portion of the inner space of the gasliquid separator 25. The outflow pipe 37 is open at a lower portion of the inner space of the gasliquid separator 25. The injection pipe 38 is open at an upper portion of the inner space of the gasliquid separator 25. In the gasliquid separator 25, the refrigerant which has flowed in from the inflow pipe 36 is separated into a saturated liquid and a saturated gas, the saturated liquid flows out from the outflow pipe 37, and the saturated gas flows out from the injection pipe 38. The inflow pipe 36 and the outflow pipe 37 are connected to the bridge circuit 31. The injection pipe 38 is connected to an intermediate connection pipe 47 of the compressor 21.
The refrigerant in the saturated gas state which has flowed out from the injection pipe 38 is injected into a compression chamber with an intermediate pressure of a compression mechanism 32 via an intermediate port. In this embodiment, the inflow pipe 36, the outflow pipe 37, the injection pipe 38, and the gasliquid separator 25 supply the refrigerant in the saturated liquid state, which is included in the refrigerant which has flowed out from the outdoor heat exchanger 23 during cooling operation and which has been decompressed to have the intermediate pressure in the refrigeration cycle, to the indoor heat exchanger 27, to constitute an injection circuit 15 for supplying the refrigerant in the saturated gas state to the compressor 21.
The bridge circuit 31 is a circuit in which a first check valve CV1, a second check valve CV2, a third check valve CV3, and a fourth check valve CV4 are connected in a bridge form. In the bridge circuit 31, a connection end located on the inflow side of the first check valve CV1 and on the inflow side of the second check valve CV2 is connected to the outflow pipe 37. A connection end located on the outflow side of the second check valve CV2 and on the inflow side of the third check valve CV3 is connected to the indoor heat exchanger 27. The refrigerant pipe that connects the connection end to the indoor heat exchanger 27 is provided with the indoor expansion valve 26 of which the opening degree is changeable. A connection end located on the outflow side of the third check valve CV3 and on the outflow side of the fourth check valve CV4 is connected to the inflow pipe 36. A connection end located on the outflow side of the first check valve CV1 and on the inflow side of the fourth check valve CV4 is connected to the outdoor heat exchanger 23.
During cooling operation, the fourway valve 22 is set in a state (a state indicated by solid lines in
During heating operation, the fourway valve 22 is set in a state (a state indicated by broken lines in
The outdoor heat exchanger 23 is constituted of a microchannel heat exchanger (also referred to as micro heat exchanger) having formed therein a microchannel 13 that serves as a flow path of a refrigerant. The microchannel 13 is a fine flow path (a flow path having a very small flow path area) fabricated by using, for example, microfabricating technology. In general, a heat exchanger having the microchannel 13 that is a flow path having a diameter of several millimeters or less which exhibits an effect of surface tension is called microchannel heat exchanger.
Specifically, as illustrated in
An outdoor fan 28 is provided near the outdoor heat exchanger 23. In the outdoor heat exchanger 23, the outdoor air supplied by the outdoor fan 28 flows through gaps formed by the flat tubes 16 and the metal plates 19. The outdoor air flows in the width direction of the flat tubes 16.
In the outdoor heat exchanger 23, the one header 17 is connected to the third port P3 of the fourway valve 22, and the other header 18 is connected to the bridge circuit 31. In the outdoor heat exchanger 23, the refrigerant which has flowed into one of the headers 17 and 18 is distributed to the plurality of microchannels 13, and the refrigerant which has passed through each of the microchannels 13 is joined in the other one of the headers 17 and 18. Each microchannel 13 serves as a refrigerant flow path through which the refrigerant flows. In the outdoor heat exchanger 23, the refrigerant flowing through each microchannel 13 exchanges heat with the outdoor air.
The indoor heat exchanger 27 is constituted of a microcchanel heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchanger 27 has the same structure as the outdoor heat exchanger 23, and hence the description on the structure of the indoor heat exchanger 27 is omitted. An indoor fan 29 is provided near the indoor heat exchanger 27. In the indoor heat exchanger 27, the refrigerant flowing through each microchannel 13 exchanges heat with the indoor air supplied by the indoor fan 29. In the indoor heat exchanger 27, the one header 17 is connected to the fourth port P4 of the fourway valve 22, and the other header 18 is connected to the bridge circuit 31.
In the present embodiment, the outdoor heat exchanger 23 and the indoor heat exchanger 27 are constituted of microchannel heat exchangers. The capacity of the inside of the microchannel heat exchanger is smaller than that of a heat exchanger of another structure type having equivalent performance (for example, crossfin type finandtube heat exchanger). Hence, the total capacity of the inside of the refrigerant circuit 20 can be decreased compared with a refrigeration cycle apparatus using a heat exchanger of another structure type.
Regarding resistance to pressure and resistance to corrosion, “0.9 mm flattube thickness (a vertical height h16 of the flat tube 16 illustrated in
In the present embodiment, the refrigerant circuit 20 is filled with a refrigerant for performing a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The refrigerant is a mixed refrigerant containing 1,2difluoroethylene, and can use any one of the abovedescribed refrigerants A to E.
(7) Second EmbodimentAs illustrated in
Each of the flat perforated tubes 193 includes side surface portions serving as heat transfer surfaces, and a plurality of inner flow paths 193a through which the refrigerant flows. The flat perforated tubes 193 are arranged in a plurality of stages at intervals in a state in which a side surface portion of a flat perforated tube 193 vertically faces a side surface portion of another flat perforated tube 193 disposed next to the former flat perforated tube 193. The insertion fins 194 are a plurality of fins each having a shape illustrated in
Here, a case where a coupling portion 194b of the insertion fin 194 is disposed on the leeward side has been described. In this case, the coupling portion 194b is a portion of the insertion fin 194 linearly coupled without a cutout 194a. In the outdoor heat exchanger 125, however, the coupling portion 194b of the insertion fin 194 may be disposed on the windward side. When the coupling portion 194b is disposed on the windward side, the wind is dehumidified first by the insertion fin 194 and then the wind hits the flat perforated tubes 193.
Here, a case where the heat exchanger illustrated in
Regarding resistance to pressure and resistance to corrosion, “0.9 mm flattube thickness (a vertical height h193 of the flat perforated tube 193 illustrated in
In the present embodiment, the refrigerant circuit including the outdoor heat exchanger 125 is filled with a refrigerant for performing a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The refrigerant is a mixed refrigerant containing 1,2difluoroethylene, and can use any one of the abovedescribed refrigerants A to E.
(8) Third EmbodimentAn innersurface grooved tube 201 is inserted into through holes 211a of a plurality of plate fins 211 that are illustrated in
The innersurface grooved tube 201 is used for a plate finandtube heat exchanger of a refrigeration cycle apparatus, such as either of an air conditioner and a refrigeration air conditioning apparatus. The plate finandtube heat exchanger is included in a refrigerant circuit of the refrigeration cycle apparatus. The refrigerant circuit of the refrigeration cycle apparatus includes a compressor, an evaporator, a condenser, and an expansion valve. In heating operation, the plate finandtube heat exchanger functions as an evaporator in the refrigerant circuit of the refrigeration cycle apparatus. In cooling operation, the plate finandtube heat exchanger functions as a condenser in the refrigerant circuit of the refrigeration cycle apparatus.
The innersurface grooved tube 201 having a pipe outer diameter D201 of a pipe of 4 mm or more and 10 mm or less is used. The original tube of the innersurface grooved tube 201 uses a material of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. The method of forming an innersurface grooved shape of the innersurface grooved tube 201 may be component rolling, rolling, or the like, however, is not limited thereby.
As illustrated in
Next, limitations on numerical values of the innersurface groove shape of the innersurface grooved tube 201 are described.
(81) Number of Grooves: 30 or More and 100 or Less
The number of grooves is properly determined with regard to heat transfer performance, individual weight, and so forth, in combination with respective specifications (described later) of the innersurface groove shape, and is preferably 30 or more and 100 or less. If the number of grooves is less than 30, groove moldability likely decreases. If the number of grooves is more than 100, a grooving tool (grooving plug) is likely chipped. In either case, volume productivity of the innersurface grooved tube 201 likely decreases.
Furthermore, when the innersurface grooved tube 201 is used for the outdoor heat exchanger and the indoor heat exchanger included in the refrigerant circuit of the refrigeration cycle apparatus, it is preferably satisfied that the number of grooves of the innersurface grooved tube 201 of the outdoor heat exchanger>the number of grooves of the innersurface grooved tube 201 of the indoor heat exchanger. Accordingly, inpipe pressure loss of the innersurface grooved tube 201 can be decreased, and heat transfer performance thereof can be increased.
(82) Groove Lead Angle θ201: 10 Degrees or More and 50 Degrees or Less
The groove lead angle θ201 is preferably 10 degrees or more and 50 degrees or less. If the groove lead angle θ201 is less than 10 degrees, heat transfer performance of the innersurface grooved tube 201 (heat exchanger) likely decreases. If the groove lead angle θ201 is more than 50 degrees, it may be difficult to suppress deformation of the inpipe fin 203 due to ensuring of volume productivity and expansion of the diameter of the innersurface grooved tube 201.
Furthermore, when the innersurface grooved tube 201 is used for the outdoor heat exchanger and the indoor heat exchanger included in the refrigerant circuit of the refrigeration cycle apparatus, it is preferably satisfied that the groove lead angle of the innersurface grooved tube 201 of the outdoor heat exchanger<the number of grooves of the innersurface grooved tube 201 of the indoor heat exchanger. Accordingly, inpipe pressure loss of the innersurface grooved tube 201 can be decreased, and heat transfer performance thereof can be increased.
(83) Bottom Thickness T201: 0.2 mm or More and 1.0 mm or Less
The bottom thickness T201 is preferably 0.2 mm or more and 1.0 mm or less. If the bottom thickness T201 is outside the range, it may be difficult to manufacture the innersurface grooved tube 201. If the bottom thickness T201 is 0.2 mm or less, the strength of the innersurface grooved tube 201 likely decreases, and it is likely difficult to keep the strength of resistance to pressure.
(84) Fin Height h201: 0.1 mm or More and (Bottom Thickness T201×1.2) mm or Less
The fin height h201 is preferably 0.1 mm or more and (bottom thickness T201×1.2) mm or less. If the fin height h201 is less than 0.1 mm, heat transfer performance of the innersurface grooved tube 201 (heat exchanger) likely decreases. If the fin height h201 is more than (bottom thickness T201×1.2) mm, it may be difficult to suppress significant deformation of the inpipe fin 203 due to ensuring of volume productivity and expansion of the diameter of the innersurface grooved tube 201.
Furthermore, when the innersurface grooved tube 201 is used for the outdoor heat exchanger and the indoor heat exchanger included in the refrigerant circuit of the refrigeration cycle apparatus, it is preferably satisfied that the fin height h201 of the innersurface grooved tube 201 of the outdoor heat exchanger>the fin height h201 of the innersurface grooved tube 201 of the indoor heat exchanger. Accordingly, inpipe pressure loss of the innersurface grooved tube 201 can be decreased, and heat transfer performance of the outdoor heat exchanger can be further increased.
(85) Thread Vertex Angle δ201: 5 Degrees or More and 45 Degrees or Less
The thread vertex angle 6201 is preferably 5 degrees or more and 45 degrees or less. If the thread vertex angle 6201 is less than 5 degrees, it may be difficult to suppress deformation of the inpipe fin 203 due to ensuring of volume productivity and expansion of the diameter of the innersurface grooved tube 201. If the thread vertex angle 6201 is more than 45 degrees, maintenance of heat transfer performance of the innersurface grooved tube 201 (heat exchanger) and the individual weight of the innersurface grooved tube 201 likely become excessive.
(86) Finroot Radius r201: 20% or More and 50% or Less of Fin Height h201
The finroot radius r201 is preferably 20% or more and 50% or less of the fin height h201. If the finroot radius r201 is less than 20% of the fin height h201, fin inclination due to the pipe expansion likely becomes excessive, and volume productivity likely decreases. If the finroot radius r201 is more than 50% of the fin height h201, the effective heat transfer area of the refrigerant gasliquid interface likely decreases, and heat transfer performance of the innersurface grooved tube 201 (heat exchanger) likely decreases.
In the present embodiment, the refrigerant circuit including the plate finandtube heat exchanger using the innersurface grooved tube 201 is filled with a refrigerant for performing a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The refrigerant is a mixed refrigerant containing 1,2difluoroethylene, and can use any one of the abovedescribed refrigerants A to E.
(9) CharacteristicsThe air conditioning apparatus 10 that is the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to the first embodiment, the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to the second embodiment, and the refrigeration cycle apparatus according to the third embodiment each include a flammable refrigerant containing at least 1,2difluoroethylene, an evaporator that evaporates the refrigerant, and a condenser that condenses the refrigerant. The refrigeration cycle apparatuses are constituted such that the refrigerant repeats a refrigeration cycle by circulating through the evaporator and the condenser.
According to the first embodiment, the outdoor heat exchanger 23 is one of the evaporator and the condenser, and the indoor heat exchanger 27 is the other one of the evaporator and the condenser; and the outdoor heat exchanger 23 and the indoor heat exchanger 27 each include the metal plates 19 serving as a plurality of fins made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, and the flat tubes 16 serving as a plurality of heat transfer tubes made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. The outdoor heat exchanger 23 and the indoor heat exchanger 27 are each a heat exchanger that causes the refrigerant flowing inside the heat transfer tubes 16 and the air which is a fluid flowing along the metal plates 19 to exchange heat with each other. The flat tube 16 includes a flat surface portion 16a illustrated in
According to the second embodiment, the outdoor heat exchanger 125 is one of the evaporator and the condenser, and includes the plurality of insertion fins 194 made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, and the flat perforated tubes 193 serving as a plurality of heat transfer tubes made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. The outdoor heat exchanger 125 is a heat exchanger that causes the refrigerant flowing inside the flat perforated tube 193 and the air which is a fluid flowing along the insertion fin 194 to exchange heat with each other. The flat perforated tube 193 have the flat surface portions 193b illustrated in
According to the third embodiment, the heat exchanger including the plurality of plate fins 211 made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, and the innersurface grooved tubes 201 serving as a plurality of heat transfer tubes made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy is one of the evaporator and the condenser. The heat exchanger is a heat exchanger that causes the refrigerant flowing inside the innersurface grooved tube 201 and the air which is a fluid flowing along the plate fins 211 to exchange heat with each other. Each of the plurality of plate fins 211 has the plurality of through holes 211a. In the heat exchanger, the plurality of innersurface grooved tubes 201 penetrate through the plurality of through holes 211a of the plurality of plate fins 211. The outer peripheries of the plurality of innersurface grooved tubes 201 are in close contact with the inner peripheries of the plurality of through holes 211a.
In the abovedescribed refrigeration cycle apparatus, the heat exchanger includes the metal plates 19, the insertion fins 194, or the plate fins 211 serving as a plurality of fins made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy; and the flat tubes 16, the flat perforated tubes 193, or the innersurface grooved tubes 201 serving as a plurality of heat transfer tubes made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. Since the refrigeration cycle apparatus has such a configuration, for example, as compared to a case where a heat transfer tube uses a copper pipe, the material cost of the heat exchanger can be decreased.
The embodiments of the present disclosure have been described above, and it is understood that the embodiments and details can be modified in various ways without departing from the idea and scope of the present disclosure described in the claims.
REFERENCE SIGNS LIST

 10 air conditioning apparatus (example of refrigeration cycle apparatus)
 16 flat tube (example of heat transfer tube)
 16a, 193b flat surface portion
 19 metal plate (example of fin)
 23, 125 outdoor heat exchanger (example of evaporator, and example of condenser)
 27 indoor heat exchanger (example of evaporator, example of condenser)
 193 flat perforated tube (example of heat transfer tube, example of flat tube)
 194 insertion fin
 194a cutout
 201 innersurface grooved tube (example of heat transfer tube)
 211 plate fin
 211a through hole
PTL 1: Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 11256358
Claims
1. A refrigeration cycle apparatus comprising:
 a flammable refrigerant containing at least 1,2difluoroethylene;
 an evaporator that evaporates the refrigerant; and
 a condenser that condenses the refrigerant,
 wherein at least one of the evaporator and the condenser is a heat exchanger that includes a plurality of fins made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy and a plurality of heat transfer tubes made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, and that causes the refrigerant flowing inside the heat transfer tubes and a fluid flowing along the fins to exchange heat with each other, and
 wherein the refrigerant repeats a refrigeration cycle by circulating through the evaporator and the condenser.
2. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1, wherein
 each of the plurality of fins has a plurality of holes,
 the plurality of heat transfer tubes penetrate through the plurality of holes of the plurality of fins, and
 outer peripheries of the plurality of heat transfer tubes are in close contact with inner peripheries of the plurality of holes.
3. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1, wherein
 the plurality of heat transfer tubes are a plurality of flat tubes, and
 flat surface portions of the flat tubes that are disposed next to each other face each other.
4. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 3, wherein
 each of the plurality of fins is bent in a waveform, disposed between the flat surface portions of the flat tubes disposed next to each other, and connected to the flat surface portions to be able to transfer heat to the flat surface portions.
5. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 3, wherein
 each of the plurality of fins has the plurality of cutouts, and
 the plurality of flat tubes are inserted into the plurality of cutouts of the plurality of fins and connected thereto to be able to transfer heat to the plurality of fins.
6. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1,
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf).
7. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 6, point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′(19.5, 70.5, 10.0), point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD, CO, and OA);
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:
 the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines.
8. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 6, point G (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0), point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′(19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments IA, BD, and CG);
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments GI, IA, AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CG that connect the following 8 points:
 the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments GI, IA, BD, and CG are straight lines.
9. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 6, point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1), point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PN, NK, KA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
 the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),
 the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x2−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x2+28.955x−831.91),
 the line segment KA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments JP, BD, and CG are straight lines.
10. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 6, point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0), point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
 the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43)
 the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments JP, LM, BD, and CG are straight lines.
11. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 6, point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0), point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment BF);
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TP that connect the following 7 points:
 the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),
 the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),
 the line segment TP is represented by coordinates 0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and
 the line segments LM and BF are straight lines.
12. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 6, point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0), point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6), and point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9), or on the above line segments;
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LQ, QR, and RP that connect the following 4 points:
 the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),
 the line segment RP is represented by coordinates (0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and
 the line segments LQ and QR are straight lines.
13. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 6, point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1), point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3), or on the above line segments,
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments SM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TS that connect the following 6 points:
 the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),
 the line segment TS is represented by coordinates (−0.0017x2−0.7869x+70.888, −0.0017x2−0.2131x+29.112), and
 the line segments SM and BF are straight lines.
14. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1,
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)) and trifluoroethylene (HFO1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and
 the refrigerant comprises 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.
15. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1,
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), and trifluoroethylene (HFO1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and
 the refrigerant comprises 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.
16. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point G (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0), point I (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0), point A (0.0134a2−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a2+0.9681a+31.4), point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3), point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI, AB, and D′C (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, point D′, and point C); point G (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0), point I (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895), point A (0.0112a2−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a2+0.9337a+31.516), point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point Q point I, point A, point B, and point W); point G (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0), point I (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273), point A (0.0107a2−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a2+0.9142a+31.695), point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point Q point I, point A, point B, and point W); point G (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0), point I (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014), point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207), point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point Q point I, point A, point B, and point W); and point G (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0), point I (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098), point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9), point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point Q point I, point A, point B, and point W).
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
 if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BD′, D′C, and CG that connect the following 6 points:
 if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
 if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
 if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
 if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
17. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point J (0.0049a2−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a2−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0), point K′ (0.0514a2−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a2+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a2+1.0231a+32.4), point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3), point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′, K′B, and D′C (excluding point J, point B, point D′, and point C); point J (0.0243a2−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a2+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0), point K′ (0.0341a2−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a2+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a2+0.8577a+33.177), point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W); point J (0.0246a2−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a2+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0), point K′ (0.0196a2−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a2−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a2+0.8999a+32.783), point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W); point J (0.0183a2−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a2+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0), point K′ (−0.0051a2+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a2−1.0929a+74.05), point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207), point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W); and point J (−0.0134a2+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a2−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0), point K′(−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557), point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9), point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W).
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (IFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (IFO1123), 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of IFO1132(E), IFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
 if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of IFO1132(E), IFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BD′, D′C, and CJ that connect the following 5 points:
 if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
 if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
 if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
 if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
18. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0), point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2), point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI;
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (IFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf),
 when the mass % of IFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of IFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments J, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:
 the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y2−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y2+0.7616y+28.0);
 the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y2−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y2+0.9003y+41.7); and
 the line segments JN and EI are straight lines.
19. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4), point M′ (39.2, 5.0, 55.8), point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (IFO1132(E)),
 difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of IFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VQ and GM that connect the following 5 points:
 the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.1322−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y2+2.34y+47.4);
 the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y2−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y2+1.2541y+51.02);
 the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y2−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y2+0.8033y+60.4); and
 the line segments NV and GM are straight lines.
20. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6), point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4), or on these line segments;
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)),
 difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:
 the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y2−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y2−0.3299y+62.488);
 the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y2−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y2+0.7403y+43.365); and
 the line segment UO is a straight line.
21. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4), point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7), point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8), point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6), or on these line segments;
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:
 the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y2−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y2+0.975y+15.235);
 the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874);
 the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y2−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y2−0.1158y+38.512);
 the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y2−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y2+0.2222y+32.324); and
 the line segment TL is a straight line.
22. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8), point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8), or on these line segments;
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
 the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y2−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y2−0.2897y+59.9);
 the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y−0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874); and
 the line segment TP is a straight line.
23. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4), point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4), point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GI); (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z), (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z), (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IK, KB′, B′H, HR, RQ and GI that connect the following 6 points:
 the line segment IK is represented by coordinates
 the line segment HR is represented by coordinates
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates
 the line segments KB′ and GI are straight lines.
24. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), point J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GI); (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.0, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z), (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JR, RQ and GI that connect the following 4 points:
 the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates
 the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.
25. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4), point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4), point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GM); (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z), (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z), (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MP, PB′, B′H, HR, RQ and GM that connect the following 6 points:
 the line segment MP is represented by coordinates
 the line segment HR is represented by coordinates
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates
 the line segments PB′ and GM are straight lines.
26. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point N (38.5, 52.1, 9.5), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MN, NR, RQ and GM that connect the following 4 points:
 the line segment MN is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z),
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.
27. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4), point S (25.4, 56.2, 18.4), and point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2), or on these line segments; (−0.0982z2+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z2−1.9622z+59.069, z), (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z), and
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
 the line segment ST is represented by coordinates
 the line segment TP is represented by coordinates
 the line segment PS is a straight line.
28. The refrigeration cycle apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0), point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0), point D (0.0, 67.0, 33.0), and point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment B″D); (−3.4962z2+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z2−211.71z+3246.1, z), (0.0135z2−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z2−0.0819z+55.867, z), and
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (FO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QB″, B″D, DU, and UQ that connect the following 4 points:
 the line segment DU is represented by coordinates
 the line segment UQ is represented by coordinates
 the line segments QB″ and B″D are straight lines.
Type: Application
Filed: Dec 18, 2018
Publication Date: Oct 29, 2020
Applicant: DAIKIN INDUSTRIES, LTD. (Osaka)
Inventors: Mitsushi ITANO (Osaka), Daisuke KARUBE (Osaka), Yuuki YOTSUMOTO (Osaka), Kazuhiro TAKAHASHI (Osaka), Yuzo KOMATSU (Osaka), Shun OHKUBO (Osaka), Tatsuya TAKAKUWA (Osaka), Tetsushi TSUDA (Osaka), Yuuichi YANAGI (Osaka)
Application Number: 16/955,207